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Identification of endophenotypes can improve prevention, detection and development of new treatments. We therefore investigated whether aberrant affective cognition constitutes an endophenotype for affective disorders by being present in monozygotic (MZ) twins with unipolar or bipolar disorder in partial remission (i.e. affected) and their unaffected co-twins (i.e. high-risk) relative to twins with no family history of affective disorder (i.e. low-risk).
We conducted an assessor blind cross-sectional study from 2014 to 2017 of MZ twins using Danish population-based registers in recruitment. Twins attended one test session involving neurocognitive testing, clinical ratings and questionnaires. Main outcomes were attention to and recognition of emotional facial expressions, the memory of emotional self-referential words, emotion regulation and coping strategies.
Participants were 103 affected, 44 high-risk and 36 low-risk MZ twins. Groups were demographically well-balanced and showed comparable non-affective cognitive performance. We observed no aberrant affective cognition in affected and high-risk relative to low-risk twins. However, high-risk twins displayed attentional avoidance of emotional faces (ps ⩽ 0.009) and more use of task-oriented coping strategies (p = 0.01) compared with affected twins. In contrast did affected twins show more emotion-oriented coping than high- and low-risk twins (ps ⩽ 0.004).
Our findings provide no support of aberrant affective cognition as an endophenotype for affective disorders. High-risk twins’ attentional avoidance of emotional faces and greater use of task-oriented coping strategies may reflect compensatory mechanisms.
To examine ethnic differences in body mass index (BMI), food habits and physical activity, and determine the factors contributing to differences in BMI.
Design and method:
In 2000–2001, 7343 (response rate 88%) 15- and 16-year-old students, enrolled in lower secondary schools in Oslo, participated in the cross-sectional Oslo Health Study. Of these participants, 1719 were defined as ethnic minorities.
Significant gender and ethnic differences in mean BMI were observed. Of the ethnic minority adolescents, 5.8% were underweight (<5th percentile of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)/National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) reference distribution) and 9.1% were overweight (>85th percentile of the US CDC/NCHS reference distribution). BMI was not significantly associated with either socio-economic factors or physical activity. Food habits and physical activity differed with ethnicity but not with socio-economic factors. An ordinal regression showed that girls from East Asia (odds ratio (OR) 0.4) and boys from sub-Saharan Africa (OR 0.4) had lower BMI than the Western group. Among girls, higher BMI was associated with less frequent consumption of chocolates and sweets, full-fat milk and breakfast (OR 2.4, 1.7 and 1.7, respectively). Higher BMI, for both boys and girls, was associated with current and past dieting (OR 3.7 and 4.2, respectively).
Adolescent food habits and physical activity varied by gender and ethnicity but not with socio-economic factors. BMI was associated with ethnicity, gender and food habits, but no significant relationship was observed with socio-economic factors or physical activity. Ethnicity, in addition to gender, should be taken into consideration when studying BMI and associated factors among adolescents.
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