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Social and environmental factors such as poverty or violence modulate the risk and course of schizophrenia. However, how they affect the brain in patients with psychosis remains unclear.
We studied how environmental factors are related to brain structure in patients with schizophrenia and controls in Latin America, where these factors are large and unequally distributed.
This is a multicentre study of magnetic resonance imaging in patients with schizophrenia and controls from six Latin American cities. Total and voxel-level grey matter volumes, and their relationship with neighbourhood characteristics such as average income and homicide rates, were analysed with a general linear model.
A total of 334 patients with schizophrenia and 262 controls were included. Income was differentially related to total grey matter volume in both groups (P = 0.006). Controls showed a positive correlation between total grey matter volume and income (R = 0.14, P = 0.02). Surprisingly, this relationship was not present in patients with schizophrenia (R = −0.076, P = 0.17). Voxel-level analysis confirmed that this interaction was widespread across the cortex. After adjusting for global brain changes, income was positively related to prefrontal cortex volumes only in controls. Conversely, the hippocampus in patients with schizophrenia, but not in controls, was relatively larger in affluent environments. There was no significant correlation between environmental violence and brain structure.
Our results highlight the interplay between environment, particularly poverty, and individual characteristics in psychosis. This is particularly important for harsh environments such as low- and middle-income countries, where potentially less brain vulnerability (less grey matter loss) is sufficient to become unwell in adverse (poor) environments.
Adolescence seems to be a critical period of addiction vulnerability, based on both neurobiological, social, and familiar factors. The earlier onset of behavioural/substance dependence seems to predict greater addiction severity, morbidity, and multiple addictive disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the presence of multiple addictions in an Italian adolescent high-school population.
Data were collected from a sample of 2907 high school students recruited in the area of Barletta (Puglia) and Latina (Lazio). The sample had an average age of 16.69+/-1.89 years. Through different multi-item scales we evaluated different behavioural addictions: Pathological Gambling, Internet Addiction, Compulsive Buying, Sexual Addiction, Relationship Addiction, Mobile Phone Addiction, Exercise Addiction, Work Addiction.
the presence of pathological gambling was found in 4.4%, compulsive buying in 8.3%, internet addiction in 1.1%, work addiction in 7.2%, exercise addiction in 6.7% of the subjects. Males showed higher scores (p<.001) for pathological gambling, internet and exercise addiction, whereas females showed an higher score (p<.001) for mobile phone addiction. A positive correlation (p<.001) was found between all the scale employed, apart from the Compulsive Buying Scale, which was negatively correlated (p<.001) with the other scales.
The high number of subjects reporting a behavioural dependence is an unexpected data, which creates concern, and need an adequate analysis. It should be valued if these typologies of “addiction without the substance” are a temporary phenomenon occurring in adolescents or if they are a stable trait, and a consequent risk factor for a substance misuse.
The past decade has seen a rapid increase in the number of studies employing psychophysiological methods to explain variation in political attitudes and behavior. However, the collection, analysis, and interpretation of physiological data present novel challenges for political scientists unfamiliar with the underlying biological concepts and technical skills necessary for utilizing this approach. Our objective in this article is to maximize the effectiveness of future work utilizing psychophysiological measurement by providing guidance on how the techniques can be employed most fruitfully as a complement to, not a replacement for, existing methods. We develop clear, step-by-step instructions for how physiological research should be conducted and provide a discussion of the issues commonly faced by scholars working with these measures. Our hope is that this article will be a useful resource for both neophytes and experienced scholars in lowering the start-up costs to doing this work and assessing it as part of the peer review process. More broadly, in the spirit of the open science framework, we aim to foster increased communication, collaboration, and replication of findings across political science labs utilizing psychophysiological methods.
In the pharmacological treatment of schizophrenia, more and more authors suggesting the use of injectable antipsychotics long-term these patients, since it increases adherence to treatment, one of the risk factors for relapse that argues most often to explain the failure of the treatment of these patients.
