A total of 211 episodes of bloodstream yeast infections in 207 patients, hospitalized in 28 Belgian hospitals participating in a National Surveillance Program, were evaluated. A total of 81% of the patients were more than 50 years of age. Candida albicans was the cause of infections in 55% of patients, 22% were due to C. glabrata and 13% to C. parapsilosis. The most common predisposing factors were antibacterial therapy (42%), residence in an intensive care unit (32·9%) and presence of an intravascular catheter (29·7%). Most patients had more than one predisposing factor. Fluconazole alone or in association with another antifungal agent was the treatment of choice for 89·7% of the cases. In vitro susceptibility testing of the isolates revealed that 99% were susceptible to amphotericin B, 95% to 5-fluorocytosine, 82% to fluconazole and 69% to itraconazole. Resistance to azoles was more common among C. glabrata isolates in the elderly. We conclude that the frequency of C. albicans infection is decreasing in Belgium and this is associated with the emergence of other species, most notably, C. glabrata.