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This study evaluated the relationship between radiation and Eustachian tube dysfunction, and examined the radiation dose required to induce otitis media with effusion.
The function of 36 Eustachian tubes in 18 patients with head and neck cancer were examined sonotubometrically before, during, and 1, 2 and 3 months after, intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Patients with an increase of 5 dB or less in sound pressure level (dB) during swallowing were categorised as being in the dysfunction group. Additionally, radiation dose distributions were assessed in all Eustachian tubes using three dose–volume histogram parameters.
Twenty-two of 25 normally functioning Eustachian tubes before radiotherapy (88.0 per cent) shifted to the dysfunction group after therapy. All ears that developed otitis media with effusion belonged to the dysfunction group. The radiation dose threshold evaluation revealed that ears with otitis media with effusion received significantly higher doses to the Eustachian tubes.
The results indicate a relationship between radiation dose and Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion.
We have made a CO(J=2-1) observations using the Nobeyama 45m telescope aimed at examining the physical properties of the molecular gas in this object. The upper limit obtained is 1.8 mK (3σ) at a velocity resolution of 100 km s−1, which leads to an upper limit on the molecular gas mass of 5.3 × 1011M⊙, if we assume a line width of 250 km s−1 obtained in the CO(J = 5 - 4) line (rest-frame) and the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor of 4.5 (M⊙ K km s−1 pc2). The line ratio between the 2–1 line and the 5–4 line as well as those from the 7–6 and the 4–3 lines (Omont et al. 1996, Nature, 382, 428) imply that the mean gas density is as high as 103–5 cm−3, which is comparable to that in nearby star burst galaxies (e.g., Solomon et al. 1992, ApJ, 387, L55).
We investigated the environment of the radio-loud quasar 1335.8+2834 at z = 1.086 where an excess surface number density of galaxies was reported by Huthings et al. (1993). By obtaining near-infrared and new deep optical images of the field, we found a clustering of objects with very red optical-NIR color, 4 < R - K < 6 and 3 < I - K < 5 near the quasar. The colors and magnitude of the reddest objects are consistent with those predicted for old (2–4 Gyr) passively evolving elliptical galaxies at z = 1.1.
We obtained near-infrared and new deep optical images of the field near the radio-loud quasar 1335.8+2834 at z=1.086 where excess of galaxy surface number density was reported by Huthings et al. [AJ, 106, 1324]. We found a clustering of objects with very red optical-NIR color, 4 < R–K < 6 and 3 < I–K < 5 near the quasar. The colors and magnitude of the reddest objects are consistent with those predicted for luminous (> 0.5L∗) and old (2-4 Gyr old) passively evolving elliptical galaxies at z=1.1.
We have made a CO (J=2−1) observation using the Nobeyama 45m telescope aimed at examining physical properties of the molecular gas in the object. Upper limit obtained is 1.8 mK (3σ) at a velocity resolution of 100 km s−1, which leads to an upper limit on the molecular gas mass of 5.3 × 1011M⊙, if we assume a line width of 250 km s−1 obtained in J = 5–4 line and the Galactic CO-to-H2 conversion factor of 4.5 M⊙ K km s−1 pc2. The line ratio between 2–1 line and 5–4 line as well as those from 7–6 and 4–3 lines (Omont et al. 1996) imply that the mean gas density is as high as 103–5 cm−3, which is comparable to that in nearby star burst galaxies (e.g., Solomon et al. 1992).
The fabrication of a thin film optoelectronic device involves the exposure of the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) to a high process temperature. Indium gallium zinc oxide (InGaZnO4 or IGZO) is a well known TCO with high optical transparency, moderate conductivity and high mobility. However, its electrical properties deteriorate after subsequent high temperature processes in air atmosphere. On the other hand indium tin oxide (ITO) has higher conductivity than IGZO and better thermal stability. Therefore, IGZO/ITO bilayers have been deposited on glass by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature and subsequently annealed at high temperatures in order to study their thermal stability. In the present work, a-IGZO layers with a thickness ranging from 10 nm to 100 nm were deposited over a 50 nm thick ITO layer. Results are compared with those from a single IGZO layered thin film without the ITO bottom layer. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the multilayers are studied with the use of scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and Hall measurement. An IGZO optimal thickness of 50 nm is found to improve the bilayer thermal stability at temperatures upto 400 °C keeping good opto-electrical properties. The sheet resistance for the optimized IGZO/ITO composite films is about 22 Ohm/sq, and the transmittance in the visible range is about 90%. The composite shows an excellent mobility above 40 cm2 /V-s and thus can be potentially applied as channel layer in thin film transistors (TFTs)
Highly transparent composite electrodes made of multilayers of In- and Ga-doped ZnO and Cu (IGZO/Cu/IGZO) thin films (30/3-9/30 nm thick) are deposited onto flexible substrates at room temperature and by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of Cu thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the multilayer stack has been studied in accordance with the Cu morphology. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayers are studied with the UV–Vis spectrophotometry, Hall measurement and four point probe analyses. Results are compared with those from a single IGZO layered thin film. The average optical transmittance and sheet resistance both decreases with increase of copper thickness and has been optimized at 6 nm Cu middle layer thickness. The Haacke figure of merit (FOM) has been calculated to evaluate the performance of the films. The highest FOM achieved is 6 x 10-3 Ω-1 for a Cu thickness of 6 nm with a sheet resistance of 12.2 Ω/sq and an average transmittance of 86%. The multilayered thin films are annealed upto 150 °C in vacuum, forming gas and O2 environments and the optical and electrical properties are studied and compared against the as-deposited samples. Thus IGZO/Cu/IGZO multilayer is a promising flexible electrode material for the next-generation flexible optoelectronics.
