To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
The frequency of full syndromal and subsyndromal delirium is understudied.
We conducted a point prevalence study in a general hospital.
Possible delirium identified by testing for inattention was evaluated regarding delirium status (full/subsyndromal delirium) using categorical (Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), DSM-IV) and dimensional (Delirium Rating Scale-Revised-98 (DRS-R98) scores) methods.
In total 162 of 311 patients (52%) screened positive for inattention. Delirium was diagnosed in 55 patients (17.7%) using DSM-IV, 52 (16.7%) using CAM and 58 (18.6%) using DRS-R98⩾12 with concordance for 38 (12.2%) individuals. Subsyndromal delirium was identified in 24 patients (7.7%) using a DRS-R98 score of 7–11 and 41 (13.2%) using 2/4 CAM criteria. Subsyndromal delirium with inattention (v. without) had greater disturbance of multiple delirium symptoms.
The point prevalence of delirium and subsyndromal delirium was 25%. There was modest concordance between DRS-R98, DSM-IV and CAM delirium diagnoses. Inattention should be central to subsyndromal delirium definitions.
Between March and June 2008, 12 cases of hepatitis A were notified in Winchester. Cases were from a primary school and a nursery school with no direct linkage. Hepatitis A virus (HAV) RNA sequenced from nine cases confirmed the strain in both schools to be identical. The outbreak could have affected three other schools and a maternity unit and was controlled by immunization and screening of neonates in the maternity unit by dried blood spots. No neonates were infected and no further cases were reported until 5 months later when the index case's mother became infected with same strain of virus associated with the outbreak despite vaccination. Neither the source of the outbreak or the subsequent infection of the index case's mother was identified; however, with the timing of the cases continued transmission in the community by children with asymptomatic infection or a recurrent source cannot be ruled out.
Photoelectrochemical (PEC) water splitting for hydrogen production is a promising technology that uses sunlight and water to produce renewable hydrogen with oxygen as a by-product. In the expanding field of PEC hydrogen production, the use of standardized screening methods and reporting has emerged as a necessity. This article is intended to provide guidance on key practices in characterization of PEC materials and proper reporting of efficiencies. Presented here are the definitions of various efficiency values that pertain to PEC, with an emphasis on the importance of solar-to-hydrogen efficiency, as well as a flow chart with standard procedures for PEC characterization techniques for planar photoelectrode materials (i.e., not suspensions of particles) with a focus on single band gap absorbers. These guidelines serve as a foundation and prelude to a much more complete and in-depth discussion of PEC techniques and procedures presented elsewhere.
To describe the epidemiology, diagnosis, risk factors, patient impact, and treatment strategies for recurrent Clostridium difficile-associated disease (CDAD).
Data were collected as part of a blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial testing a new combination treatment for recurrent CDAD. Retrospective data regarding prior CDAD episodes were collected from interviews and medical-chart review. Prospective data on the current CDAD episode, risk factors, and recurrence rates were collected during a 2-month follow-up.
National referral study.
Patients with recurrent CDAD.
Treatment with a 10-day course of low-dose (500 mg/d) or high-dose (2 g/d) vancomycin or metronidazole (1 g/d).
Recurrent CDAD was found to have a lengthy course involving multiple episodes of diarrhea, abdominal cramping, nausea, and fever. CDAD may recur over several years despite frequent treatment with antibiotics. Recurrence rates were similar regardless of the choice or dose of antibiotic. Recurrent CDAD is not a trivial disease: patients may have multiple episodes (as many as 14), may require hospitalization, and the mean lifetime cost of direct medical care was $10,970 per patient. Fortunately, the disease does not become progressively more severe as the number of episodes increase. Two risk factors predictive for recurrent CDAD were found: increasing age and a decreased quality-of-life score at enrollment.
Recurrent CDAD is a persistent disease that may result in prolonged hospital stays, additional medical costs, and rare serious complications.
This study assessed accuracy of (a) recording Vibrio
vulnificus infection on death certificates
and (b) International Classification of Disease (ICD)-9 codes
V. vulnificus. Patients with
microbiologically confirmed V. vulnificus infection were identified
as part of co-ordinated
surveillance in four USA Gulf Coast states between 1989 and 1993. Of 60
deaths, 51 death
certificates were reviewed and V. vulnificus was recorded as the
immediate cause of death on 11
(22%). There was no ICD-9 code for V. vulnificus infection, thus
no patients had an ICD-9
code indicating V. vulnificus infection. Of 23 certificates where
V. vulnificus was recorded on the
death certificate, only 5 (22%) were coded for Gram-negative, septicaemia.
This study highlights the importance of teaching physicians how to provide
data on death certificates and the need for accurate ICD mortality codes.
The feasibility and advantages of using rapid thermal annealing to achieve a proper n+ polysilicon work function are demonstrated. Our data shows that RTA can be used to activate arsenic in the polysilicon gate after a regular furnace anneal or to diffuse and activate arsenic without any prior furnace anneal. Interface states and fixed charges due to RTA can be annealed out at 500°C for 30 min in forming gas. New insights into the diffusion, segregation, and activation of As in polysilicon during furnace and/or rapid thermal annealing have been obtained.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.