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Positive symptoms are a useful predictor of aggression in schizophrenia. Although a similar pattern of abnormal brain structures related to both positive symptoms and aggression has been reported, this observation has not yet been confirmed in a single sample.
To study the association between positive symptoms and aggression in schizophrenia on a neurobiological level, a prospective meta-analytic approach was employed to analyze harmonized structural neuroimaging data from 10 research centers worldwide. We analyzed brain MRI scans from 902 individuals with a primary diagnosis of schizophrenia and 952 healthy controls.
The result identified a widespread cortical thickness reduction in schizophrenia compared to their controls. Two separate meta-regression analyses revealed that a common pattern of reduced cortical gray matter thickness within the left lateral temporal lobe and right midcingulate cortex was significantly associated with both positive symptoms and aggression.
These findings suggested that positive symptoms such as formal thought disorder and auditory misperception, combined with cognitive impairments reflecting difficulties in deploying an adaptive control toward perceived threats, could escalate the likelihood of aggression in schizophrenia.
Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics (SPICA), the cryogenic infrared space telescope recently pre-selected for a ‘Phase A’ concept study as one of the three remaining candidates for European Space Agency (ESA's) fifth medium class (M5) mission, is foreseen to include a far-infrared polarimetric imager [SPICA-POL, now called B-fields with BOlometers and Polarizers (B-BOP)], which would offer a unique opportunity to resolve major issues in our understanding of the nearby, cold magnetised Universe. This paper presents an overview of the main science drivers for B-BOP, including high dynamic range polarimetric imaging of the cold interstellar medium (ISM) in both our Milky Way and nearby galaxies. Thanks to a cooled telescope, B-BOP will deliver wide-field 100–350
m images of linearly polarised dust emission in Stokes Q and U with a resolution, signal-to-noise ratio, and both intensity and spatial dynamic ranges comparable to those achieved by Herschel images of the cold ISM in total intensity (Stokes I). The B-BOP 200
m images will also have a factor
30 higher resolution than Planck polarisation data. This will make B-BOP a unique tool for characterising the statistical properties of the magnetised ISM and probing the role of magnetic fields in the formation and evolution of the interstellar web of dusty molecular filaments giving birth to most stars in our Galaxy. B-BOP will also be a powerful instrument for studying the magnetism of nearby galaxies and testing Galactic dynamo models, constraining the physics of dust grain alignment, informing the problem of the interaction of cosmic rays with molecular clouds, tracing magnetic fields in the inner layers of protoplanetary disks, and monitoring accretion bursts in embedded protostars.
Advancements in computer technology have enabled three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, data-stitching, and manipulation of 3D data obtained on X-ray imaging systems such as micro-computed tomography (μ-CT). Likewise, intuitive evaluation of these 3D datasets can be enhanced by recent advances in virtual reality (VR) hardware and software. Additionally, the generation, viewing, and manipulation of 3D X-ray diffraction datasets, such as pole figures employed for texture analysis, can also benefit from these advanced visualization techniques. We present newly-developed protocols for porting 3D data (as TIFF-stacks) into a Unity gaming software platform so that data may be toured, manipulated, and evaluated within a more-intuitive VR environment through the use of game-like controls and 3D headsets. We demonstrate this capability by rendering μ-CT data of a polymer dogbone test bar at various stages of in situ mechanical strain. An additional experiment is presented showing 3D XRD data collected on an aluminum test block with vias. These 3D XRD data for texture analysis (χ, ϕ, 2θ dimensions) enables the viewer to visually inspect 3D pole figures and detect the presence or absence of in-plane residual macrostrain. These two examples serve to illustrate the benefits of this new methodology for multidimensional analysis.
High-temperature X-ray diffraction with concurrent gas chromatography (GC) was employed in the study of iron disulfide (FeS2) cathode pellets disassembled from thermal batteries. When FeS2 cathode materials were analyzed in an air environment, reaction of the KCl and LiCl salt phases led to the formation of Li2(SO4) and KFe2S3 phases beginning at ~230 °C. These phases subsequently reacted to generate various forms of potassium iron sulfates in the 280–500 °C range, with the final products resulting in a β-Fe2O3 phase and K2(SO4). Independent simultaneous thermal analysis coupled with mass spectroscopy (MS) augmented the diffraction results and supported the overall picture of FeS2 decomposition. Both gas analysis measurements (i.e. GC and MS) from the independent experiments confirmed the formation of SO2 off-gas species during the breakdown of the FeS2. In contrast, characterization of the same cathode material under inert conditions showed the persistence of the initial FeS2 phase throughout the entire temperature range of analysis.
