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This study evaluated the relationship between radiation and Eustachian tube dysfunction, and examined the radiation dose required to induce otitis media with effusion.
The function of 36 Eustachian tubes in 18 patients with head and neck cancer were examined sonotubometrically before, during, and 1, 2 and 3 months after, intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Patients with an increase of 5 dB or less in sound pressure level (dB) during swallowing were categorised as being in the dysfunction group. Additionally, radiation dose distributions were assessed in all Eustachian tubes using three dose–volume histogram parameters.
Twenty-two of 25 normally functioning Eustachian tubes before radiotherapy (88.0 per cent) shifted to the dysfunction group after therapy. All ears that developed otitis media with effusion belonged to the dysfunction group. The radiation dose threshold evaluation revealed that ears with otitis media with effusion received significantly higher doses to the Eustachian tubes.
The results indicate a relationship between radiation dose and Eustachian tube dysfunction and otitis media with effusion.
Effect of oxygen to nickel molar ratio (O2/Ni) on the crystallinity of atmospheric pressure metal organic chemical vapor deposition (APMOCVD) grown NiO at 500°C is reported. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis including grazing incident angle θ of 0.6°, θ-2θ, ɸ and rocking curve scan are employed for crystallographic characterization. Furthermore, surface roughness is studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM). No evidence of diffraction peaks in X-ray grazing incident angle measurement confirms that all the grown NiO films are well oriented along a certain direction. θ-2θ scan results further indicate that the samples are highly oriented only along  direction on (0001) sapphire substrates. The analysis of full width at half maximum (FWHM) of rocking curve scan of (111) plane shows that higher O2/Ni ratio results in better crystallinity. The best crystallinity is achieved with FWHM as low as 0.106° at (111) rocking curve scan corresponding to 82.57nm grain size. AFM measurement shows that NiO films grown with higher O2/Ni ratio have smoother surface morphology.
Highly transparent composite electrodes made of multilayers of In- and Ga-doped ZnO and Cu (IGZO/Cu/IGZO) thin films (30/3-9/30 nm thick) are deposited onto flexible substrates at room temperature and by using radio frequency magnetron sputtering. The effect of Cu thickness on the electrical and optical properties of the multilayer stack has been studied in accordance with the Cu morphology. The optical and electrical properties of the multilayers are studied with the UV–Vis spectrophotometry, Hall measurement and four point probe analyses. Results are compared with those from a single IGZO layered thin film. The average optical transmittance and sheet resistance both decreases with increase of copper thickness and has been optimized at 6 nm Cu middle layer thickness. The Haacke figure of merit (FOM) has been calculated to evaluate the performance of the films. The highest FOM achieved is 6 x 10-3 Ω-1 for a Cu thickness of 6 nm with a sheet resistance of 12.2 Ω/sq and an average transmittance of 86%. The multilayered thin films are annealed upto 150 °C in vacuum, forming gas and O2 environments and the optical and electrical properties are studied and compared against the as-deposited samples. Thus IGZO/Cu/IGZO multilayer is a promising flexible electrode material for the next-generation flexible optoelectronics.
We studied the transport properties of the Fe/MgO/Fe and Fe/Ag/MgO/Ag/Fe magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) with 13-layer MgO barrier under bias voltage based on first-principles calculations. Our results showed that two features determine the TMR value decreases with bias of Fe/MgO/Fe MTJ: (1) interfacial states lying at 1.06 eV in spin down channel (2) the energy level of the spin down Δ1 band of the Fe electrode. Our results showed that an inserted Ag mono-layer at Fe/MgO interface can remarkably improve the TMR effect at a high bias voltage.
Strong short electric field pulses are used to generate broadband terahertz radiation. Understanding the transport properties under such conditions is very important for the understanding of numerous terahertz photonic and electronic devices. In this paper, we report on transport simulations of the electrons within bulk wurtzite zinc oxide for pulsed high electric fields, with pulse durations of up to 400 fs. We focus on how key electron transport characteristics, namely the drift velocity and the corresponding average energy, vary with time since the onset of the pulse. For sufficiently high-field strength selections, we find that both of these parameters exhibit peaks. In addition, an electron drift velocity undershoot is observed following this peak. A contrast with the case of gallium nitride is considered; undershoot is not observed for the case of this material. Reasons for these differences in behavior are suggested.
