To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Biological entities are capable of amazing material feats, such as self-organization, self-repair, self-replication, and self-immolation. Indeed, the most intriguing feature of living biomaterials, whether they are tissues, cells, or intracellular structures, is their ability to autonomously sense, decide, and perform work without the need of a project manager. The effect is multiscale—from enzymes to full organisms, each level is capable of such autonomous activities. Further, each scale has similar energy-using units that work together to compose the larger-scale material. For instance, autonomous cells work together to create tissues. In this article, we will discuss some of the outstanding and desirable properties of active biological materials that we might consider mimicking in future materials. We will discuss how such active materials are powered and explore some fundamental lessons we can learn to direct future fundamental scientific inquiries to begin to understand and use these properties to make synthetic, autonomous materials of the future.
The aim of this study was to examine the population structure, transmission and spatial relationship between genotypes of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and Campylobacter jejuni, on 20 dairy farms in a defined catchment. Pooled faecal samples (n = 72) obtained from 288 calves were analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (rtPCR) for E. coli serotypes O26, O103, O111, O145 and O157. The number of samples positive for E. coli O26 (30/72) was high compared to E. coli O103 (7/72), O145 (3/72), O157 (2/72) and O111 (0/72). Eighteen E. coli O26 and 53 C. jejuni isolates were recovered from samples by bacterial culture. E. coli O26 and C. jejuni isolates were genotyped using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and multilocus sequence typing, respectively. All E. coli O26 isolates could be divided into four clusters and the results indicated that E. coli O26 isolates recovered from calves on the same farm were more similar than isolates recovered from different farms in the catchment. There were 11 different sequence types of C. jejuni isolated from the cattle and 22 from water. An analysis of the population structure of C. jejuni isolated from cattle provided evidence of clustering of genotypes within farms, and among groups of farms separated by road boundaries.
The evaluation of the redox conditions in the Swedish ILW-LLW repository, SFR-1, is of high relevance in the performance assessment. The SFR-1 repository contains heterogeneous types of wastes, of different activity levels and with different materials in the waste and in the matrices and packaging. Steel and concrete-based materials are ubiquitous in the repository. The assessment presented in this work is based on the evaluation of the redox conditions and of the reducing capacity in 15 individual and representative waste package types in SFR-1. A combination of the individual models is used to determine the redox evolution of the different vaults in the repository. The results of the model indicate that in the initial time after repository closure, O2 is consumed through degradation of organic matter and metal corrosion during the initial time after repository closure. Afterwards, the system is kept under reducing conditions for long time periods, and H2(g) is generated due to the anoxic corrosion of steel forming magnetite as main corrosion product. The time at which steel is depleted varies with the amount and characteristics of steel and ranges from 5,000 to over 60,000 years. After complete steel corrosion, the reducing capacity of the system is mainly given by magnetite. The calculated redox potential under the chemical conditions imposed by the massive amounts of cements in the repository is in the order of -0.75 V (at pH 12.5). In case of assuming that the Eh of the system is controlled by the interaction between Fe(III)/Magnetite as a result of groundwater/magnetite interactions, redox potentials in the range -0.7 to -0.01V are calculated, considering the uncertainty in the pH prevalent in the system If the absence of oxic disturbances the Eh of the repository system would be kept reducing. In the event of oxidising and diluted glacial meltwater intrusion, magnetite would gradually convert into Fe(III) oxides, buffering the redox potential of the system and preventing it from oxidation for long time periods.
In this study, we employed Multiple Internal Reflection Infrared Spectroscopy (MIR-IR) to characterize chemical bonding structures of boron doped hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H(B)). This technique has been shown to provide over a hundred fold increase of detection sensitivity when compared with conventional FTIR. Our MIR-IR analyses reveal an interesting counter-balance relationship between boron-doping and hydrogen-dilution growth parameters in PECVD-grown a-Si:H. Specifically, an increase in the hydrogen dilution ratio (H2/SiH4) was found to cause the increase in the Si-H bonding and a decrease in the B-H and SiH2 bonding, as evidenced by the changes in corresponding IR absorption peaks. In addition, although a higher boron dopant gas concentration was seen to increase the BH and SiH2 bonding, it also resulted in the decrease of the most stable SiH bonding configuration. The new chemical bonding information of a-Si:H thin film was correlated with the various boron doping mechanisms proposed by theoretical calculations.
