To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Clay mineral ‘Crystallinity Index Standards’ (CIS) composed of Palaeozoic mudrocks from southwest England were investigated systematically in five sub-fractions per sample for the first time. X-ray diffraction was used to determine mineral assemblages, calibrated 001 illite full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) values and illite polytype compositions, in addition to K–Ar isotopic analyses of all fine fractions. The FWHM results of the <2 µm fraction are consistent with previous studies and reflect the range of diagenetic to epizonal grades covered by the sample set SW1 to SW7 (~0.61–0.26°2θ). Diagenetic and lower anchizone samples also show significant broadening of 001 illite reflections in the finer fractions and contain mixtures of authigenic 1M + 1Md illite and detrital 2M1 white mica polytypes suitable for illite age analysis. The estimated end-member ages of the Bude (SW1-1992) and younger Crackington (SW3-2000) mudstones yield detrital ages of Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician (493–457 Ma) and a broad range of 1M + 1Md illite ages between Middle Permian and Early Jurassic (271–190 Ma). The detrital age of the stratigraphically older Crackington Formation mudrock (SW2-1992) is Late Devonian (384–364 Ma) with 1M + 1Md illite ages between Late Triassic and Early Jurassic (219–176 Ma). The origin of Mesozoic 1M + 1Md illite ages may represent neocrystallized illite associated with Mesozoic hydrothermal events or similar events that thermally reset older authigenic illite with partial loss of radiogenic argon and no renewed crystal growth. In contrast, upper anchizonal and epizonal Devonian slates (SW3-2012, SW4-1992, SW6-1992 and SW7-2012) contain only the 2M1 polytype, with K–Ar ages younger than the stratigraphic age. The three finest fractions of SW4-1992 yield consistent Late Carboniferous ages (331–304 ± 7 Ma) that are considered to date the neocrystallized 2M1 mica. Most fractions of epizonal slate (SW6-1992, SW7-2012) yield Early Permian ages (293.6–273 Ma) corresponding to published cooling ages of the Tintagel High-Strain Zone and the intrusion of the Bodmin granite (291.4 ± 0.8 Ma). These first K–Ar age constraints for the fine fractions of the CIS should provide useful reference values for testing analytical procedures of illite age analysis.
A new set of clay mineral ‘Crystallinity’ Index Standards (CIS) is available for improved calibration of the half-peak-width values of the X-ray diffraction 001 illite reflection (the Kübler index) and the 002 chlorite reflection (the Árkai index), two widely used indices for determining the state of prograde diagenesis and low-temperature metamorphism. Calibration using mudrock standards removes the numerical differences between laboratories caused by variations in sample preparation, machine settings and measurement methods, thus avoiding erroneous grade determinations. The number of standards available has been increased to nine. These can be used to obtain Kübler index values for each CIS sample and Árkai index values for upper anchizonal and epizonal samples. The diagenetic and lower anchizonal mudrocks are not suitable for Árkai index measurements due to the absence of chlorite or overlap by the 001 kaolinite reflection. Applying the new Kübler-equivalent upper and lower boundary limits of the anchizone placed at 0.32°2θ and 0.52°2θ, respectively (Warr & Ferreiro Mählmann, 2015), the nine standards from the Palaeozoic mudrocks of southwest England now comprise two diagenetic, two lower anchizonal, three upper anchizonal and two epizonal grade samples. These range from weakly cleaved mudstones to strongly foliated slates.
To identify predominant dietary patterns in four African populations and examine their association with obesity.
We used data from the Africa/Harvard School of Public Health Partnership for Cohort Research and Training (PaCT) pilot study established to investigate the feasibility of a multi-country longitudinal study of non-communicable chronic disease in sub-Saharan Africa. We applied principal component analysis to dietary intake data collected from an FFQ developed for PaCT to ascertain dietary patterns in Tanzania, South Africa, and peri-urban and rural Uganda. The sample consisted of 444 women and 294 men.