Manganese oxide based nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel process. Methanol, ethanol, and propanol were used as alternative solvent during sol-gel process with manganese acetate as precursor for the preparation of pristine manganese oxide. Hybrid MnOx modified by additions of carbon nanotubes was further prepared. Smallest particle size was observed for manganese oxide prepared from propanol, with diameters range from 16 nm to 50nm. XRD results showed that the as prepared manganese oxide based samples at calcination temperature of 300°C and above were composed of Mn2O3 as dominant phase, with Mn3O4 as minor phase. Specific capacitance measured from two electrode systems of manganese oxide prepared from methanol, ethanol, and propanol at scan rate of 10 mV/s were 88.3, 66.0, 104.8 F/g and the result for the hybrid sample was 140.5 F/g. The highest capacitance of the MnOx revealed a specific capacitance of 231.4 F/g when a 1:1 mixture of propanaol and methanol was employed as the solvent for the sol preparation. Results from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) also showed superior electrochemical properties of the hybrid sample over pristine manganese oxide samples.
We employ Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport that occurs within the two-dimensional electron gas formed at a ZnO/ZnMgO heterojunction. Steady-state and transient electron transport results are presented. We find that at high fields, increases in the free electron concentration result in decreases in the electron drift velocities.
We review some recent results related to the steady-state and transient electron transport that occurs within bulk wurtzite zinc oxide. We employ three-valley Monte Carlo simulations of the electron transport within this material for the purposes of this analysis. Using these results, we devise a means of rendering transparent the electron drift velocity enhancement offered by transient electron transport over steady-state electron transport. A comparison, with results corresponding to gallium nitride, indium nitride, and aluminum nitride, is provided. The device implications of these results are then presented.
Nonvolatile unipolar resistive switching has been observed in Sm doped BFO thin films in Pt/Sm: BFO/SRO stack geometry. The initial forming voltage was found to be ∼ 11 V. After the forming process repeatable switching of the resistance of Sm:BFO film was obtained between low and high resistance states with nearly constant resistance ratio ∼ 105 and non overlapping switching voltages in the range of 0.7-1 V and 4-6 V respectively. The temperature dependent measurements of the resistance of the device indicated metallic and semiconducting conduction behavior in low and high resistance states respectively. The current conduction mechanism of the Pt/Sm:BFO/SRO device in low resistance states was found to be dominated by the Ohmic behavior while in case of high resistance state and at high voltages it deviated significantly from normal Ohmic behavior and was found to correspond the Pool-Frankel (PF) emission. The Pt/Sm:BFO/SRO structure also showed efficient photo-response in high and low resistance states with increase in photocurrent which was significantly higher in low resistance state when illuminated with white light.
Vanadium dioxide (VO2) is a promising material for an optical switch due to the ultrafast and reversible transition between its two phases with contrasting optical, as well as electronic, properties. Meanwhile, erbium (Er3+) has been a standard optical amplifier for the current fiber-optic communication system. Hence, a combination of the two could be expected to make an optical switch capable of simultaneous optical amplification. In the present work, the optical switching and photoluminescence of Er-implanted VO2 were successfully demonstrated. Post-implantation annealing at 800°C or above was seen crucial for the activation of the Er centers in the VO2 crystals.
The fabrication of a thin film optoelectronic device involves the exposure of the transparent conductive oxide (TCO) to a high process temperature. Indium gallium zinc oxide (InGaZnO4 or IGZO) is a well known TCO with high optical transparency, moderate conductivity and high mobility. However, its electrical properties deteriorate after subsequent high temperature processes in air atmosphere. On the other hand indium tin oxide (ITO) has higher conductivity than IGZO and better thermal stability. Therefore, IGZO/ITO bilayers have been deposited on glass by radio frequency magnetron sputtering at room temperature and subsequently annealed at high temperatures in order to study their thermal stability. In the present work, a-IGZO layers with a thickness ranging from 10 nm to 100 nm were deposited over a 50 nm thick ITO layer. Results are compared with those from a single IGZO layered thin film without the ITO bottom layer. The structural, optical and electrical properties of the multilayers are studied with the use of scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy and Hall measurement. An IGZO optimal thickness of 50 nm is found to improve the bilayer thermal stability at temperatures upto 400 °C keeping good opto-electrical properties. The sheet resistance for the optimized IGZO/ITO composite films is about 22 Ohm/sq, and the transmittance in the visible range is about 90%. The composite shows an excellent mobility above 40 cm2 /V-s and thus can be potentially applied as channel layer in thin film transistors (TFTs)
Mg doped ZnO thin films were prepared by DC/RF magnetron co-sputtering in (Ar+O2) ambient conditions using metallic Mg and Zn targets. We present a comprehensive study of the effects of film thickness on the structural, optical and magnetic properties. Room temperature ferromagnetism was observed in the films and the saturation magnetization (MS) increases at first as the film’s thickness increases and then decreases. The MS value as high as ∼15.76 emu/cm3 was achieved for the Mg-doped ZnO film of thickness 120 nm. The optical band gap of the films determined to be in the range 3.42 to 3.52 eV.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
The contamination, distribution and pathogenicity of Toxocara canis and T. cati eggs in sandpits in the Tokyo metropolitan area, Japan, are described. A total of 34 sandpits were examined, 14 of which were contaminated with T. cati eggs, as assessed by the floatation method and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis. Two naturally contaminated sandpits were investigated to determine the vertical and horizontal distribution of eggs, and an inverse relationship between the sand depth and number of eggs was observed. To examine the pathogenicity of the eggs, three ICR mice were inoculated with 300 eggs, which were recovered from sandpits. The mice exhibited eosinophilia in the peripheral blood and IgG antibody production in the sera after 3 weeks of infection. Most migrating larvae were recovered from carcasses, although three were found in the brains of two infected mice. These three larvae were determined to be T. canis by PCR, revealing that not only T. cati, but also T. canis eggs could be found in sandpits and, further, that eggs recovered from sandpits have the ability to invade a paratenic host.
