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The prevalence of common mental disorders has not declined in high-income countries despite substantial increases in service provision. A possible reason for this lack of improvement is that greater willingness to disclose mental disorders might have led to increased reporting of psychiatric symptoms, thus masking reductions in prevalence. This masking hypothesis was tested using data from two trials of interventions that increased willingness to disclose and that also measured symptoms. Both interventions involved Mental Health First Aid (MHFA) training, which is known to reduce stigma, including unwillingness to disclose a mental health problem.
A cross-lagged panel analysis was carried out on data from two large Australian randomised controlled trials of MHFA training. The first trial involved 1643 high school students in Year 10 (mean age 15.87 years), who were randomised to receive either teen MHFA training or physical first aid training as the control. The second trial involved 608 Australia public servants who were randomised to receive either eLearning MHFA, blended eLearning MHFA or eLearning physical first aid as the control. In both trials, willingness to disclose a mental disorder as described in vignettes and psychiatric symptoms (K6 scale) were measured pre-training, post-training and at 12-month follow-up.
Both trials found that MHFA training increased willingness to disclose. However, a cross-lagged panel analysis showed no effect of this change on psychiatric symptom scores.
Greater willingness to disclose did not affect psychiatric symptom scores. Because the trials increased willingness to disclose through a randomly assigned intervention, they provide a strong causal test of the masking hypothesis. It is therefore unlikely that changes in willingness to disclose are masking reductions in prevalence in the population.
Solvency II came into force on 1 January 2016 and included a transitional measure on technical provisions (“TMTP”) designed to help smooth in the capital impact of Solvency II over a 16-year period. The working party’s view is that the main intention of the TMTP is to mitigate the impact of the introduction of the risk margin, which significantly increases the technical provisions of firms, relative to their Solvency I Pillar 2 liabilities.
The majority of firms who hold a TMTP have now had at least one recalculation approved by the Prudential Regulation Authority (PRA); or are in the process of applying for a recalculation. Despite this large number of approved recalculations, there remains significant uncertainty in the industry around the approach and triggers for recalculation.
This paper considers aspects of TMTP recalculation for regulated UK life firms, for example practicalities of the calculation, asset and liability considerations, and communications/announcements.
In this paper, we outline the need for pragmatism when considering the approach to recalculation of a measure originally intended to serve as the bridge between two regimes. We call for an allowance for doing what is sensible in a principles-based regime balancing what might be more theoretically correct with what is practical and possible to support effective management of the business.
The Appalachian region of the United States is home to the largest temperate deciduous forest in the world, though surface mining has caused significant forest loss. Many former coal mines are now dominated by invasive plants, which often inhibit establishment of desirable species, especially slower-growing native trees. Autumn-olive (Elaeagnus umbellata Thunb.) is a nonnative, nitrogen-fixing shrub that was historically planted on former coalfields, but now impedes reclamation. To better understand the influence of E. umbellata management practices on hardwood establishment, we evaluated two common management practices: cutting and cut stump herbicide treatment. Planted native tree species, including black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), pin oak (Quercus palustris Münchh.), and red maple (Acer rubrum L.), were monitored for survival and performance over two growing seasons following E. umbellata removal. In each plot, we also measured plant-available nitrate (NO3−) and ammonium (NH4+) in soils using ionic exchange membranes. At the end of the first growing season, native tree survival was high, and the presence or absence of E. umbellata had little effect on tree survival or growth, despite the higher plant-available nitrate where E. umbellata was present. By the end of the second growing season, native tree survival dropped to 20% to 60% and varied among E. umbellata treatments. Survival was highest when E. umbellata was cut and treated with herbicide, though tree growth was similar across all treatments without E. umbellata. When establishing native trees to replace E. umbellata, cutting and herbicide application treatment of the invader resulted in the highest overall efficacy (100% control), though the most cost-effective method may be to simply cut mature stands despite regrowth, as this resulted in equivalent native tree growth over 2 yr. While this allowed E. umbellata regeneration, it provided sufficient invader control to allow initial tree establishment. Cutting and herbicide application treatment resulted in less E. umbellata regeneration and appears to provide greater assurance that established trees will persist over the long term.
To directly observe healthcare workers in a nursing home setting to measure frequency and duration of resident contact and infection prevention behavior as a factor of isolation practice
SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS
Healthcare workers in 8 VA nursing homes in Florida, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Washington, and Texas
Over a 15-month period, trained research staff without clinical responsibilities on the units observed nursing home resident room activity for 15–30-minute intervals. Observers recorded time of entry and exit, isolation status, visitor type (staff, visitor, etc), hand hygiene, use of gloves and gowns, and activities performed in the room when visible.
