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We determined how pasture and grazing management practices affected the number of days hay was fed to cattle by season. Data were collected from a survey of Tennessee cattle producers. Days of cattle on hay varied across seasons because of variations in forage production and weather. The number of days hay was fed to cattle varied with pasture-animal management practices such as rotating pastures, forage mixtures, and weed management strategies. Having mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses reduced the number of days on hay in the winter, spring, and summer months indicating benefits from diversified forages.
The effect of animal characteristics and placement decisions on retained ownership profitability of Tennessee cattle from 2005 to 2015 was determined using a mixed model regression. Ex post simulation analysis examined retained ownership profitability by placement season under different animal characteristic and corn price scenarios. Regression results indicate that placement weight, placement season, days on feed, animal health, and animal sex affect retained ownership profitability. Simulation results indicate that winter placement of cattle in feedlots had the highest expected retained ownership profits. Results provide risk-averse producers information regarding the profitability of retained ownership.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Introduction: The older adult population is growing. The consequences of minor trauma involving a head injury (MT-HI) in independent older adults are largely unknown. This study assessed the impact of a MT-HI on the functional and cognitive outcomes six months post injury of older adults who sustained a minor trauma. Methods: This multicenter prospective cohort study in eight sites included patients who were: aged 65 years or older, presenting to the emergency department (ED) within two weeks of injury with a chief complaint of a minor trauma, discharged within 48 hours, and independent for their basic activities of daily living prior to the ED visit. Participants underwent a baseline evaluation and a follow-up evaluation at six months post-injury. The main outcome was the functional decline measured with the Older Americans’ Resources and Services (OARS) scale six months after the trauma. Results: All 926 eligible patients were included in the analyses: 344 MT-HI patients and 582 without head injury. After six months, the functional decline was similar in both groups, 10.8% and 11.9% respectively (RR=0.79 [95% CI: 0.55-1.14]). The proportion of participants with mild cognitive disabilities was also similar, 21.7% and 22.8% respectively (RR=0.91 [95% CI: 0.71-1.18]). Furthermore, for the group of patients with a MT-HI, the functional outcome was not statistically different with or without the presence of a co-injury (RR= 1.35 [95% CI: 0.71-2.59]), or with or without the presence of a mTBI as defined by the WHO criteria (RR= 0.90 [95% CI: 0.59-1.13]). Conclusion: This study did not demonstrate that the occurrence of a MT-HI is associated with a worse functional or cognitive prognosis than other minor injuries without a head injury in an elderly population six months after injury.
Introduction: The CETI team has shown that around 18% of otherwise independent seniors remain in a state functional decline up to six months after a minor injury. In that context, frailty may be associated with increased likelihood of decline. As most seniors consult Emergency Departments (EDs) when injured, measuring frailty may help identify those at risk of functional decline. Objectives: This study aims to 1) describe frailty in the sub-group of independent community-dwelling seniors consulting Emergency Departments (ED) for minor injuries, 2) examine the association between frailty and functional decline three months post-injury, 3) ascertain the predictive accuracy of frailty measures and Emergency Physicians’ (EPs) for functional decline. Methods: Prospective cohort in 2011-2013 among 1072 seniors aged ≥ 65, independent in basic daily activities, evaluated in Canadian EDs for minor injuries and discharged home. Frailty was assessed at EDs using the Canadian Study of Health and Aging-Clinical Frailty Scale (CSHA-CFS) and the Study of Osteoporotic Fracture index (SOF). Functional decline was defined as a loss ≥ 2/28 on the Older American Resources Services scale three months post-injury. Generalized mixed models were used to explore differences in functional decline across frailty levels. Areas Under the Receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) were used to ascertain the predictive accuracy of frailty measures and EPs’ clinical judgement. Results: The SOF and CSHA-CFS were available in 342 and 1058 participants, respectively. The SOF identified 55.6%, 32.7%, 11.7% patients as robust, prefrail and frail. These CSHA-CFS (n=1058) proportions were 51.9%, 38.3% and 9.9%. The 3-month incidence of functional decline was 12.1% (10.0%-14.6%). The AUCs of the CSHA-CFS and the EPs’ were similar (0.548 - 0.777), while the SOF was somewhat higher (0.704 - 0.859). Conclusion: Measuring frailty in community-dwelling seniors with minor injuries in EDs may enhance current risk screening for functional decline. However, before implementation in usual care, feasibility issues such as inter-rater reliability and acceptability of frailty tools in the EDs have to be addressed.