The aim of this study was the construction and validation of a novel research instrument to quantify the degree of post-hurricane trauma and distress in an affected population. The Post-Hurricane Distress Scale (PHDS) has quantitative measures of both acute and prolonged distress, attributable to meteorological and hydrological disasters.
A careful evaluation of existing questionnaires, as well as extensive canvasing of the post-Maria population of Puerto Rico, availed the construction of the PHDS. The PHDS consists of 20 items, organized into 4 subscales. The PHDS was pre-validated (n=79), revised, and then distributed to a broad sampling of the post-Hurricane Maria Puerto Rican population (n=597). Validation, including factor analysis, analyses of concurrent validity, discriminant validity, and internal reliability, was performed.
After comparing various scales, factor loading profiles, concurrent validities, and models of fit, we show that the PHDS is best scored as a single 0–6 distress scale. When compared with the Traumatic Exposure Severity Scale, the PHDS shows superior concurrent validity, more accurately predicting scores for the Peritraumatic Distress Inventory, Impact of Event Scale – Revised, and Generalized Anxiety Disorder 7 Scale. The PHDS shows good internal reliability and discriminant validity.
The PHDS represents a novel, useful instrument for disaster first-responders and researchers. The prompt identification of high-risk populations is possible using this instrument. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:82-89)
In dairy goats, the kid rearing system can have critical importance in financial returns. Commonly used criteria for the choice of rearing system are not always clear due to the high number of factors involved. The aim of this study was to quantify all those factors to facilitate decision making. So, the effect of two different kid rearing systems, mixed rearing system (MRS) and artificial rearing system (ARS), on milk yield, milk composition and somatic cell count (SCC), milk yield loss at weaning for MRS, kid growth and costs of the different traits on the financial returns in Murciano-Granadina breed goats was studied. Twenty-four goats per group were used. In the MRS, goats reared only one kid, which had free access to goat milk 24 h a day and were weaned at week 6 of lactation, whereas kids in the ARS were separated from their mothers at kidding, colostrum and artificially reared. In both systems, dams were machine-milked once a day throughout lactation and the records took place weekly. Potential milk yield was estimated according to the oxytocin method up to week 12 of lactation, and was similar for both rearing systems, although a 12.3% drop in potential milk yield at weaning was observed for MRS. During the first 6 weeks of lactation, marketable milk was lower for dams in MRS compared to those in ARS (72.1 v. 113.0 l), but similar for the rest of the experiment (101.5 v. 99.4 l, respectively). Marketable milk composition and SCC throughout the 12 weeks of lactation were unaffected by the rearing system. Artificial rearing system entailed an increment in production cost of 22.2€ per kid compared to the rearing by MRS. A similar economic return per goat and kid was obtained from ARS and MRS in this experiment, although, due to one herd’s prolificacy of 1.8, the actual results would be 16.2€ per goat in favour of MRS. The real interest of this experiment may be the possibility of extrapolation to different flocks with diverse levels of milk production, prolificacy and prices and costs for incomes and outputs, to estimate the production system that increases returns. In conclusion, the results showed an increase in the cost of €22.2 per kid bred in the ARS, compared to the MRS, and a final return of 16.2€ per goat in favour of the mixed system.
This review presents mechanistic studies performed in vitro and in animal models, as well as data obtained in patients that contribute to a better understanding of the impact of nutrients interacting with the gut microbiota on metabolic and behavioural alterations linked to obesity. The gut microbiota composition and function are altered in several pathological conditions including obesity and related diseases i.e. non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD). The gut–liver axis is clearly influenced by alterations of the gut barrier that drives inflammation. In addition, recent papers propose that specific metabolites issued from the metabolic cooperation between the gut microbes and host enzymes, modulate inflammation and gene expression in the liver. This review illustrates how dietary intervention with prebiotics or probiotics influences host energy metabolism and inflammation. Indeed, intervention studies are currently underway in obese and NAFLD patients to unravel the relevance of the changes in gut microbiota composition in the management of metabolic and behavioural disorders by nutrients interacting with the gut microbiota. In conclusion, diet is among the main triggers of NAFLD and the gut microbiota is modified accordingly, underlining the importance of the concomitant study of the nutrients and microbial impact on liver health and metabolism, in order to propose innovative, clinically relevant, therapeutic approaches.
