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Our previous work identified deficits in interference processing and learning/memory in past suicide attempters who were currently depressed and medication-free. In this study, we extend this work to an independent sample studied at various stages of illness and treatment (mild symptoms, on average) to determine if these deficits in past suicide attempters are evident during a less severe clinical state.
A total of 80 individuals with a past history of major depression and suicide attempt were compared with 81 individuals with a history of major depression and no lifetime suicide attempts on a battery of neurocognitive measures assessing attention, memory, abstract/contingent learning, working memory, language fluency and impulse control.
Past attempters performed more poorly in attention, memory and working memory domains, but also in an estimate of pre-morbid intelligence. After correction for this estimate, tests that had previously distinguished past attempters – a computerized Stroop task and the Buschke Selective Reminding Test – remained significantly worse in attempters. In a secondary analysis, similar differences were found among those with the lowest levels of depression (Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score <10), suggesting that these deficits may be trait markers independent of current symptomatology.
Deficits in interference processing and learning/memory constitute an enduring defect in information processing that may contribute to poor adaptation, other higher-order cognitive impairments and risk for suicidal behavior.
Although several studies have examined brainstem volume in autism, results have been mixed and no investigation has specifically measured gray- and white-matter structures. The aim of this investigation was to assess gray- and white-matter volumes in children with autism.
Subjects included 22 right-handed, non-mentally retarded boys with autism and 22 gender- and age-matched controls. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained using a 1.5-T scanner and volumetric measurements were performed using the BRAINS2 software package. Gray- and white-matter volumes were measured using a semi-automated segmentation process.
There were no significant differences in age and total brain volume (TBV) between the two groups but full-scale IQ was higher in controls. A decrease in brainstem gray-matter volume was observed in the autism group before and after controlling for TBV. No significant differences were observed in white-matter volume. A significant relationship was observed between brainstem gray-matter volume and oral sensory sensitivity as measured by the Sensory Profile Questionnaire (SPQ).
Findings from this study are suggestive of brainstem abnormalities in autism involving gray-matter structures with evidence supporting the existence of a relationship between these alterations and sensory deficits. These results are consistent with previous investigations and support the existence of disturbances in brainstem circuitry thought to be implicated in the sensory dysfunction observed in autism.
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