Early nutrition is critical for later health and sustainable development. We determined potential effectiveness of the Kenyan Community Health Strategy in promoting exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) in urban poor settings in Nairobi, Kenya. We used a quasi-experimental study design, based on three studies [Pre-intervention (2007–2011; n=5824), Intervention (2012–2015; n=1110) and Comparison (2012–2014; n=487)], which followed mother–child pairs longitudinally to establish EBF rates from 0 to 6 months. The Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition (MIYCN) study was a cluster randomized trial; the control arm (MIYCN-Control) received standard care involving community health workers (CHWs) visits for counselling on antenatal and postnatal care. The intervention arm (MIYCN-Intervention) received standard care and regular MIYCN counselling by trained CHWs. Both groups received MIYCN information materials. We tested differences in EBF rates from 0 to 6 months among four study groups (Pre-intervention, MIYCN-Intervention, MIYCN-Control and Comparison) using a χ2 test and logistic regression. At 6 months, the prevalence of EBF was 2% in the Pre-intervention group compared with 55% in the MIYCN-Intervention group, 55% in the MIYCN-Control group and 3% in the Comparison group (P<0.05). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, the odds ratio for EBF from birth to 6 months was 66.9 (95% CI 45.4–96.4), 84.3 (95% CI 40.7–174.6) and 3.9 (95% CI 1.8–8.4) for the MIYCN-Intervention, MIYCN-Control and Comparison group, respectively, compared with the Pre-intervention group. There is potential effectiveness of the Kenya national Community Health Strategy in promoting EBF in urban poor settings where health care access is limited.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
The future of centimetre and metre-wave astronomy lies with the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), a telescope under development by a consortium of 17 countries that will be 50 times more sensitive than any existing radio facility. Most of the key science for the SKA will be addressed through large-area imaging of the Universe at frequencies from a few hundred MHz to a few GHz. The Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP) is a technology demonstrator aimed in the mid-frequency range, and achieves instantaneous wide-area imaging through the development and deployment of phased-array feed systems on parabolic reflectors. The large field-of-view makes ASKAP an unprecedented synoptic telescope that will make substantial advances in SKA key science. ASKAP will be located at the Murchison Radio Observatory in inland Western Australia, one of the most radio-quiet locations on the Earth and one of two sites selected by the international community as a potential location for the SKA. In this paper, we outline an ambitious science program for ASKAP, examining key science such as understanding the evolution, formation and population of galaxies including our own, understanding the magnetic Universe, revealing the transient radio sky and searching for gravitational waves.
We present preliminary results from the Southern Galactic Plane Survey (SGPS) Test Region and Parkes data. As part of the pilot project for the Southern Galactic Plane Survey, observations of a Test Region (325·5° ≤l ≤ 333·5°; −0·5° ≤ b ≤ 3·5°) were completed in December 1998. Single-dish observations of the full survey region (253° ≤ l ≤ 358 ° |b| ≤ 1°) with the Parkes Radio Telescope were completed in March 2000. We present a sample of SGPS H I data, with particular attention to the smallest-and largest-scale structures seen in absorption and emission, respectively. On the large scale, we detect many prominent H I shells. On the small scale, we note extremely compact, cold clouds seen in H I self-absorption. We explore how these two classes of objects probe opposite ends of the H I spatial power spectrum.
