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The opportunity to comment on Jacqueline Mowbray’s discussion of Julius Stone is doubly welcome. Not only does it afford me the opportunity to engage in a set of scholarly issues that have long interested me at the intersection of law and history, but it has also exposed me to a fascinating figure, Stone, about whom I knew precious little. Stone’s life story is, on my very basic reading, one of intriguing tensions: exclusion and high attainment, a sweeping catholicity of mind and a certain rigidity of disposition, and a keen concern for the fate of minorities alongside a surprising tone-deafness to the plight of one in particular. Mowbray skillfully teases out another defining tension: Stone’s commitment to the ideal of objectivity, borne of the outsider’s perspective, and his recognition, resulting from his commitment to cross-cultural analysis, of the inescapability of a measure of relativism in scholarly inquiry.
Background: Focal cortical dysplasias (FCDs) are congenital structural abnormalities of the brain, and represent the most common cause of medication-resistant focal epilepsy in children and adults. Recent studies have shown that somatic mutations (i.e. mutations arising in the embryo) in mTOR pathway genes underlie some FCD cases. Specific therapies targeting the mTOR pathway are available. However, testing for somatic mTOR pathway mutations in FCD tissue is not performed on a clinical basis, and the contribution of such mutations to the pathogenesis of FCD remains unknown. Aim: To investigate the feasibility of screening for somatic mutations in resected FCD tissue and determine the proportion and spatial distribution of FCDs which are due to low-level somatic mTOR pathway mutations. Methods: We performed ultra-deep sequencing of 13 mTOR pathway genes using a custom HaloPlexHS target enrichment kit (Agilent Technologies) in 16 resected histologically-confirmed FCD specimens. Results: We identified causal variants in 62.5% (10/16) of patients at an alternate allele frequency of 0.75–33.7%. The spatial mutation frequency correlated with the FCD lesion’s size and severity. Conclusions: Screening FCD tissue using a custom panel results in a high yield, and should be considered clinically given the important potential implications regarding surgical resection, medical management and genetic counselling.
We assessed whether paternal demographic, anthropometric and clinical factors influence the risk of an infant being born large-for-gestational-age (LGA). We examined the data on 3659 fathers of term offspring (including 662 LGA infants) born to primiparous women from Screening for Pregnancy Endpoints (SCOPE). LGA was defined as birth weight >90th centile as per INTERGROWTH 21st standards, with reference group being infants ⩽90th centile. Associations between paternal factors and likelihood of an LGA infant were examined using univariable and multivariable models. Men who fathered LGA babies were 180 g heavier at birth (P<0.001) and were more likely to have been born macrosomic (P<0.001) than those whose infants were not LGA. Fathers of LGA infants were 2.1 cm taller (P<0.001), 2.8 kg heavier (P<0.001) and had similar body mass index (BMI). In multivariable models, increasing paternal birth weight and height were independently associated with greater odds of having an LGA infant, irrespective of maternal factors. One unit increase in paternal BMI was associated with 2.9% greater odds of having an LGA boy but not girl; however, this association disappeared after adjustment for maternal BMI. There were no associations between paternal demographic factors or clinical history and infant LGA. In conclusion, fathers who were heavier at birth and were taller were more likely to have an LGA infant, but maternal BMI had a dominant influence on LGA.
The ‘Digital Index of North American Archaeology’ (DINAA) project demonstrates how the aggregation and publication of government-held archaeological data can help to document human activity over millennia and at a continental scale. These data can provide a valuable link between specific categories of information available from publications, museum collections and online databases. Integration improves the discovery and retrieval of records of archaeological research currently held by multiple institutions within different information systems. It also aids in the preservation of those data and makes efforts to archive these research results more resilient to political turmoil. While DINAA focuses on North America, its methods have global applicability.
Varian RapidArc is a volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) that obtains a conformal dose around the desired structure by employing variable gantry speed, dose rate and dynamic multileaf collimator (DMLC) speed as the gantry rotates about machine isocenter. This study is meant to build upon previous research by Ling et al. by completing the tests with an in vivo dosimetric device attached to the linac gantry and a 2D ionisation chamber array with an isocentric gantry mount.