Measurements in the infrared wavelength domain allow direct assessment of the physical state and energy balance of cool matter in space, enabling the detailed study of the processes that govern the formation and evolution of stars and planetary systems in galaxies over cosmic time. Previous infrared missions revealed a great deal about the obscured Universe, but were hampered by limited sensitivity.
SPICA takes the next step in infrared observational capability by combining a large 2.5-meter diameter telescope, cooled to below 8 K, with instruments employing ultra-sensitive detectors. A combination of passive cooling and mechanical coolers will be used to cool both the telescope and the instruments. With mechanical coolers the mission lifetime is not limited by the supply of cryogen. With the combination of low telescope background and instruments with state-of-the-art detectors SPICA provides a huge advance on the capabilities of previous missions.
SPICA instruments offer spectral resolving power ranging from R ~50 through 11 000 in the 17–230 μm domain and R ~28.000 spectroscopy between 12 and 18 μm. SPICA will provide efficient 30–37 μm broad band mapping, and small field spectroscopic and polarimetric imaging at 100, 200 and 350 μm. SPICA will provide infrared spectroscopy with an unprecedented sensitivity of ~5 × 10−20 W m−2 (5σ/1 h)—over two orders of magnitude improvement over what earlier missions. This exceptional performance leap, will open entirely new domains in infrared astronomy; galaxy evolution and metal production over cosmic time, dust formation and evolution from very early epochs onwards, the formation history of planetary systems.
This work attempts to confirm the effect of an enriched diet with n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) trying to mitigate the reproductive performances issues such as low conception rate of primiparous rabbits. A total of 127 does were fed ad libitum throughout their two first cycles with two diets with different fat sources: mixed fat in the control and salmon oil in the enriched one, with 3.19 g/100 g (n=63 does) and 28.77 g/100 g (n=64 does) of n-3 of the total fatty acid, respectively. Feed intake was similar between groups (P>0.05). Plasma progesterone concentration was higher in the enriched females than in control ones at 7 (30.9±2.18 v. 23.9±2.30 ng/ml, respectively; P=0.029) and 14 (38.7±2.18 v. 28.2±2.30 ng/ml, respectively; P=0.001) days of first gestation. Considering both cycles, reproductive parameters of mothers (fertility, duration of gestation and prolificacy) and litter parameters (weight at parturition and weaning, mortality and average daily gain (ADG) of kits during lactation) were similar in both groups. However, individual measurements of neonates of enriched group improved 5.87%, 7.10% and 18.01% (P<0.05) in terms of crown-rump length, biparietal and thoracic diameters, respectively, compared to control ones at first parturition. It is noteworthy that at the second insemination, critical point in rabbit, fertility rate of enriched group did not decline as sharply as in the control group (89.7% v. 76.6%, respectively; P=0.067), although ADG and littler weight were slightly lower at the second lactation after PUFA enrichment (P<0.05). Total PUFA and unsaturated index of milk of enriched does group were significantly elevated than in control one (33.3±0.02 v. 23.2±0.02 g/100 g and 1.20±0.00 v. 0.86±0.00, respectively; P<0.05). Finally, plasma progesterone, ovulation rate, fertility and embryo development at 3.5 days after the artificial insemination were similar between diets (P>0.05), but embryo apoptosis rate was higher in control group than in enriched one (31.1±4.56% v. 17.1±3.87%, respectively; P<0.05). In conclusion, dietary PUFA enrichment from the rearing and throughout two productive cycles improved plasma progesterone during pregnancy, fertility, milk fatty acid profile and neonates development of primiparous supporting the beneficial effect of n-3 PUFA supplementation in rabbit does.
Anti-retroviral therapy (ART) regimes for HIV are associated with raised levels of circulating triglycerides (TGs) in western populations. However, there are limited data on the impact of ART on cardiometabolic risk in sub-Saharan African (SSA) populations.
Pooled analyses of 14 studies comprising 21 023 individuals, on whom relevant cardiometabolic risk factors (including TG), HIV and ART status were assessed between 2003 and 2014, in SSA. The association between ART and raised TG (>2.3 mmol/L) was analysed using regression models.
Among 10 615 individuals, ART was associated with a two-fold higher probability of raised TG (RR 2.05, 95% CI 1.51–2.77, I2 = 45.2%). The associations between ART and raised blood pressure, glucose, HbA1c, and other lipids were inconsistent across studies.