Nonvolatile unipolar resistive switching has been observed in Sm doped BFO thin films in Pt/Sm: BFO/SRO stack geometry. The initial forming voltage was found to be ∼ 11 V. After the forming process repeatable switching of the resistance of Sm:BFO film was obtained between low and high resistance states with nearly constant resistance ratio ∼ 105 and non overlapping switching voltages in the range of 0.7-1 V and 4-6 V respectively. The temperature dependent measurements of the resistance of the device indicated metallic and semiconducting conduction behavior in low and high resistance states respectively. The current conduction mechanism of the Pt/Sm:BFO/SRO device in low resistance states was found to be dominated by the Ohmic behavior while in case of high resistance state and at high voltages it deviated significantly from normal Ohmic behavior and was found to correspond the Pool-Frankel (PF) emission. The Pt/Sm:BFO/SRO structure also showed efficient photo-response in high and low resistance states with increase in photocurrent which was significantly higher in low resistance state when illuminated with white light.
Effect of oxygen to nickel molar ratio (O2/Ni) on the crystallinity of atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCVD) grown NiO at 500°C is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis including grazing incident angle θ of 0.6°, θ-2θ, ɸ and rocking curve scan are employed for crystallographic characterization. Furthermore, surface roughness is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). No evidence of diffraction peaks in X-ray grazing incident angle measurement confirms that all the grown NiO films are well oriented along a certain direction. θ-2θ scan results further indicate that the samples are highly oriented only along  direction on (0001) sapphire substrates. The analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of rocking curve scan of (111) plane shows that higher O2/Ni ratio results in better crystallinity. The best crystallinity is achieved with FWHM as low as 0.106° at (111) rocking curve scan corresponding to 82.57nm grain size. AFM measurement shows that NiO films grown with higher O2/Ni ratio have smoother surface morphology.
We employ Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport that occurs within the two-dimensional electron gas formed at a ZnO/ZnMgO heterojunction. Steady-state and transient electron transport results are presented. We find that at high fields, increases in the free electron concentration result in decreases in the electron drift velocities.
Manganese oxide based nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel process. Methanol, ethanol, and propanol were used as alternative solvent during sol-gel process with manganese acetate as precursor for the preparation of pristine manganese oxide. Hybrid MnOx modified by additions of carbon nanotubes was further prepared. Smallest particle size was observed for manganese oxide prepared from propanol, with diameters range from 16 nm to 50nm. XRD results showed that the as prepared manganese oxide based samples at calcination temperature of 300°C and above were composed of Mn2O3 as dominant phase, with Mn3O4 as minor phase. Specific capacitance measured from two electrode systems of manganese oxide prepared from methanol, ethanol, and propanol at scan rate of 10 mV/s were 88.3, 66.0, 104.8 F/g and the result for the hybrid sample was 140.5 F/g. The highest capacitance of the MnOx revealed a specific capacitance of 231.4 F/g when a 1:1 mixture of propanaol and methanol was employed as the solvent for the sol preparation. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) also showed superior electrochemical properties of the hybrid sample over pristine manganese oxide samples.
We studied the transport properties of the Fe/MgO/Fe and Fe/Ag/MgO/Ag/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with 13-layer MgO barrier under bias voltage based on first-principles calculations. Our results showed that two features determine the TMR value decreases with bias of Fe/MgO/Fe MTJ: (1) interfacial states lying at 1.06 eV in spin down channel (2) the energy level of the spin down Δ1 band of the Fe electrode. Our results showed that an inserted Ag mono-layer at Fe/MgO interface can remarkably improve the TMR effect at a high bias voltage.
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a promising material for an optical switch due to the ultrafast and reversible transition between its two phases with contrasting optical, as well as electronic, properties. Meanwhile, erbium (Er3+) has been a standard optical amplifier for the current fiber-optic communication system. Hence, a combination of the two could be expected to make an optical switch capable of simultaneous optical amplification. In the present work, the optical switching and photoluminescence of Er-implanted VO2 were successfully demonstrated. Post-implantation annealing at 800°C or above was seen crucial for the activation of the Er centers in the VO2 crystals.
We review some recent results related to the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within bulk wurtzite zinc oxide. We employ three-valley Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport within this material for the purposes of this analysis. Using these results, we devise a means of rendering transparent the electron drift velocity enhancement offered by transient electron transport over steady-state electron transport. A comparison, with results corresponding to gallium nitride, indium nitride, and aluminum nitride, is provided. The device implications of these results are then presented.
Strong short electric field pulses are used to generate broadband terahertz radiation. Understanding the transport properties under such conditions is very important for the understanding of numerous terahertz photonic and electronic devices. In this paper, we report on transport simulations of the electrons within bulk wurtzite zinc oxide for pulsed high electric fields, with pulse durations of up to 400 fs. We focus on how key electron transport characteristics, namely the drift velocity and the corresponding average energy, vary with time since the onset of the pulse. For sufficiently high-field strength selections, we find that both of these parameters exhibit peaks. In addition, an electron drift velocity undershoot is observed following this peak. A contrast with the case of gallium nitride is considered; undershoot is not observed for the case of this material. Reasons for these differences in behavior are suggested.
Mg doped ZnO thin films were prepared by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering in (Ar+O2) ambient conditions using metallic Mg and Zn targets. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of film thickness on the structural, optical and magnetic properties. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films and the saturation magnetization (MS) increases at first as the film’s thickness increases and then decreases. The MS value as high as ∼15.76 emu/cm3 was achieved for the Mg-doped ZnO film of thickness 120 nm. The optical band gap of the films determined to be in the range 3.42 to 3.52 eV.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.