Herein, we characterized lead pipe scale removed from a drinking water distribution system using argon ion beam etching and a variety of solids analysis approaches. Specifically, pipe scale cross sections and solids were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, and acid digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry analyses. The pipe scale consisted of at least five layers that contained Pb(II) and Pb(IV) minerals, and magnesium, aluminum, manganese, iron, and silicon solids. The outer layer was enriched with crystalline amorphous manganese and iron, giving it a dark orange to red color. The middle layers consisted of hydrocerussite and plattnerite, and the bottom layer consisted primarily of litharge. Over the litharge layer, hydrocerussite crystals were grown vertically away from the pipe wall, which included formations of plattnerite. Significant amounts of trace contaminant vanadium, likely in the form of vanadinite, and copper accumulated in the scale as well.