Evidence from this study confirms the association of ART with raised TG in SSA populations. Given the possible causal effect of raised TG on cardiovascular disease (CVD), the evidence highlights the need for prospective studies to clarify the impact of long term ART on CVD outcomes in SSA.
A controversy at the 2016 IUCN World Conservation Congress on the topic of closing domestic ivory markets (the 007, or so-called James Bond, motion) has given rise to a debate on IUCN's value proposition. A cross-section of authors who are engaged in IUCN but not employed by the organization, and with diverse perspectives and opinions, here argue for the importance of safeguarding and strengthening the unique technical and convening roles of IUCN, providing examples of what has and has not worked. Recommendations for protecting and enhancing IUCN's contribution to global conservation debates and policy formulation are given.
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a highly disabling condition, with frequent early onset. Adult/adolescent OCD has been extensively investigated, but little is known about prevalence and clinical characterization of geriatric patients with OCD (G-OCD = 65 years). The present study aimed to assess prevalence of G-OCD and associated socio-demographic and clinical correlates in a large international sample.
Data from 416 outpatients, participating in the ICOCS network, were assessed and categorized into 2 groups, age < vs = 65 years, and then divided on the basis of the median age of the sample (age < vs = 42 years). Socio-demographic and clinical variables were compared between groups (Pearson Chi-squared and t tests).
G-OCD compared with younger patients represented a significant minority of the sample (6% vs 94%, P < .001), showing a significantly later age at onset (29.4 ± 15.1 vs 18.7 ± 9.2 years, P < .001), a more frequent adult onset (75% vs 41.1%, P < .001) and a less frequent use of cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) (20.8% vs 41.8%, P < .05). Female gender was more represented in G-OCD patients, though not at a statistically significant level (75% vs 56.4%, P = .07). When the whole sample was divided on the basis of the median age, previous results were confirmed for older patients, including a significantly higher presence of women (52.1% vs 63.1%, P < .05).
G-OCD compared with younger patients represented a small minority of the sample and showed later age at onset, more frequent adult onset and lower CBT use. Age at onset may influence course and overall management of OCD, with additional investigation needed.
Attachment is an innate programming whereby a child seeks for security. There is scientific and empirical evidence that insecure attachment is usual in eating disorder patients .
To highlight the relevance of attachment between child and caregivers, as well as its significance in therapeutic approach.
A 17-year-old girl hospitalized after attending to emergency department due to fainting. BMI: 12.89. She reports restrictive behavior since age 11 that her mother regards as “child issues”. Divorced parents, she grew up with her mother, diagnosed of hypochondria, who mentions not understanding why she is not the one who is hospitalized.
During hospitalization, she turned 18-years-old. Guardianship of her younger siblings was removed to her mother. She had a secure relationship with her 24-year-old sister, so she decided to move in with her. Later on, she had a positive progress, maintaining the gained weight and mood stability, although cognitive distortions persist.
Among developmental and maintaining factors of eating disorders, impaired attachment is becoming increasingly interesting. Even though the main goal of treatment is weight restoration, exploring attachment patterns can facilitate to achieve that aim. This clinical case emphasizes the importance of attachment in eating disorders among child and young adults.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is a psychotherapeutic intervention that has been shown effective in several clinical conditions. Nevertheless, research is still needed on its effectiveness on cognition.
To analyze possible effects on cognition of the addition of MBCT intervention versus a brief structured group psycho-education to the standard treatment of subsyndromal bipolar depression. Our hypothesis was that MBCT could improve some aspects of cognitive function to a higher degree than psycho-education and treatment as usual (TAU).
A randomized, multicenter, prospective, versus active comparator, evaluator-blinded clinical trial was conducted. Forty patients with BD and subclinical or mild depressive symptoms were randomly allocated to:
– MBCT added to psychopharmacological treatment (n = 16);
– a brief structured group psycho-educational intervention added to psychopharmacological treatment (n = 17);
– standard clinical management, including psychopharmacological treatment (n = 7).
Assessments were conducted at screening, baseline, post-intervention (8 weeks) and 4-month follow-up.
Cognition results point to significant improvement in Stroop Color test as well as processing speed in TMT A test (P < 0.05) in the two psychological intervention groups versus TAU.
These preliminary findings suggest that the addition of MBCT or psycho-education to usual treatment could improve some cognitive dimensions in subsyndromal bipolar depressive patients.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Neurocognitive disorders are the only psychiatric disorders which underlying pathogeny can potentially be determined. This has important implications, for it makes possible the use of biomarkers in order to gain better diagnosis, and opens a door to more accurate treatments. Nonetheless, as biomarkers are not exclusive of a single disorder, the lengths of its utility are still unknown.