Materials and methods
Two PTW detectors, seven29 array with gantry mount and DAVID, were attached to the linear accelerator gantry, allowing each device to remain perpendicular to the beam at all gantry angles. Three tests for RapidArc evaluation were performed on these devices including: dose rate and gantry speed variation, DMLC speed and dose rate variation and DMLC position accuracy. The reproducibility of the arc data was also reported.
A picket fence plan varying dose rates (111 to 600 MU/minute) and gantry speeds (5·5 to 4·3°/second) was delivered consisting of seven sections of different combinations. These measurements were compared with static gantry, open field measurements and found to be within 2·39% for the DAVID device and 0·84% for the seven29. A four-section picket fence of varying DMLC speeds (0·46, 0·92, 1·84 and 2·76 cm/second) was similarly evaluated and found to be within 1·99% and 3·66% for the DAVID and seven29, respectively. For DMLC position accuracy, a picket fence arc plan was compared with a static picket fence and found to agree within 0.38% and 2.91%. Reproducibility for these three RapidArc plans was found to be within 0·30% and 2·70% for the DAVID and seven29.
The DAVID and seven29 detectors were able to perform the RapidArc quality assurance tests efficiently and accurately and the results were reproducible. Periodic verification of DMLC movement, dose rate variation and gantry speed variation relating to RapidArc delivery can be completed in a timelier manner using this equipment.
Amira Hass, Haaretz's fearless journalist, recently told the following joke, an allegory of sorts, set during the Turco-Russian war. Moishele is about to depart for the front, and so his mother offers some sensible advice. “Please take care of yourself, my son. Pace yourself. Kill a Turk all right, but then make sure you rest afterwards. Eat something. Sleep a little. Then go back if you must, kill another Turk, and take another break. Drink lots of fluids, and make sure you maintain and replenish your strength.” “But Mamele,” retorts Moishele, “What if while I am eating and resting, there comes a Turk to kill me?” “Oy va voy, my son! Why would anyone do such a thing? What could he possibly have against you?”
The UK was one of few European countries to document a substantial wave of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza in summer 2009. The First Few Hundred (FF100) project ran from April–June 2009 gathering information on early laboratory-confirmed cases across the UK. In total, 392 confirmed cases were followed up. Children were predominantly affected (median age 15 years, IQR 10–27). Symptoms were mild and similar to seasonal influenza, with the exception of diarrhoea, which was reported by 27%. Eleven per cent of all cases had an underlying medical condition, similar to the general population. The majority (92%) were treated with antiviral drugs with 12% reporting adverse effects, mainly nausea and other gastrointestinal complaints. Duration of illness was significantly shorter when antivirals were given within 48 h of onset (median 5 vs. 9 days, P=0·01). No patients died, although 14 were hospitalized, of whom three required mechanical ventilation. The FF100 identified key clinical and epidemiological characteristics of infection with this novel virus in near real-time.
Intergroup trust might be broadly defined as a positive expectation about the intentions and behavior, and thus trust, of an outgroup towards the ingroup (Lewicki, McAllister, and Bies, 1998). According to Rotenberg and colleagues' framework of interpersonal trust (e.g., Rotenberg, 1991; Rotenberg and Morgan, 1995; Rotenberg, Fox, Green, Ruderman, Slater, Stevens, and Carlo, 2005), trust consists of three important components: reliability, emotionality, and honesty. In an intergroup context, reliability refers to whether promises made by the outgroup are fulfilled; emotionality refers to whether the outgroup refrains from causing emotional harm to the ingroup; and honesty refers to whether the outgroup is perceived as telling the truth, and behaving in a benign rather than in a malicious or manipulative way towards the ingroup.
Trust is crucial if society is to function effectively, because the formation and maintenance of interpersonal relationships is dependent on our ability to trust one another (e.g., Rotenberg, 1991; Rotter, 1980). Our ability to trust others has diverse psychological consequences, particularly among children. According to attachment theory, the quality of a child's relationship with their caregivers can affect their beliefs about whether others are trustworthy and, subsequently, their ability to have successful relationships (Bridges, 2003). Similarly, it is important for children that they are able to trust their peers, and know that they will be honest, reliable, and benevolent (Bernath and Feshbach, 1995).