A survey of the Milky Way disk and the Magellanic System at the wavelengths of the 21-cm atomic hydrogen (H i) line and three 18-cm lines of the OH molecule will be carried out with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The survey will study the distribution of H i emission and absorption with unprecedented angular and velocity resolution, as well as molecular line thermal emission, absorption, and maser lines. The area to be covered includes the Galactic plane (|b| < 10°) at all declinations south of δ = +40°, spanning longitudes 167° through 360°to 79° at b = 0°, plus the entire area of the Magellanic Stream and Clouds, a total of 13 020 deg2. The brightness temperature sensitivity will be very good, typically σT≃ 1 K at resolution 30 arcsec and 1 km s−1. The survey has a wide spectrum of scientific goals, from studies of galaxy evolution to star formation, with particular contributions to understanding stellar wind kinematics, the thermal phases of the interstellar medium, the interaction between gas in the disk and halo, and the dynamical and thermal states of gas at various positions along the Magellanic Stream.
We present a study of the Milky Way halo magnetic field, determined from observations of Faraday rotation measure (RM) of extragalactic radio sources (EGS) in Galactic longitude range 100°–117° within 30° of the Galactic plane. We find negative median RMs in both the northern and southern Galactic hemispheres for |b|>15°, outside the latitude range where the disk field dominates. This suggest that the halo magnetic field towards the outer Galaxy does not reverse direction across the mid-plane. An azimuthal magnetic field at heights 0.8−2 kpc above/below the Galactic plane between the local and the Perseus spiral arm can reproduce the observed trend of RM against Galactic latitude. We propose that the Milky Way could have a halo magnetic field similar to that observed in M51.
The role of large-scale stellar feedback in the formation of molecular clouds has been investigated observationally by examining the relationship between Hi and 12CO(J = 1−0) in supershells. Detailed parsec-resolution case studies of two Milky Way supershells demonstrate an enhanced level of molecularisation over both objects, and hence provide the first quantitative observational evidence of increased molecular cloud production in volumes of space affected by supershell activity. Recent results on supergiant shells in the LMC suggest that while they do indeed help to organise the ISM into over-dense structures, their global contribution to molecular cloud formation is of the order of only ∼ 10%.
In the mammary gland, Wnt signals are strongly implicated in initial development of the mammary rudiments and in the ductal branching and alveolar morphogenesis that occurs during pregnancy. Previously, we identified two Wnt signaling pathway-implicated genes, PPP3CA and MARK4, as having a role in more aggressive and potentially metastatic breast tumors. In this study, we examined two SNPs within PPP3CA and MARK4 in an Australian case-control study population for a potential role in human breast cancers. 182 cases and 180 controls were successfully genotyped for the PPP3CA SNP (rs2850328) and 182 cases and 177 controls were successfully genotyped for the MARK4 SNP (rs2395) using High Resolution Melt (HRM) analysis. Genotypes of randomly selected samples for both SNPs were validated by dye terminator sequencing. Chi-square tests were performed to determine any significant differences in the genotype and allele frequencies between the cases and controls. Chi-square analysis showed no statistically significant difference (ρ > .05) for genotype frequencies between cases and controls for rs2850328 (χ2 = 1.2, p = .5476) or rs2395 (χ2 = .3, p = .8608). Similarly, no statistical difference was observed for allele frequencies for rs2850328 (χ2 = .68, p = .4108) or rs2395 (χ2 = .02, p = .893). Even though an association of the polymorphisms rs2850328 and rs2395 and breast cancer was not detected in our case-control study population, other variants within the PPP3CA and MARK4 genes may still be associated with breast cancer, as both genes are implicated with processes involved in the disease as well as their mutual partaking in the Wnt signaling pathway.
The methanol multi-beam (MMB) survey has produced the largest and most complete catalogue of Galactic 6.7-GHz methanol masers to date. 6.7-GHz methanol masers are exclusively associated with high-mass star formation, and as such provide invaluable insight into the Galactic distribution and properties of high-mass star formation regions. I present the statistical properties of the MMB catalogue and, through the calculation of kinematic distances, investigate the resolution of distance ambiguities and explore the Galactic distribution.