We identified two dietary patterns: the Mixed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of unprocessed foods such as vegetables and fresh fish, but also cold cuts and refined grains; and the Processed Diet pattern characterized by high intakes of salad dressing, cold cuts and sweets. Women in the highest tertile of the Processed Diet pattern score were 3·00 times more likely to be overweight (95 % CI 1·66, 5·45; prevalence=74 %) and 4·24 times more likely to be obese (95 % CI 2·23, 8·05; prevalence=44 %) than women in this pattern’s lowest tertile (both P<0·0001; prevalence=47 and 14 %, respectively). We found similarly strong associations in men. There was no association between the Mixed Diet pattern and overweight or obesity.
We identified two major dietary patterns in several African populations, a Mixed Diet pattern and a Processed Diet pattern. The Processed Diet pattern was associated with obesity.
We assessed various locations and frequency of environmental sampling to maximize information and maintain efficiency when sampling for Acinetobacter baumannii. Although sampling sites in closer proximity to the patient were more likely positive, to fully capture environmental contamination, we found value in sampling all sites and across multiple days.
Dietary indices have been related to risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D) predominantly in white populations. The present study evaluated this association in the ethnically diverse Multiethnic Cohort and examined four diet quality indices in relation to T2D risk, homoeostatic model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and biomarkers of dyslipidaemia, inflammation and adipokines. The T2D analysis included 166 550 white, African American, Native Hawaiian, Japanese American and Latino participants (9200 incident T2D cases). Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using a quantitative FFQ and T2D status was based on three self-reports and confirmed by administrative data. Biomarkers were assessed about 10 years later in a biomarker subcohort (n 10 060). Sex- and ethnicity-specific hazard ratios were calculated for the Healthy Eating Index-2010 (HEI-2010), the alternative HEI-2010 (AHEI-2010), the alternate Mediterranean diet score (aMED) and the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH). Multivariable-adjusted means of biomarkers were compared across dietary index tertiles in the biomarker subcohort. The AHEI-2010, aMED (in men only) and DASH scores were related to a 10–20 % lower T2D risk, with the strongest associations in whites and the direction of the relationships mostly consistent across ethnic groups. Higher scores on the four indices were related to lower HOMA-IR, TAG and C-reactive protein concentrations, not related to leptin, and the DASH score was directly associated with adiponectin. The AHEI-2010 and DASH were directly related to HDL-cholesterol in women. Potential underlying biological mechanisms linking diet quality and T2D risk are an improved lipid profile and reduced systemic inflammation and, with regards to DASH alone, an improved adiponectin profile.
Airborne and spaceborne altimeters provide measurements of sea-ice elevation, from which sea-ice freeboard and thickness may be derived. Observations of the Arctic ice pack by satellite altimeters indicate a significant decline in ice thickness, and volume, over the last decade. NASA’s Ice, Cloud and land Elevation Satellite-2 (ICESat-2) is a next-generation laser altimeter designed to continue key sea-ice observations through the end of this decade. An airborne simulator for ICESat-2, the Multiple Altimeter Beam Experimental Lidar (MABEL), has been deployed to gather pre-launch data for mission development. We present an analysis of MABEL data gathered over sea ice in the Greenland Sea and assess the capabilities of photon-counting techniques for sea-ice freeboard retrieval. We compare freeboard estimates in the marginal ice zone derived from MABEL photon-counting data with coincident data collected by a conventional airborne laser altimeter. We find that freeboard estimates agree to within 0.03 m in the areas where sea-ice floes were interspersed with wide leads, and to within 0.07 m elsewhere. MABEL data may also be used to infer sea-ice thickness, and when compared with coincident but independent ice thickness estimates, MABEL ice thicknesses agreed to within 0.65 m or better.
There is a need for clinical tools to identify cultural issues in diagnostic assessment.
To assess the feasibility, acceptability and clinical utility of the DSM-5 Cultural Formulation Interview (CFI) in routine clinical practice.
