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We have performed direct numerical simulation of the turbulent flow of a polymer solution in a square duct, with the FENE-P model used to simulate the presence of polymers. First, a simulation at a fixed moderate Reynolds number is performed and its results compared with those of a Newtonian fluid to understand the mechanism of drag reduction and how the secondary motion, typical of the turbulent flow in non-axisymmetric ducts, is affected by polymer additives. Our study shows that the Prandtl’s secondary flow is modified by the polymers: the circulation of the streamwise main vortices increases and the location of the maximum vorticity moves towards the centre of the duct. In-plane fluctuations are reduced while the streamwise ones are enhanced in the centre of the duct and dumped in the corners due to a substantial modification of the quasi-streamwise vortices and the associated near-wall low- and high-speed streaks; these grow in size and depart from the walls, their streamwise coherence increasing. Finally, we investigated the effect of the parameters defining the viscoelastic behaviour of the flow and found that the Weissenberg number strongly influences the flow, with the cross-stream vortical structures growing in size and the in-plane velocity fluctuations reducing for increasing flow elasticity.
Structural data for weishanite, an alloy of Au, Ag and Hg, were collected for the first time from a crystal from the Keystone Mine, Colorado, USA. The structure was solved in the space group P63/mmc with the unit cell a = 2.9348(8) and c = 4.8215(18) Å] and refined to R = 0.0299 for 40 observed reflections [4σ(F) level] and four parameters and to R = 0.0356 for all 47 independent reflections. The weishanite structure can be considered a derivative of the zinc structure, with Au, Ag and Hg disordered in the same structural position. On this basis, we suggest that the formula is normalized to 1 atom with Z = 2, leading, for the sample investigated, to Au0.41Ag0.31Hg0.28 (electron microprobe data). Accordingly, weishanite can be considered the Au-rich isotype of schachnerite. A comparison with other Au/Ag-Hg alloys is presented together with a critical discussion about the nomenclature rules to be applied to alloys and simple metals.
A large outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease occurred at a California state prison in August 2015. We conducted environmental and epidemiological investigations to identify the most likely source of exposure and characterise morbidity. Sixty-four inmates had probable Legionnaires’ disease; 14 had laboratory-confirmed legionellosis. Thirteen (17%) inmates were hospitalised; there were no deaths. Ill inmates were more likely to be ⩾65 years old (P < 0.01), have the chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0.01), diabetes mellitus (P = 0.02), hepatitis C infection (P < 0.01), or end-stage liver disease (P < 0.01). The case-patients were in ten housing units throughout the prison grounds. All either resided in or were near the central clinical building (for appointments or yard time) during their incubation periods. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 was cultured from three cooling towers on top of the central medical clinic (range, 880–1200 cfu/ml). An inadequate water management program, dense biofilm within the cooling towers, and high ambient temperatures preceding the outbreak created an ideal environment for Legionella sp. proliferation. All state prisons were directed to develop local operating procedures for maintaining their cooling towers and the state health department added a review of the maintenance plans to their environmental inspection protocol.
We present early results from the analysis of HST imaging observations for several pairs of interacting galaxies. We include two cases that were specifically chosen to represent a strong early (young) encounter and a weak late (old) encounter. The goals of the project include a determination of the timing, frequency, strength, and characteristics of the young star clusters formed in these two limiting cases of tidal encounters.
Community-based rehabilitation is the strategy endorsed by the World Health Organization and other international bodies to promote the inclusion of people with disabilities, particularly in low- and middle-income countries. In this article we trace the journey of Edawu, a mental health rehabilitation unit in a rural area of Benue State, Nigeria, from an in-patient rehabilitation unit to a community-focused service. The partnership of organisations from the UK with Edawu along the journey is also described. The authors set out learning points from the project and the principles behind sustainable overseas organisational partnerships.
Bovine embryos produced in vivo and in vitro differ with respect to molecular profiles, including epigenetic marks and gene expression profiles. This study investigated the CpG methylation status in bovine testis satellite I (BTS) and Bos taurus alpha satellite I (BTαS) DNA sequences, and concomitantly the relative abundance of transcripts, critically involved in DNA methylation (DNMT1 and DNMT3A), growth and development (IGF2R) and pluripotency (POU5F1) in Bos indicus embryos produced in vitro or in vivo. Results revealed that methylation of BTS were higher (P < 0.05) in embryos produced in vitro compared with their in vivo produced counterparts, while the methylation status of BTαS was similar in both groups. There were no significant differences in transcript abundance for DNMT3A, IGF2R and POU5F1 between blastocysts produced in vivo and in vitro. However, a significantly lower amount of DNMT1 transcripts was found in the in vitro cultured embryos (P < 0.05) compared with their in vivo derived counterparts. In conclusion, this study reported only minor changes in the expression of developmentally important genes and satellite DNA methylation related to the in vitro embryo production system.