The presence of the fermentable sugar d-mannitol in the diet improves nitrogen (N) utilization in rabbits. To clarify the mechanism by which d-mannitol improves N utilization, we studied the effect of d-mannitol on the fate of blood urea N in growing rabbits. Growing rabbits received a control diet or a diet containing d-mannitol, which were formulated by adding 80 g/kg glucose or d-mannitol to timothy hay. After 9 days of feeding of the experimental diets, 15N-urea was administrated intravenously under anesthesia 1 h before slaughter. The blood urea level (concentration of both urea N (43.6% of the control group (CG), P < 0.05) and 15N (95% of the CG, P < 0.05) in blood serum) was reduced in the mannitol group. The concentration and amount of N, and 15N atom % excess in the contents of the cecum and colon were higher (P < 0.05) in the rabbits fed the mannitol diet than in rabbits fed the control diet, especially in the cecum. The consumption of mannitol caused bacterial proliferation in the cecum characterized by marked short-chain fatty acid production (165% of the CG, P < 0.05), decreased cecal ammonia N (73% of the CG, P < 0.05) and elevated cecal bacterial N (150% of the CG, P < 0.05). On the other hand, addition of d-mannitol to the diet decreased N (80% of the CG, P < 0.05) and 15N (77% of the CG, P < 0.05) excretion in the urine. These results indicate that d-mannitol increases the transfer of blood urea N to the large intestine, where it is used for bacterial N synthesis.
We report the kinetic analysis of radicals on fungal spores of Penicillium digitatum interacted with charged-neutral oxygen species (O*) generated plasma discharge using real time in situ electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements. The ESR signal from the spores was observed at a g-value of around 2.004 with a line width of approximately 5G. We have successfully obtained information regarding the reaction mechanism with free radicals and realtime in situ ESR has proven to be a useful method to elucidate plasma-induced surface reactions on biological specimens
A high-density non-equilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP) applied for inactivating fungal spores of P. digitatum is introduced as an environmentally safe and rapid-inactivation method. The contributions of ozone, ultra violet (UV) radiation and ground-state atomic oxygen in the NEAPP on the inactivation of the spores are evaluated using colony count method.
The absolute densities of ozone were measured by using ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy. The ozone density increased from 2 to 8 ppm with an increase in the distance from the plasma source, while the inactivation rate decreased. The inactivation rate of plasma was evaluated to be thousand times higher than that of an ozone generator using the integrated number density of ozone. In addition, it was clarified that the contribution of UV radiation to inactivation was not dominant for P. digitatum inactivation by NEAPP by filtering the active species using quartz plate. From these results, we can speculate that the inactivation efficiency of reactive oxygen species (ROS) will be larger than those of others.
In order to investigate the effect of ground-state atomic oxygen as one of ROS, the inactivation of P. digitatum spores using an oxygen radical source that employs a high-density atmospheric-pressure O2/Ar plasma. The absolute O density was measured to be 1.4×1014 and 1.5×1015 cm–3 using vacuum ultra violet absorption spectroscopy (VUVAS) using a microdischarge hollow cathode lamp. The behaviors of the O densities as a function of O2/(Ar+O2) mixture flow rate ratio correspond to that of the inactivation rate. This result indicates that ground-state atomic oxygen is concluded to be the dominant species that causes inactivation.