The electron channeling contrast imaging (ECCI) technique was utilized to investigate atomic step morphologies and dislocation densities in 3C-SiC films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on Si (001) substrates. ECCI in this study was performed inside a commercial scanning electron microscope using an electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) system equipped with forescatter diode detectors. This approach allowed simultaneous imaging of atomic steps, verified by atomic force microscopy, and dislocations at the film surface. EBSD analysis verified the orientation and monocrystalline quality of the 3C-SiC films. Dislocation densities in 3C-SiC films were measured locally using ECCI, with qualitative verification by x-ray diffraction. Differences in the dislocation density across a 50 mm diameter 3C-SiC film could be attributed to subtle variations during the carbonization process across the substrate surface.
Adolescent pregnancy rates in the United Kingdom remain the highest in Western Europe. Interestingly, throughout most of Western Europe teenage birth rates fell during the 1970s, 80s and 90s, but in the United Kingdom rates have remained high. An increasing incidence has also been noted, with 49.9 births per 1,000 women under 18 in 2001 and 52.8 live births per 1,000 women in 2002.
We present initial results from a survey of the Orion A and B molecular clouds made with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) onboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. This survey encompasses a total of 5.6 square degrees with the sensitivity to detect objects below the hydrogen burning limit at an age of 1 Myr. These observations cover a number of known star forming regions, from the massive star forming clusters in the Orion Nebula and NGC 2024, to small groups of low mass stars in the L1641. We combine the IRAC photometry with photometry from the 2MASS point source catalog and use the resulting seven band data to identify stars with infrared excesses due to dusty disks and envelopes. Using the presence of an infrared excess as an indicator of youth, we show the distribution of young stars and protostars in the two molecular clouds. We find that roughly half of the stars are found in dense clusters surrounding the two regions of recent massive star formation in the Orion clouds, NGC 2024 and the Orion Nebula.
This prospective, multicentre study was conducted during 2–30 April 2001 in the internal medicine/infectious diseases services in France and included data from 1858 hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients, half of whom were HIV co-infected. The aims were to outline the type of pre-therapeutic evaluation of HCV infection performed (HCV RNA, genotype, liver biopsy); determine the proportion and characteristics of patients receiving antiviral treatment; and determine if any changes in these parameters had occurred between 1995 and 2001. Patients whom had a complete pre-therapeutic evaluation (39%, 709/1834) and received antiviral treatment (38%, 690/1830) were more likely to have abnormal liver biochemistry, cirrhosis and cryoglobulinaemia (P<0·001). Injecting drug users and HIV-co-infected patients were less likely to have a complete pre-therapeutic evaluation or receive antiviral treatment (P<0·001). A complete pre-therapeutic evaluation was more often performed in 2001 than in 1995 (39% vs. 6%, P<0·001), including qualitative HCV RNA testing (91% vs. 68%, P<0·001), genotyping (59% vs. 7%, P<0·001) and a liver biopsy (60% vs. 29%, P<0·001). The frequency of anti-HCV treatment approximately doubled between 1995 and 2001 (20% vs. 38%, P<0·001). Although adherence to consensus recommendations regarding pre-therapeutic evaluation is not ideal, a substantial improvement has occurred since 1995. Nevertheless, means of increasing the availability of antiviral therapies, particularly for patients with HIV co-infection or injecting drug use, require further study.
In this paper we describe the use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping and electron channeling contrast imaging—in the scanning electron microscope—to study tilt, atomic steps and dislocations in epitaxial GaN thin films. We show results from epitaxial GaN thin films and from a just coalesced epitaxial laterally overgrown GaN thin film. From our results we deduce that EBSD may be used to measure orientation changes of the order of 0.02°, in GaN thin films. As EBSD has a spatial resolution of ≈ 20 nm, this means we have a powerful technique with which to quantitatively map surface tilt. We also demonstrate that channeling contrast in electron channeling contrast images may be used to image tilt, atomic steps and threading dislocations in GaN thin films.