In the present study, it is to observe the evolution of a group of such patients to assess efficacy and tolerability of treatment with Aripiprazole LAI.
Material and method
Data from 17 patients treated at a mental health center in Navarra (Spain), diagnosed with schizophrenic disorder, followed over a year after beginning treatment with Aripiprazol LAI are collected.
The data collected are:
– date of treatment change (month and year);
– antipsychotic previous;
– reason for change;
– aripiprazole LAI dose;
– number of income before and after the start of Aripiprazole LAI (mirror);
– effects adverse pre and post start of treatment with Aripiprazole LAI: metabolic, endocrine, extrapyramidal;
– treatment antipsychotic concomitant pre and post start Aripiprazole LAI.
The results show a decrease in the number of income after the start with Aripiprazole LAI, with very good retention of treatment, and a low number of side effects, which were mild.
Treatment with Aripiprazole LAI is a good therapeutic alternative to the use of antipsychotic drugs by mouth, with good adherence, tolerability and efficacy.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Eudialyte-group minerals (EGM) attract global interest as potential resources for high-field-strength elements (e.g. Zr, Nb, Ta, and rare-earth elements), i.e. critical materials for modern technologies. They are particularly valued for their relative enrichment in the most critical lanthanides, i.e. Nd and heavy rare earth elements (Gd–Lu). However, rare earth element (REE) substitution mechanisms into the EGM structure are still poorly understood. Light and heavy REE may occupy different sites and there may be ordering and/or defect clustering in the structure. This study uses X-ray absorption spectroscopy to determine the structural state of REE in EGM from prospective eudialyte-bearing complexes. Yttrium K-edge and Nd L3-edge spectra were collected as proxies for heavy and light REE, respectively, and compared to natural and synthetic REE-bearing standards. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure data yield best fits for Y in six-fold coordination with Y–O distances of 2.24–2.32 Å, and a second coordination sphere comprising Fe, Na, Ca, Si and O at radial distances of 3.6–3.8 Å. These findings are consistent with dominant Y3+ substitution for Ca2+ on the octahedral M1 site in all the samples studied, and exclude preferential substitution of Y3+ onto the smaller octahedral Z site or the large low-symmetry N4 site.
Using lattice strain theory, we constructed relative partitioning models to predict site preferences of lanthanides we have not measured directly. The models predict that all REE are favoured on the Ca-dominant M1 site and that preferential partitioning of heavy over light REE increases in EGM containing significant Mn in the M1-octahedral rings (oneillite subgroup). Thus, the flat REE profiles that make EGM such attractive exploration targets are not due to preferential partitioning of light and heavy REE onto different sites. Instead, local ordering of Mn- and Ca-occupied M1 sites may influence the capacity of EGM to accommodate heavy REE.
Optimising short- and long-term outcomes for children and patients with CHD depends on continued scientific discovery and translation to clinical improvements in a coordinated effort by multiple stakeholders. Several challenges remain for clinicians, researchers, administrators, patients, and families seeking continuous scientific and clinical advancements in the field. We describe a new integrated research and improvement network – Cardiac Networks United – that seeks to build upon the experience and success achieved to-date to create a new infrastructure for research and quality improvement that will serve the needs of the paediatric and congenital heart community in the future. Existing gaps in data integration and barriers to improvement are described, along with the mission and vision, organisational structure, and early objectives of Cardiac Networks United. Finally, representatives of key stakeholder groups – heart centre executives, research leaders, learning health system experts, and parent advocates – offer their perspectives on the need for this new collaborative effort.
This study investigated the characteristics of subjective memory complaints (SMCs) and their association with current and future cognitive functions.
A cohort of 209 community-dwelling individuals without dementia aged 47–90 years old was recruited for this 3-year study. Participants underwent neuropsychological and clinical assessments annually. Participants were divided into SMCs and non-memory complainers (NMCs) using a single question at baseline and a memory complaints questionnaire following baseline, to evaluate differential patterns of complaints. In addition, comprehensive assessment of memory complaints was undertaken to evaluate whether severity and consistency of complaints differentially predicted cognitive function.