Mixed-methods evaluation of field trial data from six countries. The CFI was administered to diagnostically diverse psychiatric out-patients during a diagnostic interview. In post-evaluation sessions, patients and clinicians completed debriefing qualitative interviews and Likert-scale questionnaires. The duration of CFI administration and the full diagnostic session were monitored.
Mixed-methods data from 318 patients and 75 clinicians found the CFI feasible, acceptable and useful. Clinician feasibility ratings were significantly lower than patient ratings and other clinician-assessed outcomes. After administering one CFI, however, clinician feasibility ratings improved significantly and subsequent interviews required less time.
The CFI was included in DSM-5 as a feasible, acceptable and useful cultural assessment tool.
The alternate Mediterranean diet (aMED) score is an adaptation of the original Mediterranean diet score. Raw (aMED) and energy-standardised (aMED-e) versions have been used. How the diet scores and their association with health outcomes differ between the two versions is unclear. We examined differences in participants’ total and component scores and compared the association of aMED and aMED-e with all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. As part of the Multiethnic Cohort, 193 527 men and women aged 45–75 years from Hawaii and Los Angeles completed a baseline FFQ and were followed up for 13–18 years. The association of aMED and aMED-e with mortality was examined using Cox’s regression, with adjustment for total energy intake. The correlation between aMED and aMED-e total scores was lower among people with higher BMI. Participants who were older, leaner, more educated and consumed less energy scored higher on aMED-e components compared with aMED, except for the red and processed meat and alcohol components. Men reporting more physical activity scored lower on most aMED-e components compared with aMED, whereas the opposite was observed for the meat component. Higher scores of both aMED and aMED-e were associated with lower risk of all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality. Although individuals may score differently with aMED and aMED-e, both scores show similar reductions in mortality risk for persons scoring high on the index scale. Either version can be used in studies of diet and mortality. Comparisons can be performed across studies using different versions of the score.
The rectorite, a regular mixed layer mineral consisting of dioctahedral swelling and non-swelling 2:1 layers, from North Little Rock, Arkansas, was studied to define the crystal chemistry and structural parameters (e.g. layer charge of the different layers, presence of cis/trans-vacancies). X-ray diffraction, simultaneous thermal analysis coupled with mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence and cation exchange capacity are used to characterize this rectorite. The rectorite has a coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.19 and a cation exchange capacity of 60 cmol(+)/kg, as determined by the ammonium acetate method. The mineral is best described as a regular interstratification of brammallite-like and highcharged beidellite-like layers. Dehydration occurs at ≈118°C with a mass loss of 6.77% and dehydroxylation occurs in two steps at 470°C and 588°C with an overall mass loss of 4.67%. Peak decomposition of the mass spectrometer curve of evolved water shows ≈20% peak area with a maximum higher than 600°C, indicating ≈20% cis-vacant layers.
The degree of development and operability of the indicators for the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) using Descriptor 1 (D1) Biological Diversity was assessed. To this end, an overview of the relevance and degree of operability of the underlying parameters across 20 European countries was compiled by analysing national directives, legislation, regulations, and publicly available reports. Marked differences were found between countries in the degree of ecological relevance as well as in the degree of implementation and operability of the parameters chosen to indicate biological diversity. The best scoring EU countries were France, Germany, Greece and Spain, while the worst scoring countries were Italy and Slovenia. No country achieved maximum scores for the implementation of MSFD D1. The non-EU countries Norway and Turkey score as highly as the top-scoring EU countries. On the positive side, the chosen parameters for D1 indicators were generally identified as being an ecologically relevant reflection of Biological Diversity. On the negative side however, less than half of the chosen parameters are currently operational. It appears that at a pan-European level, no consistent and harmonized approach currently exists for the description and assessment of marine biological diversity. The implementation of the MSFD Descriptor 1 for Europe as a whole can therefore at best be marked as moderately successful.
