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Investigations into an outbreak of foodborne disease attempt to identify the source of illness as quickly as possible. Population-based reference values for food consumption can assist in investigation by providing comparison data for hypothesis generation and also strengthening the evidence associated with a food product through hypothesis testing. In 2014–2015 a national phone survey was conducted in Canada to collect data on food consumption patterns using a 3- or 7-day recall period. The resulting food consumption values over the two recall periods were compared. The majority of food products did not show a significant difference in the consumption over 3 days and 7 days. However, comparison of reference values from the 3-day recall period to data from an investigation into a Salmonella Infantis outbreak was shown to support the conclusion that chicken was the source of the outbreak whereas the reference values from a 7-day recall did not support this finding. Reference values from multiple recall periods can assist in the hypothesis generation and hypothesis testing phase of foodborne outbreak investigations.
Although quality of life (QoL) is receiving increasing attention in bipolar disorder (BD) research and practice, little is known about its naturalistic trajectory. The dual aims of this study were to prospectively investigate: (a) the trajectory of QoL under guideline-driven treatment and (b) the dynamic relationship between mood symptoms and QoL.
In total, 362 patients with BD receiving guideline-driven treatment were prospectively followed at 3-month intervals for up to 5 years. Mental (Mental Component Score – MCS) and physical (Physical Component Score – PCS) QoL were measured using the self-report SF-36. Clinician-rated symptom data were recorded for mania and depression. Multilevel modelling was used to analyse MCS and PCS over time, QoL trajectories predicted by time-lagged symptoms, and symptom trajectories predicted by time-lagged QoL.
MCS exhibited a positive trajectory, while PCS worsened over time. Investigation of temporal relationships between QoL and symptoms suggested bidirectional effects: earlier depressive symptoms were negatively associated with mental QoL, and earlier manic symptoms were negatively associated with physical QoL. Importantly, earlier MCS and PCS were both negatively associated with downstream symptoms of mania and depression.
The present investigation illustrates real-world outcomes for QoL under guideline-driven BD treatment: improvements in mental QoL and decrements in physical QoL were observed. The data permitted investigation of dynamic interactions between QoL and symptoms, generating novel evidence for bidirectional effects and encouraging further research into this important interplay. Investigation of relevant time-varying covariates (e.g. medications) was beyond scope. Future research should investigate possible determinants of QoL and the interplay between symptoms and wellbeing/satisfaction-centric measures of QoL.
Given the wealth of data, the rotation curve, and the necessity for out-of-plane hydrogen demonstrated in the preceding paper, it seems desirable to attempt to establish a systematic procedure for determining the three-dimensional distribution of hydrogen. Under the assumption of cylindrical rotation this is, in principle, possible for most of the galaxy.
A new hydrogen line survey of M31 is described. A rotation curve of the galaxy is derived from these data. The northern half of the rotation curve can be traced to 27 kpc, the southern to 30 kpc. They are in general agreement; both sides show an extensive region of essentially constant rotational velocity.
Wild tree resins generate billions of dollars in revenue annually but many species face extinction. The lansan tree Protium attenuatum has disappeared across most of its range as a result of overexploitation for its valuable oleoresin, which is used as incense. This study in Saint Lucia aimed to determine whether lansan resin could be harvested sustainably. Over 34 months, 298 trees were tapped using 10 experimental methods, and compared with 74 controls. Significantly more resin was produced by tapping the same trees repeatedly, tapping trees with a wider girth, cutting the same part of the trunk repeatedly, and, in particular, spraying diluted sulphuric acid on the cut. Applying 5 and 30% sulphuric acid boosted yields by 58 and 134%, respectively, without negative impacts on tree growth, condition or mortality. In contrast, traditional methods used by local tappers were destructive, causing greater decay and infection, slower growth rates and increased mortality. Results show tappers can obtain more resin and maintain healthy populations by tapping mature trees of ≥ 20 cm diameter at breast height, using only one shallow cut per tree (refreshed every 2 weeks) and applying weak sulphuric acid solution. A blind survey found consumers could not distinguish between incense produced with or without this stimulant. A national management plan has been devised whereby tappers will be licensed and trained in the optimal method and granted their own forest coupes to manage under Forestry Department supervision. The methods and findings may guide the sustainable use and conservation of other resin-producing trees.