A total of 999 hours of observation were conducted across 8 VA nursing homes during which 4,325 visits were observed. Residents in isolation received an average of 4.73 visits per hour of observation compared with 4.21 for nonisolation residents (P<.01), a 12.4% increase in visits for residents in isolation. Residents in isolation received an average of 3.53 resident care activities per hour of observation, compared with 2.46 for residents not in isolation (P<.01). For residents in isolation, compliance was 34% for gowns and 58% for gloves. Healthcare worker hand hygiene compliance was 45% versus 44% (P=.79) on entry and 66% versus 55% (P<.01) on exit for isolation and nonisolation rooms, respectively.
Healthcare workers visited residents in isolation more frequently, likely because they required greater assistance. Compliance with gowns and gloves for isolation was limited in the nursing home setting. Adherence to hand hygiene also was less than optimal, regardless of isolation status of residents.
Increasing numbers of mares are competing at elite levels, and are recognised as being crucial to the production of high calibre sport horses. The management strategies utilised to look after horses affect their welfare and performance. By its very nature the domestication of horses has resulted in their confinement and also in major alterations to their natural social group structure. Most domestic pasture groups comprise mares and castrated males (Van Dierendonck, Sigorjonsdottir and Thorhallsdottir, 2002) and in the absence of a mature stallion are non-reproductive (Boyd and Kieper, 2002). Many equine behaviour studies have been directed at improving welfare and performance, but few centre on Personal Space Requirements (PSR). This study examines whether equine PSR varies between gender. Human personal space (PS) is defined as ‘the geographical component of interpersonal relations’ (Gifford, 1983) and its invasion is shown to cause instantaneous physiological stress (increased blood pressure and heart rate) and longer-lasting psychological stress (anxiety and tension), particularly when individuals can only endure exposure to stress passively (Sawada, 2003).
The low amplitude radially pulsating classical Cepheid Polaris (α UMi) has well observed decreasing radial velocity and light amplitudes and an increasing period. Recent work indicates that Polaris may stop pulsating by 1995 (Dinshaw et al, 1989), which would make it an excellent indicator for the red edge of the Cepheid instability strip in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram.
We have calculated Population I envelope models with 200 mass shells of a 5.5 M⊙ star near Teff = 5700 K and log(L/L⊙) = 3.11 which match Polaris’ characteristics (Arellano Ferro, 1984). Models were calculated using the Linear Non Adiabatic pulsation analysis code of Castor (1971). The effects of convection on the pulsational stability were calculated with the time dependent convection theory of Cox, Brownlee and Eilers (1966) as discussed by Cox and Guili (1968). The characteristics of the models were altered until the appropriate period, temperature and luminosity were obtained.
The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA), located in Western Australia, is one of the low-frequency precursors of the international Square Kilometre Array (SKA) project. In addition to pursuing its own ambitious science programme, it is also a testbed for wide range of future SKA activities ranging from hardware, software to data analysis. The key science programmes for the MWA and SKA require very high dynamic ranges, which challenges calibration and imaging systems. Correct calibration of the instrument and accurate measurements of source flux densities and polarisations require precise characterisation of the telescope’s primary beam. Recent results from the MWA GaLactic Extragalactic All-sky Murchison Widefield Array (GLEAM) survey show that the previously implemented Average Embedded Element (AEE) model still leaves residual polarisations errors of up to 10–20% in Stokes Q. We present a new simulation-based Full Embedded Element (FEE) model which is the most rigorous realisation yet of the MWA’s primary beam model. It enables efficient calculation of the MWA beam response in arbitrary directions without necessity of spatial interpolation. In the new model, every dipole in the MWA tile (4 × 4 bow-tie dipoles) is simulated separately, taking into account all mutual coupling, ground screen, and soil effects, and therefore accounts for the different properties of the individual dipoles within a tile. We have applied the FEE beam model to GLEAM observations at 200–231 MHz and used false Stokes parameter leakage as a metric to compare the models. We have determined that the FEE model reduced the magnitude and declination-dependent behaviour of false polarisation in Stokes Q and V while retaining low levels of false polarisation in Stokes U.
Neonatal viability is one of the key factors affecting piglets’ vitality, which ultimately affects the survival and growth of piglets (England, 1974). As colostrum is the only food resource of neonatal piglets, their ability to acquire the colostrum as early as possible after their birth can determine their vitality. Piglets are usually supplied with creep food at some time during the suckling period in order to improve their performance before and after weaning. However, the creep food intake varies between litters and between individuals. Furthermore, the relationship between viability in early life and the acceptance of a new food (e.g. creep food) when they first encounter it, is not fully understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate factors affecting the neonatal viability of piglets at birth and to identify the relationship between neonatal viability and subsequent creep feeding behaviour by piglets on d14-d15.
Creep food intake of suckling piglets varies considerably between individuals (Pajor et al., 1991). The creep feeding status of individual piglets can be monitored by video recording or by combining the weight of the food removed from the electronic dispensers with monitoring by video recording. However, the analysis of videotapes is time-consuming, which limits its widespread use on farm. From a practical standpoint, monitoring the food intake by piglets either before or after weaning is important to provide useful information for a management strategy. Therefore a general, quick and valid method to detect the food intake experience of piglets would be valuable and is needed. The aim of this investigation was to determine if a device that automatically spray-marked piglets at the trough could reliably identify those pigs that had foraged the food in the trough.