The role of magnetic fields in late type stars, such as Asymptotic Giant Branch stars (AGBs), Post-AGBs and Planetary Nebulae (PNe), is poorly known from an observational point of view. Magnetic fields are however believed to have a non-negligible influence on the dynamics (via mass loss control, outflows shaping) and even on the chemistry (e.g. extra mixing) of these stellar objects. We are therefore presenting two different types of investigation, both based on the use of polarimetry, which aim at filling the gap between the observations on the one hand and the theoretical predictions on the other hand.
Given the high intake levels of soya and low incidence rates of breast cancer in Asian countries, isoflavones, substances with an oestrogen-like structure occurring principally in soyabeans, are postulated to be cancer protective. In the present study, we examined the association of dietary isoflavone intake with breast cancer risk in 84 450 women (896 in situ and 3873 invasive cases) who were part of the Multiethnic Cohort (Japanese Americans, whites, Latinos, African Americans and Native Hawaiians) with a wide range of soya intake levels. The absolute levels of dietary isoflavone intake estimated from a baseline FFQ were categorised into quartiles, with the highest quartile being further subdivided to assess high dietary intake. The respective intake values for the quartiles (Q1, Q2, Q3, and lower and upper Q4) were 0– < 3·2, 3·2– < 6·7, 6·7– < 12·9, 12·9– < 20·3, and 20·3–178·7 mg/d. After a mean follow-up period of 13 years, hazard ratios (HR) and 95 % CI were calculated using Cox regression models stratified by age and adjusted for known confounders. Linear trends were tested by modelling continuous variables of interest assigned the median value within the corresponding quartile. No statistically significant association was observed between dietary isoflavone intake and overall breast cancer risk (HR for upper Q4 v. Q1: 0·96 (95 % CI 0·85, 1·08); P trend = 0·40). While the test for interaction was not significant (P= 0·14), stratified analyses suggested possible ethnic/racial differences in risk estimates, indicating that higher isoflavone intakes may be protective in Latina, African American and Japanese American women. These results are in agreement with those of previous meta-analyses showing no protection of isoflavones at low intake levels, but suggesting inverse associations in populations consuming high amounts of soya.
Thanks to an original approach based on the carburization of silicon nanowires, silicon carbide-based one dimensional nanostructures – SiC nanotubes, Si-SiC core-shell nanowires and SiC nanowires – have been synthesized. The original process, which relies on controlling the out-diffusion of Si atoms through SiC, can be monitored by the temperature, the pressure and the time of carburization. These SiC-based 1D nanostructures have been characterized by SEM, FIB-SEM and TEM microscopies and also Raman spectroscopy. Bio-nano-sensors, nano-Field-Effect-Transistors (nano-FETs) or gas sensors may be some applications for these nanostructures.
In this study, we present the first agent-based simulation of vowel chain shifts across large communities, providing a parsimonious reinterpretation of Labov's (2007) notions of transmission, diffusion, and incrementation. Labov determined that parent-to-child transmission faithfully reproduces structural patterns such as the Northern Cities Shift (NCS), but adult-to-adult diffusion does not. NCS is transmitted faithfully to new generations of U.S. Inland North children. But St. Louis speakers, depending only on adult-adult contact, only attain an incomplete, unsystematic version. Labov (2007) attributed the difference to children's superior language-learning ability; transmission and diffusion are categorically different processes in that approach. By contrast, our multiagent simulation suggests that such transmission/diffusion effects can be derived by simple density of interactions and simple exemplar learning; we also find that incrementation is a natural outcome of this model. Unlike Labov (2007), this model does not require a dichotomy between transmission and diffusion. While dichotomous assumptions about child versus adult learning may be necessary in other contexts, our results suggest that the NCS effects in Labov (2007) may be explained economically in terms of simple density of interactions between speakers. Our results also provide an agent-based perspective supporting and explicating the notion of speech community.