Tourism development is one of the main contemporary drivers of habitat loss and fragmentation within the Caribbean Islands biodiversity hotspot. In Saint Lucia, construction of a hotel and golf course within coastal dry forest is directly threatening the largest known subpopulation of the Endangered White-breasted Thrasher Ramphocinclus brachyurus. Understanding how the species is responding to ongoing landscape change and identifying priority sites for conservation are imperative for planning its long-term conservation. In this study, a four year White-breasted Thrasher monitoring dataset (2006–2009) and landscape-scale environmental variables were used to: a) identify, characterise and map spatio-temporal patterns of White-breasted Thrasher encounter rate (an abundance proxy) within and outside the tourist development site; b) determine landscape-scale environmental variables that influence such patterns, and c) produce an island-wide predictive map of potentially suitable habitat. Observed patterns in encounter rates within and outside the development site were consistent with thrashers being displaced from cleared areas of forest and crowding into intact forest patches to the north and west of the golf course. A year after the period of the most extensive habitat clearance, White-breasted Thrasher numbers declined markedly leading to a 55% reduction in encounter rate within the development site over the four years of the study. The habitat suitability model predicted that a range of sites outside of the known geographic range of the thrasher are potentially suitable, some of which merit further surveys for potentially undetected populations. Given these findings, it is vital that patches of suitable dry forest adjacent to the tourist development are protected and contiguous natural habitat inside the tourist development is preserved.
The standard method to determine the band structure of a condensed phase material is to (1) obtain a single crystal with a well defined surface and (2) map the bands with angle resolved photoelectron spectroscopy (occupied or valence bands) and inverse photoelectron spectroscopy (unoccupied or conduction bands). Unfortunately, in the case of Pu, the single crystals of Pu are either nonexistent, very small and/or having poorly defined surfaces. Furthermore, effects such as electron correlation and a large spin-orbit splitting in the 5f states have further complicated the situation. Thus, we have embarked upon the utilization of unorthodox electron spectroscopies, to circumvent the problems caused by the absence of large single crystals of Pu with well-defined surfaces. Our approach includes the techniques of resonant photoelectron spectroscopy , x-ray absorption spectroscopy [1,2,3,4], electron energy loss spectroscopy [2,3,4], Fano Effect measurements , and Bremstrahlung Isochromat Spectroscopy , including the utilization of micro-focused beams to probe single-crystallite regions of polycrystalline Pu samples. [2,3,6]
The design and characterization of flat panel a-Si:H arrays for imaging applications in radiotherapy and diagnostic radiology has already begun. Future improvements in design and performance will be heavily reliant on the results of computer simulations capable of accurately predicting the behavior of the arrays in a variety of operating conditions. These results will allow the design of new arrays to be optimized for the particular application before they are committed to fabrication. This paper outlines the results of an investigation into the effects of varying a number of array parameters and operating conditions using a simulation code which models the operation of a-Si:H devices. The results are compared with actual measurements from arrays fabricated at Xerox PARC.
Ag/Ti bilayer films deposited on silicon dioxide substrates were annealed in ammonia ambient in the temperature range of 400 - 600 °C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) have shown that Ti segregates to both the surface to form a TiN(O) layer and to the Ti/SiO2 interface to form a Ti-oxide/Ti-silicide bilayer. The annealed bilayer structure had minimal Ti accumulations in Ag. Resistivity values of ˜2 μΩ-cm were obtained in encapsulated Ag bilayer films, which are comparable to that of the as-deposited. X-ray analysis confirmed the absence of intermetallic phase transformation.
This study aimed to identify risk factors for dogs becoming rectal carriers of multidrug-resistant (MDR) Escherichia coli while hospitalized in a veterinary teaching hospital. Exposures to potential risk factors, including treatments, hospitalization, and interventions during a 42-day pre-admission period and hospitalization variables, were assessed for 90 cases and 93 controls in a retrospective, risk-based, case-control study. On multivariable analyses, hospitalization for >6 days [odds ratio (OR) 2·91–8·00], treatment with cephalosporins prior to admission (OR 5·04, 95% CI 1·25–20·27), treatment with cephalosporins for >1 day (OR 5·18, 95% CI 1·86–14·41), and treatment with metronidazole (OR 7·17, 95% CI 1·01–50·79) while hospitalized were associated with increased risk of rectal carriage of MDR E. coli during hospitalization. The majority of rectal isolates obtained during the study period conformed to MDR E. coli clonal groups previously obtained from extraintestinal infections. These results can assist the development of improved infection control guidelines for the management of dogs in veterinary hospitals to prevent the occurrence of nosocomial clinical infections.