Social facilitation has been observed in the stabled horse with access to forage (Sweeting et al. 1985). Socially facilitated feeding behaviour has not been investigated through the provision of concentrates. It is likely that the motivation to ingest a concentrate feed is different to that of forage. In a variety of species social facilitation will only occur when presented with a novel food. Therefore it has been proposed that a function of social facilitation is to increase the acceptance of novel feeds. The first objective of this study therefore, was to investigate if social facilitation occurs with the horse’s standard concentrate feed and or a standard concentrate feed plus a novel flavour.
Visual contact has been found to be a necessary component in the facilitation of forage ingestion. Increasing visual contact between stables improves awareness of conspecifics, which has been linked to a decrease in abnormal behaviour. There has, however, been limited investigation into the relationship between neighbouring stabled horses especially during potentially stressful periods such as meal times. The second objective of this study was to investigate the effects on behaviour of the presence or absence of a familiar horse during meal times.
We present techniques developed to calibrate and correct Murchison Widefield Array low-frequency (72–300 MHz) radio observations for polarimetry. The extremely wide field-of-view, excellent instantaneous (u, v)-coverage and sensitivity to degree-scale structure that the Murchison Widefield Array provides enable instrumental calibration, removal of instrumental artefacts, and correction for ionospheric Faraday rotation through imaging techniques. With the demonstrated polarimetric capabilities of the Murchison Widefield Array, we discuss future directions for polarimetric science at low frequencies to answer outstanding questions relating to polarised source counts, source depolarisation, pulsar science, low-mass stars, exoplanets, the nature of the interstellar and intergalactic media, and the solar environment.
The current generation of experiments aiming to detect the neutral hydrogen signal from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR) is likely to be limited by systematic effects associated with removing foreground sources from target fields. In this paper, we develop a model for the compact foreground sources in one of the target fields of the MWA’s EoR key science experiment: the ‘EoR1’ field. The model is based on both the MWA’s GLEAM survey and GMRT 150 MHz data from the TGSS survey, the latter providing higher angular resolution and better astrometric accuracy for compact sources than is available from the MWA alone. The model contains 5 049 sources, some of which have complicated morphology in MWA data, Fornax A being the most complex. The higher resolution data show that 13% of sources that appear point-like to the MWA have complicated morphology such as double and quad structure, with a typical separation of 33 arcsec. We derive an analytic expression for the error introduced into the EoR two-dimensional power spectrum due to peeling close double sources as single point sources and show that for the measured source properties, the error in the power spectrum is confined to high k⊥ modes that do not affect the overall result for the large-scale cosmological signal of interest. The brightest 10 mis-modelled sources in the field contribute 90% of the power bias in the data, suggesting that it is most critical to improve the models of the brightest sources. With this hybrid model, we reprocess data from the EoR1 field and show a maximum of 8% improved calibration accuracy and a factor of two reduction in residual power in k-space from peeling these sources. Implications for future EoR experiments including the SKA are discussed in relation to the improvements obtained.
Total-dissolvable iron has been measured in sections of three ice cores from Law Dome, East Antarctica, and the results used to calculate atmospheric iron deposition over this region during the late Holocene and to provide a preliminary estimate of aerosol iron deposition during the Last Glaciol Maximum I LGM). Ice-core sections dating from 56-2730 BP (late Holocene) and ~18000 BP (LGM) were decontaminated using trace-metal clean techniques, and total-dissolvable iron was determined in the acidified meltwatcrs by flow-injection analysis. Our results suggest that the atmospheric iron flux onto the Law Dome region has varied significantly over time-scales ranging from seasonal to Glaciol-interglaciol. The iron concentrations in ice-core sections from the past century suggest (1) a 2 4-fold variation in the atmospheric iron flux over a single annual cycle, with the highest flux occurring during the spring and summer, and (2) a nearly 7-fold variation in the annual maximum atmospheric iron flux over a 14 year period. The average estimated atmospheric iron flux calculated from our late-Holocene samples is 0.056-0.14 mg m a−1, which agrees well with Holocene flux estimates derived from aluminium measurements in inland Antarctic ice cores and a recent order-of-magnitude estimate of present-day atmospheric iron deposition over the Southern Ocean. The iron concentration of an ice-corc section dating from the LGM was more than 50 times higher than in the late-Holocene ice samples. Using a snow-accumulation rate estimate of 130 kg m −2 a−1 for this period, we calculate 0.87 mgm −2 a−1 as a preliminary estimate of atmospheric iron deposition during the LGM, which is 6-16 times greater than our average late-Holocene iron flux. Our data are consistent with the suggestion that there was a significantly greater flux of atmospheric iron onto the Southern Ocean during the LGM than during then Holocene.