Ant gardens (AGs) are specialized ant-plant associations where arboreal ants build their carton nests in association with epiphytes that use the carton as a substrate. Most of the epiphytes are planted by ants; therefore, seed selection by ants is a key driver of the epiphyte composition of AGs. However, deterministic post-dispersal factors, such as the surrounding environmental conditions and plant succession, may also influence epiphyte composition. Here we ask whether epiphyte composition on a local scale is associated with dispersal constraints, local environmental conditions (light availability, number of branches and nest height) or AG successional stage. We sampled all epiphyte species in 18 AGs formed by Camponotus femoratus and Crematogaster levior in Central Amazon, Brazil. AGs were located within a range of 1 km and at a maximum of 20 m from the edges of a dirt road within a primary forest. Epiphytic composition showed strong spatial structure, decreasing in similarity with increasing distance. Environmental conditions and AG successional stage were not related to AG floristic composition, suggesting a key role of stochastic processes related to seed dispersal. A combination of seed abundance and attractiveness in neighbouring AGs seems to drive the higher similarity in epiphyte composition among closer AGs.
We have been conducting multi-color observations of a sample of classical ring galaxies with the aim of using them to study the formation and evolution of massive stars. We compare theoretical predictions for the expected color of the material inside the rings assuming that massive stars are created in the wake of the expanding wave. We present ground based data for VIIZw466 and HST data for IIZw28 and the Cartwheel which show strong color gradients.
I present a unique data set for the study of molecular gas in galaxies: a complete, high-resolution survey of the CO in M 31 and additional local studies. The fully sampled survey has an angular resolution of 23 FWHM and the interferometric data attain the pc-scale with sub-arcsecond resolution. For the first time it is now possible to study large and small scales in conjunction. Thus we are able to derive the global structure and study the links down to the individual cloud complexes and star formation regions.
Supervision is a widely recognised component of counsellor training, yet little is known about the clinical supervision training of rehabilitation counsellor educators during their doctoral education. Using syllabi from doctoral rehabilitation counselling programmes, this article discusses the state of clinical supervision in doctoral-level training, and its teaching and clinical implications. 16 of the 25 Ph.D. programmes in rehabilitation responded to contact, and 11 programmes reported offering a course in supervision. Eight of these programmes shared the syllabus for their doctoral-level supervision course(s). The syllabi were analysed to find common themes related to content, learning objectives, assignments and readings. These themes are discussed, and are followed by five recommendations on the manner in which clinical supervision should be provided in rehabilitation doctoral programmes.
A 240-GHz monostatic circular polarized SiGe frequency-modulated continuous wave radar system based on a transceiver chip with a single on-chip antenna is presented. The radar transceiver front-end is implemented in a low-cost 0.13 µm SiGe HBT technology version with cut-off frequencies fT/fmax of 300/450 GHz. The transmit block comprises a wideband ×16 frequency multiplier chain, a three-stage PA, while the receive block consists of a low-noise amplifier, a fundamental quadrature down-conversion mixer, and a three-stage PA to drive the mixer. A differential branch-line coupler and a differential dual-polarized on-chip antenna are added on-chip to realize a fully integrated radar transceiver. All building blocks are implemented fully differential. The use of a single antenna in the circular polarized radar transceiver leads to compact size and high sensitivity. The measured peak-radiated power from the Si-lens equipped radar module is +11 dBm (equivalent isotropically radiated power) at 246 GHz and noise figure is 21 dB. The characterization bandwidth of the radar transceiver is 60 GHz around the center frequency of 240 GHz, and the simulated Tx-to-Rx leakage is below −20 dB from 230 to 260 GHz. After system calibration the resolution of the system to distinguish between two targets at different distance of 3.65 mm is achieved, which is only 21% above the theoretical limit.
In this paper, the design and test of a single-chip RF pulse-width modulator and driver (PWMD) aimed at exciting a high-power class-E GaN high-power stage at 435 MHz is described. For the required buffer size, avoiding potential ringing of the pulses within the buffer structure presents a major challenge in the design process. Therefore, a smaller test chip capable of driving capacitive loads of up to 5 pF was initially designed, fabricated, and tested. An approach based on three-dimensional electromagnetic simulations was used to validate the test results and offers excellent simulation accuracy. Based on the results obtained for test chip an enlarged PWMD chip capable of driving a 40 W high-power stage has been designed and tested on passive loads representing the targeted final stage.