A rapidly developing tourism industry, concentrated in coastal regions, is suspected to seriously impact upon biodiversity in the global conservation priority of the insular Caribbean. In St Lucia, construction of tourism infrastructure in the coastal dry forest threatens the Endangered White-breasted Thrasher Ramphocinclus brachyurus. Long-term protection of habitat is vital, but design of such conservation action is constrained by lack of data on the species' distribution and population responses to habitat change and fragmentation. Distance sampling surveys were conducted in 2006 and 2007 to estimate numbers and map the distribution of the two remaining sub-populations. White-breasted Thrashers in St Lucia were estimated to number around 1,200 individuals, with roughly 1,050 birds occupying just over 600 ha of dry forest in the Mandelé area. We demonstrate that tourist development companies will likely soon own land constituting around 40% of the species' extent of occurrence on St Lucia, and nearly 35% globally, and that ongoing and planned tourist developments threaten around one third of the St Lucian White-breasted Thrasher population. Given the size of these potential impacts, it is vital that patches of dry forest to the west and north of a development site in the Mandelé area are safeguarded. These sites support White-breasted Thrashers at high density and are contiguous with an existing forest reserve. Other important conservation measures include preserving stands of connected mature dry and riparian forest inside the tourist development sites, alongside invasive predator control.
This study aimed to identify risk factors for intestinal colonization with multidrug-resistant (MDR) E. coli in dogs on admission to a veterinary teaching hospital. Exposures to potential risk factors, including prior treatments, hospitalizations and interventions during the 42 days prior to admission were assessed for 82 case admissions and 82 time-matched controls in a retrospective prevalence-based case-control study of 20 months duration. On multivariable analyses, risk of MDR E. coli colonization on admission was increased with prior hospitalization for 4–7 days and >7 days relative to shorter periods, and in dogs that had prior diagnostic imaging techniques. Univariable analyses indicated that risk was increased following prior treatment with several antimicrobial agents. However, on multivariable analysis, administration of fluoroquinolones was associated with increased risk but risk did not appear to increase following administration of other antimicrobials. These results can inform management of canine patients and infection control procedures to mitigate the risk of clinical disease due to MDR bacteria in hospitalized dogs.
Data from Neurospora, Drosophila, and the mouse support the mapping parameter conventionally used for man, exclude the Haldane, Kosambi, and Carter—Falconer functions, and suggest a refinement for centromere mapping. Different sexes, chromosome arms, and types of data are surprisingly consistent. Double recombination frequencies are accurately predicted, but triple recombination frequencies are overestimated. The centromere appears to act on interference as an obligatory chiasma. Recombination across the centromere conforms to a simple approximation, based on the interval Markov assumption with a common mapping parameter. These results imply that mapping of n loci requires estimation of at most n parameters, and the relation between map distances and all recombination frequencies is explicit.
Rice, Cloninger & Reich (1980) showed that correlational data on American I.Q. is consistent with a rather low genetic heritability. Here we confirm their general results with a more parsimonious model. From phenotypic data alone, the estimates of genetic and cultural heritability are 0·31 and 0·42, respectively. Using environmental indices, the parsimonious estimates become 0·34 and 0·26, respectively.
Multilocus recombination frequencies are expressed in terms of pairwise recombination frequencies for paracentric and pericentric intervals. Applications of this theory to mapping and genetic counselling are discussed.
Assortative mating is generalized to include social homogamy and phenotypic homogamy as two special cases. This generalization, called mixed homogamy, enables tests of hypotheses on the nature of assortment. Cultural inheritance is also extended to include two components: transmitted from parental environments, and non-transmitted sibship environment. Familial correlations are derived for a variety of relationships under mixed homogamy.
In 1865, an unknown author calling himself Lewis Carroll compelled a leading publishing house, Macmillan & Company, to suppress the first edition of a children's book entitled Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. In 1886, the same author, better established, instructed the same publisher to dispose of the first edition of The Game of Logic, also meant for children, as not up to his standards of book production. In 1889, Carroll condemned the entire first run often thousand copies of The Nursery “Alice”; and in 1893, when he found that a later run (the sixtieth thousand) of Through the Looking-Glass had come from the presses with the illustrations not well printed, he ordered Macmillan to scuttle those copies as well.