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In this paper the mutual phase locking theory of very nonidentical spin-torque nanooscillators, which is based on the Slavin-Tiberkevich model, considering the theory of nonlinear oscillations, is developed. Using generalized Adler equation we calculate phase-locking region of the system with spinwave coupling in the parameter plane - distance between nanocontacts and radii difference. We describe trajectories of such a system in the phase space and show the effect of a broadband synchronization. We introduce a generalization of this approach to the ensembles of spin-torque nanooscillators.
Fast-electron beam stopping mechanisms in media ranging from solid to warm dense matter have been investigated experimentally and numerically. Laser-driven fast electrons have been transported through solid Al targets and shock-compressed Al and plastic foam targets. Their propagation has been diagnosed via rear-side optical self-emission and Kα X-rays from tracer layers. Comparison between measurements and simulations shows that the transition from collision-dominated to resistive field-dominated energy loss occurs for a fast-electron current density ~5 × 1011 A cm−2. The respective increases in the stopping power with target density and resistivity have been detected in each regime. Self-guided propagation over 200μm has been observed in radially compressed targets due to ~1kT magnetic fields generated by resistivity gradients at the converging shock front.
We investigated an international outbreak of Salmonella Agona with a distinct PFGE pattern associated with an Irish Food company (company X) producing pre-cooked meat products sold in various food outlet chains in Europe. The outbreak was first detected in Ireland. We undertook national and international case-finding, food traceback and microbiological investigation of human, food and environmental samples. We undertook a matched case-control study on Irish cases. In total, 163 cases in seven European countries were laboratory-confirmed. Consumption of food from food outlet chains supplied by company X was significantly associated with being a confirmed case (mOR 18·3, 95% CI 2·2–149·2) in the case-control study. The outbreak strain was isolated from the company's pre-cooked meat products and production premises. Sufficient evidence was gathered to infer the vehicles of infection and sources of the outbreak and to justify the control measures taken, which were plant closure and food recall.
In July 2008, office workers in Dublin complained of influenza-like illness preceding and interspersing two cases of notified Legionnaires' disease. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was identified in both cooling towers supplying the office. A retrospective cohort study was undertaken to investigate possible Pontiac fever (PF). Forty-seven employees (23%) met the clinical case definition for PF but confirmatory testing was negative. Exposure to the smoking area situated beside the cooling towers was associated with an increased risk of PF (RR 2·4, 95% CI 1·5–3·8). The diagnosis of PF should be considered when many persons exposed to a possible reservoir of Legionella spp. present with flu-like symptoms. More sensitive microbiological tests would allow better confirmation and more comprehensive reporting of PF. Early detection is vital to prevent potentially severe illness and outbreaks of PF or Legionnaires' disease.
Military destruction by conventional arms of both terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems is described, with emphasis placed on the effects of World Wars I and II on the territory of the USSR (especially of Russia, Byelorussia, and Ukraine). It is shown that a wide range of serious damage is done in terrestrial natural areas: to forests which may be decimated, to mammals which are commonly killed, and to the land which is extensively disturbed and rendered infertile or even uncultivable. Inland waters, too, are widely disturbed, though numerous new bodies of water may be formed in various ways, while fisheries are commonly disturbed, though ‘Wartime military activities can greatly reduce fish catches, to the benefit of fish populations.’
Adverse sensory changes prevent the addition of highly bioavailable ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) to most wheat flours. Poorly absorbable reduced Fe powders are commonly used. Encapsulation of FeSO4 can overcome these sensory changes, but the particle size of commercial compounds is too large to be used by flour mills. The first objective of the study was to measure the efficacy in wheat flour of two newly developed Fe compounds, an H-reduced Fe powder (NutraFine™ RS; North America Höganäs High Alloys LLC, Johnstown, PA, USA) and small particle-sized (40 μm) encapsulated FeSO4. As a second objective, the microcapsules were evaluated as a vehicle for iodine fortification. A randomised, double-blind controlled intervention trial was conducted in Kuwaiti women (n 279; aged 18–35 years) with low body Fe stores (serum ferritin (SF) < 25 μg/l) randomly assigned to one of three groups (20 mg Fe as NutraFine™ RS, 10 mg Fe as encapsulated FeSO4 and 150 μg iodine, or no fortification Fe) who consumed wheat-based biscuits 5 d per week. At baseline and 22 weeks, Hb, SF, transferrin receptor, urinary iodine and body Fe stores were measured. Relative to control, mean SF in the encapsulated FeSO4 group increased by 88 % (P < 0·001) and body Fe stores increased from − 0·96 to 2·24 mg/kg body weight (P < 0·001), while NutraFine™ RS did not significantly increase SF or body Fe stores. The median urinary iodine concentration increased from 140 to 213 μg/l (P < 0·01). NutraFine™ RS added at double the amount of Fe as FeSO4 was not efficacious in improving Fe status. The newly developed microcapsules were highly efficacious in improving both Fe stores and iodine status.
Bell's palsy is the eponym for idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. It is named after Sir Charles Bell (1774–1842), who, in the first half of the nineteenth century, discovered the function of the facial nerve and attracted the attention of the medical world to facial paralysis. Our knowledge of this condition before Bell's landmark publications is very limited and is based on just a few documents. In 1804 and 1805, Evert Jan Thomassen à Thuessink (1762–1832) published what appears to be the first known extensive study on idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis. His description of this condition was quite accurate. He located several other early descriptions and concluded from this literature that, previously, the condition had usually been confused with other afflictions (such as ‘spasmus cynicus’, central facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia). According to Thomassen à Thuessink, idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis and trigeminal neuralgia were related, being different expressions of the same condition. Thomassen à Thuessink believed that idiopathic peripheral facial paralysis was caused by ‘rheumatism’ or exposure to cold. Many aetiological theories have since been proposed. Despite this, the cold hypothesis persists even today.
From Director Dan Green's report, following this report, it is obvious that the Central Bureau for Astronomical Telegrams (CBAT) continues its excellent work. The Electronic Telegrams (CBETs), established in the previous triennium, have become the regular means for fast communication, with the Circulars providing the official and archival record of discoveries and designations. It is regretted that subscriptions to the printed Circulars continue to decline, but inevitable in this age of electronic communication.
Building Democracy in Contemporary Russia: Western Support for
Grassroots Organizations. By Sarah L. Henderson. Ithaca, NY:
Cornell University Press, 2003. 224p. $29.95.
Sarah Henderson has written a courageous and eye-opening account of
Western programs to create civil society in Russia. After having spent
12 months conducting surveys and interviews with more than a hundred
activists of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in a dozen Russian
cities, as well as doing consultancy work for three major foreign
foundations over a seven-year period, Henderson has provided one of the
first comprehensive looks at the impact that Western democracy
aid—now a $7 billion industry—has had in Russia (p. 5). Her
disturbing conclusion is that, despite good intentions, such programs
have been counterproductive.