Objectives and aims
To understand the values and limitations of biomarkers in differential diagnosis of dementias.
We present three cases followed in the Neurology ward of our hospital, in which they were admitted for diagnosis and treatment of a subacute form of dementia. Medical history, core symptoms, screening tests for cognitive impairment, MRI, EEG and biomarkers in cerebrospinal fluid were used for diagnosis.
Two cases had consistent clinical features and complementary explorations, and they were respectively diagnosed as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease and Lewy Body Dementia; however, the last case showed contradictory results between clinic and complementary explorations, particularly 14-3-3 protein, which was positive and led to the initial diagnosis as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease, which was proven wrong once necropsy was practiced.
Although complementary explorations, and biomarkers in particular, are of invaluable utility in the accurate diagnosis of multiple psychiatric diseases, they must always be considered within a context given by biography and clinical features, because, when failing to do so, they can lead to misdiagnosis and delay of correct treatment.
Male and female social roles were built on a historical inequality. Gender violence is a public health problem of the first order. We consider it important to conduct a study to improve diagnosis and interventions. From the Theory of Roles Moreno, each role has a complementary role that maintains the link. In gender violence predominates control, domination, submission and asymmetry of functions as dysfunctional elements of a relationship, which should be symmetrical.
We reviewed 48 stories of women who come for abuse mental health team from 2013 to 2016. We analyzed the following aspects: socio-demographic data (age, nationality, marital status, education, jobs, dependent children); reason for consultation and number of queries; violence; roles, because of maintenance and interventions.
Eighty percent Spanish. It occurs at all levels of education; 60% have children; 70% were derived from primary care for others reasons; almost 90% suffered psychological violence, 25% physical and economic, sexual only 3 women, 52.08% of women adopt a submissive role, passive-aggressive 20.83% and 25% ambivalent; maintenance of the violence is reinforced by the psychological dependence that occurs in all women (one in 45.83%).
Roles analysis is an effective method in the diagnosis of abuse and designing appropriate intervention. Psychotherapy, benefits of a psychopharmacological treatment that lessens the suffering and lets face their difficulties. It is important to ask about abuse at any level of care, because it contributes more to cover a hidden reality. The Psychological and economic dependence. They establish and maintain the mistreatment.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Animal health surveillance enables the detection and control of animal diseases including zoonoses. Under the EU-FP7 project RISKSUR, a survey was conducted in 11 EU Member States and Switzerland to describe active surveillance components in 2011 managed by the public or private sector and identify gaps and opportunities. Information was collected about hazard, target population, geographical focus, legal obligation, management, surveillance design, risk-based sampling, and multi-hazard surveillance. Two countries were excluded due to incompleteness of data. Most of the 664 components targeted cattle (26·7%), pigs (17·5%) or poultry (16·0%). The most common surveillance objectives were demonstrating freedom from disease (43·8%) and case detection (26·8%). Over half of components applied risk-based sampling (57·1%), but mainly focused on a single population stratum (targeted risk-based) rather than differentiating between risk levels of different strata (stratified risk-based). About a third of components were multi-hazard (37·3%). Both risk-based sampling and multi-hazard surveillance were used more frequently in privately funded components. The study identified several gaps (e.g. lack of systematic documentation, inconsistent application of terminology) and opportunities (e.g. stratified risk-based sampling). The greater flexibility provided by the new EU Animal Health Law means that systematic evaluation of surveillance alternatives will be required to optimize cost-effectiveness.
High-temperature X-ray diffraction with concurrent gas chromatography (GC) was used to study cobalt disulfide cathode pellets disassembled from thermal batteries. When CoS2 cathode materials were analyzed in an air environment, oxidation of the K(Br, Cl) salt phase in the cathode led to the formation of K2SO4 that subsequently reacted with the pyrite-type CoS2 phase leading to cathode decomposition between ~260 and 450 °C. Independent thermal analysis experiments, i.e. simultaneous thermogravimetric analysis/differential scanning calorimetry/mass spectrometry (MS), augmented the diffraction results and support the overall picture of CoS2 decomposition. Both gas analysis measurements (i.e. GC and MS) from the independent experiments confirmed the formation of SO2 off-gas species during breakdown of the CoS2. In contrast, characterization of the same cathode material under inert conditions showed the presence of CoS2 throughout the entire temperature range of analysis.