SMC and NMC individuals were significantly different on various features of SMCs. Greater overall severity (but not consistency) of complaints was significantly associated with current and future cognitive functioning.
SMC individuals present distinctive features of memory complaints as compared to NMCs. Further, the severity of complaints was a significant predictor of future cognition. However, SMC did not significantly predict change over time in this sample. These findings warrant further research into the specific features of SMCs that may portend subsequent neuropathological and cognitive changes when screening individuals at increased future risk of dementia.
Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns.
To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele.
Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined. Relationships between PCC connectivity and physical activity measures were explored.
ɛ4+ individuals showed increased connectivity between the dorsal PCC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral PCC and supplementary motor area (SMA). Greater levels of physical activity correlated with the magnitude of ventral PCC–SMA connectivity.
The results provide the first evidence that ɛ4+ individuals at increased risk of cognitive decline show distinct alterations in dorsal and ventral PCC functional connectivity.
The Numeniini is a tribe of 13 wader species (Scolopacidae, Charadriiformes) of which seven are Near Threatened or globally threatened, including two Critically Endangered. To help inform conservation management and policy responses, we present the results of an expert assessment of the threats that members of this taxonomic group face across migratory flyways. Most threats are increasing in intensity, particularly in non-breeding areas, where habitat loss resulting from residential and commercial development, aquaculture, mining, transport, disturbance, problematic invasive species, pollution and climate change were regarded as having the greatest detrimental impact. Fewer threats (mining, disturbance, problematic native species and climate change) were identified as widely affecting breeding areas. Numeniini populations face the greatest number of non-breeding threats in the East Asian-Australasian Flyway, especially those associated with coastal reclamation; related threats were also identified across the Central and Atlantic Americas, and East Atlantic flyways. Threats on the breeding grounds were greatest in Central and Atlantic Americas, East Atlantic and West Asian flyways. Three priority actions were associated with monitoring and research: to monitor breeding population trends (which for species breeding in remote areas may best be achieved through surveys at key non-breeding sites), to deploy tracking technologies to identify migratory connectivity, and to monitor land-cover change across breeding and non-breeding areas. Two priority actions were focused on conservation and policy responses: to identify and effectively protect key non-breeding sites across all flyways (particularly in the East Asian- Australasian Flyway), and to implement successful conservation interventions at a sufficient scale across human-dominated landscapes for species’ recovery to be achieved. If implemented urgently, these measures in combination have the potential to alter the current population declines of many Numeniini species and provide a template for the conservation of other groups of threatened species.
Since 2013, coordinated campaigns with the THEMIS spectropolarimeter in Tenerife and other instruments (space based: Hinode/SOT, IRIS or ground based: Sac Peak, Meudon) are organized to observe prominences. THEMIS records spectropolarimetry at the He I D3 and we use the PCA inversion technique to derive their field strength, inclination and azimuth.
All of the observed prominences are quiescent, as they were stable as filaments for at least three days and not eruptive. They present similar characteristics, they are highly dynamic and present horizontal magnetic fields. Statistically, the inclination from the local vertical is around 90 degrees, with some points around 60 and 120 degrees. The field strength is between 5 and 15 Gauss. We tested the effects of adding a turbulent field component to the horizontal field. For those pixels showing inclinations around 60 and 120 degrees, we find that such a model is compatible with the polarimetric observations. In some of these prominences, identified as “tornadoes” the field strength may reach 50 Gauss, and in the top of the tornadoes some points exhibit an inclination which cannot correspond to any model in our grid of models. We investigate different solutions.