Morphological and molecular analyses of a stem nematode causing a severe disease on infected sowthistle (Sonchus bulbosus) plants, involving the formation of gall-like structures on infected leaves and stems, have led to the description of a new species named Ditylenchus oncogenus n. sp. Morphologically, the new species is characterized by a medium to large body size (all adults more than 1 mm in length); a delicate stylet (9.0–11.0 μm long) with minute, rounded knobs; a long post-vulval uterine sac (c. 65% of the vulva–anus distance); six incisures at the lateral fields and characteristic D. destructor-pattern of spicules (with pronounced ventral tumulus and anteriorly pointed, less sclerotized, cuticle parts present within the lamina). The results of molecular analysis of rRNA gene sequences, including the D2–D3 expansion regions of 28S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA, partial 18S rRNA gene, the protein-coding mitochondrial gene, cytochrome oxidase c subunit I (COI), and the heat-shock protein 90 (hsp90) gene, support the new species status. The results of a host-suitability test indicated that the new species does not parasitize potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and broad bean (Vicia faba) seedlings. Histopathological observations on naturally infected sowthistle tissues revealed that D. oncogenus n. sp. causes floral stem neoplasia and midrib leaf gall formation on the type, and to date only known, host. The galls were characterized by extensive hyperplasia, where several necrotic cells in the neoplasic area were directly damaged by feeding of the nematode, whereas a number of adjacent cells showed typical cytological changes, such as granulated cytoplasm with hypertrophied nuclei and nucleoli.
It is unclear whether there is a direct link between economic crises and changes in suicide rates.
The Lopez-Ibor Foundation launched an initiative to study the possible impact of the economic crisis on European suicide rates.
Data was gathered and analysed from 29 European countries and included the number of deaths by suicide in men and women, the unemployment rate, the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, the annual economic growth rate and inflation.
There was a strong correlation between suicide rates and all economic indices except GPD per capita in men but only a correlation with unemployment in women. However, the increase in suicide rates occurred several months before the economic crisis emerged.
Overall, this study confirms a general relationship between the economic environment and suicide rates; however, it does not support there being a clear causal relationship between the current economic crisis and an increase in the suicide rate.
There are several ways planets can survive the giant phase of the host star, hence one can consider the case of Earth-like planets orbiting white dwarfs. As a white dwarf cools from 6000 K to 4000 K, a planet orbiting at 0.01 AU from the star would remain in the continuous habitable zone (CHZ) for about 8 Gyr. Polarisation due to a terrestrial planet in the CHZ of a cool white dwarf (CWD) is 102 (104) times larger than it would be in the habitable zone of a typical M-dwarf (Sun-like star). Polarimetry is thus a powerful tool to detect close-in planets around white dwarfs. Multi-band polarimetry would also allow one to reveal the presence of a planet atmosphere, even providing a first characterisation. With current facilities a super-Earth-sized atmosphereless planet is detectable with polarimetry around the brightest known CWD. Planned future facilities render smaller planets detectable, in particular by increasing the instrumental sensitivity in the blue. Preliminary habitability study show also that photosynthetic processes can be sustained on Earth-like planets orbiting CWDs and that the DNA-weighted UV radiation dose for an Earth-like planet in the CHZ is less than the maxima encountered on Earth, hence white dwarfs are compatible with the persistence of complex life from the perspective of UV irradiation.
The recent development of in-situ liquid stages for (scanning) transmission electron microscopes now makes it possible for us to study the details of electrochemical processes under operando conditions. As electrochemical processes are complex, care must be taken to calibrate the system before any in-situ/operando observations. In addition, as the electron beam can cause effects that look similar to electrochemical processes at the electrolyte/electrode interface, an understanding of the role of the electron beam in modifying the operando observations must also be understood. In this paper we describe the design, assembly, and operation of an in-situ electrochemical cell, paying particular attention to the method for controlling and quantifying the experimental parameters. The use of this system is then demonstrated for the lithiation/delithiation of silicon nanowires.
We investigated a mixed outbreak of Legionnaires' disease (LD) and Pontiac fever (PF) at a military base to identify the outbreak's environmental source as well as known legionellosis risk factors. Base workers with possible legionellosis were interviewed and, if consenting, underwent testing for legionellosis. A retrospective cohort study collected information on occupants of the buildings closest to the outbreak source. We identified 29 confirmed and probable LD and 38 PF cases. All cases were exposed to airborne pathogens from a cooling tower. Occupants of the building closest to the cooling tower were 6·9 [95% confidence interval (CI) 2·2–22·0] and 5·5 (95% CI 2·1–14·5) times more likely to develop LD and PF, respectively, than occupants of the next closest building. Thorough preventive measures and aggressive responses to outbreaks, including searching for PF cases in mixed legionellosis outbreaks, are essential for legionellosis control.
The Vista Variables in the Vía Láctea (VVV) ESO Public Survey is an ongoing time-series, near-infrared (IR) survey of the Galactic bulge and an adjacent portion of the inner disk, covering 562 square degrees of the sky, using ESO's VISTA telescope. The survey has provided superb multi-color photometry in 5 broadband filters (Z, Y, J, H, and Ks), leading to the best map of the inner Milky Way ever obtained, particularly in the near-IR. The main part of the survey, which is focused on the variability in the Ks-band, is currently underway, with bulge fields observed between 34 and 73 times, and disk fields between 34 and 36 times. When the survey is complete, bulge (disk) fields will have been observed up to a total of 100 (60) times, providing unprecedented depth and time coverage in the near-IR. Here we provide a first overview of stellar variability in the VVV data.