Full Stokes spectropolarimetric observations of a Mira star (χ Cyg) and a RV Tauri star (R Sct) are presented and analyzed comparatively. From their Stokes V data (circular polarization), we report the detection of a weak magnetic field at the surface of these cool and evolved radially pulsating stars. For both stars, we analyse this detection in the framework of their complex atmospheric dynamics, with the possibility that shock waves may imprint an efficient compressive effect on the surface magnetic field. We also report strong Stokes U and Stokes Q signatures associated to metallic lines (as a global trend), those linear polarimetric features appear to be time variable along the pulsating phase. More surprising, in the Stokes U and Stokes Q data, we also detect signatures associated to individual metallic lines (such as Sr i 460.7 nm, Na D2588.9 nm), that are known (from the solar case) to be easily polarizable in case of a global asymmetry at the photospheric level.
The Molène archipelago appears to be particularly rich in Neolithic and Bronze Age remains and an exceptional concentration of megaliths has been brought to light. Several settlements are confirmed by dry-stone structures or by shell middens. These data give precious indications on the occupation chronology of the area. Moreover they allow us, for the first time in Brittany, to reconstruct everyday life during the late Prehistoric period. A prerequisite to this reconstruction was a better understanding of the evolution of the environment during this period, which locally implies a better knowledge of paleogeographic changes related to Holocene sea-level rise as well as on floral and faunal resources.
The results obtained through paleogeographic reconstructions show that the archipelago since 4500 bc was already disconnected from the mainland. The megalithic monuments must therefore have been erected and used by islanders present on the archipelago from the middle of the 5th to the 2nd millennium bc. The distribution of the megalithic tombs reveals landscape occupation strategies which respond to both cultural choices and natural constraints. Throughout the entire period, geographic isolation has continued to increase, although it did not imply strong cultural specificities. Nevertheless, the increasing remoteness of the islands has fostered the search for livelihoods based on the intense exploitation of coastal resources. Despite their focus on the sea, these people did not neglect what inland areas could offer as evidenced by the early agro-pastoral practices in the archipelago.
This study aimed to assess and compare the epidemiology of faecal carriage of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteria (ESBL-E) in Hepatology departments of two hospitals specializing in liver diseases, Theodor Bilharz Research Institute (TBRI) in Cairo (Egypt) and Beaujon Hospital (Bj) in Clichy (France). CTX-M groups were identified by PCR, and TEM and SHV derivatives with the check-point system. Phylogenetic groups of E. coli were determined by multiplex PCR, and clone ST131 by PCR of gene pabB. Prevalence of ESBL-E was 77·6% (45/58) in TBRI and 6·5% (13/199) in Bj (P < 10−7). Previous hospitalization was more common (P = 0·003) in Bj patients (93%) than in TBRI patients (45%) suggesting high prevalence of ESBL-E in the Egyptian community. The presence of E. coli B2 ST131 among ESBL-E faecal E. coli in Egypt confirms its pervasiveness in the community and raises concern regarding this highly virulent and resistant clone.
Autobiographical memory (ABM), personal semantic memory (PSM), and autonoetic consciousness are affected in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but their relationship with Alzheimer's disease (AD) biomarkers are unclear.
Forty-five participants (healthy controls (HC) = 31, MCI = 14) completed the Episodic ABM Interview and a battery of memory tests. Thirty-one (HC = 22, MCI = 9) underwent β-amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Fourteen participants (HC = 9, MCI = 5) underwent one imaging modality.
Unlike PSM, ABM differentiated between diagnostic categories but did not relate to AD biomarkers. Personal semantic memory was related to neocortical β-amyloid burden after adjusting for age and apolipoprotein E (APOE) ɛ4. Autonoetic consciousness was not associated with AD biomarkers, and was not impaired in MCI.
Autobiographical memory was impaired in MCI participants but was not related to neocortical amyloid burden, suggesting that personal memory systems are impacted by differing disease mechanisms, rather than being uniformly underpinned by β-amyloid. Episodic and semantic ABM impairment represent an important AD prodrome.