The cognitive profile of early onset Parkinson’s disease (EOPD) has not been clearly defined. Mutations in the parkin gene are the most common genetic risk factor for EOPD and may offer information about the neuropsychological pattern of performance in both symptomatic and asymptomatic mutation carriers. EOPD probands and their first-degree relatives who did not have Parkinson’s disease (PD) were genotyped for mutations in the parkin gene and administered a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. Performance was compared between EOPD probands with (N = 43) and without (N = 52) parkin mutations. The same neuropsychological battery was administered to 217 first-degree relatives to assess neuropsychological function in individuals who carry parkin mutations but do not have PD. No significant differences in neuropsychological test performance were found between parkin carrier and noncarrier probands. Performance also did not differ between EOPD noncarriers and carrier subgroups (i.e., heterozygotes, compound heterozygotes/homozygotes). Similarly, no differences were found among unaffected family members across genotypes. Mean neuropsychological test performance was within normal range in all probands and relatives. Carriers of parkin mutations, whether or not they have PD, do not perform differently on neuropsychological measures as compared to noncarriers. The cognitive functioning of parkin carriers over time warrants further study. (JINS, 2011, 17, 1–10)
We use data from large surveys of the local universe (SDSS+Galaxy Zoo) to show that the galaxy–black hole connection is linked to host morphology at a fundamental level. The fraction of early-type galaxies with actively growing black holes, and therefore the AGN duty cycle, declines significantly with increasing black hole mass. Late-type galaxies exhibit the opposite trend: the fraction of actively growing black holes increases with black hole mass.
Fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-2 (basic) is a potent angiogenic molecule involved in tumor progression, and is one of several growth factors with a central role in ovarian carcinogenesis. We hypothesized that common single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the FGF2 gene may alter angiogenic potential and thereby susceptibility to ovarian cancer. We analyzed 25 FGF2 tgSNPs using five independent study populations from the United States and Australia. Analysis was restricted to non-Hispanic White women with serous ovarian carcinoma (1269 cases and 2829 controls). There were no statistically significant associations between any FGF2 SNPs and ovarian cancer risk. There were two nominally statistically significant associations between heterozygosity for two FGF2 SNPs (rs308379 and rs308447; p < .05) and serous ovarian cancer risk in the combined dataset, but rare homozygous estimates did not achieve statistical significance, nor were they consistent with the log additive model of inheritance. Overall genetic variation in FGF2 does not appear to play a role in susceptibility to ovarian cancer.
The structure of prehnite Ca2Al(AlSi3O10)(OH)2, including H positions, has been determined by a combination of single-crystal X-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction on four natural samples. The symmetry of the average structure with Al/Si disordered at the T2 siteis Pncm. However, for four of the crystals studied, numerous violations of the n- and c-glide reflection conditions indicate lower symmetry corresponding to space groups P2cm and P2/n and Al-Si ordered structures, possibly as domains of different symmetries and ordering within a single crystal. Time-of-flight neutron powder diffraction was carried out on a sample from Mali at 293 K and 2 K. The structure was refined in space group Pncm by Rietveld analysis. Although it was not possible to locate the missing H using the 293 K neutron data, these data were used to refine the H position located approximately by single-crystal XRD and to refine Uiso. For the 2 K neutron powder diffraction data, H was located directly by difference-Fourier synthesis and its refined position found to be in close agreement with that obtained by the combined XRD/neutron 293 K dataset.
Catalysis is the essential technology for chemical transformation, including production of fuels from the fossil resources petroleum, natural gas, and coal. Typical catalysts for these conversions are robust porous solids incorporating metals, metal oxides, and/or metal sulfides. As efforts are stepping up to replace fossil fuels with biomass, new catalysts for the conversion of the components of biomass will be needed. Although the catalysts for biomass conversion might be substantially different from those used in the conversion of fossil feedstocks, the latter catalysts are a starting point in today's research. Major challenges lie ahead in the discovery of efficient biomass conversion catalysts, as well as in the discovery of catalysts for conversion of CO2 and possibly water into liquid fuels.
The equations of state of dense hydrous magnesium silicates (DHMS), determined from high-pressure single-crystal X-ray diffraction are reviewed, including hydroxylchondrodite, hydroxylclinohumite, phase A, phase B (anhydrous and hydrous), superhydrous phase B and phase E. The phases along the forsterite–brucite join, Mg2SiO4–Mg(OH)2, display near (increasing) linearity in compressibility with respect to water content and increasing bulk moduli (KT) with density. Such trends allow prediction of the as yet unknown bulk moduli of phases such as OH-Mg norbergite. The addition of water also reduces the bulk modulus of the B-phases and the anisotropy observed in axial compression. The alternating layers of octahedra and octahedra + tetrahedra completely control compression of the B phases, with the stacking direction becoming more compressible with addition of water. The enigmatic Phase E has the highest KT' yet measured for a hydrous silicate and one of the lowest KT. In contrast with other DHMS, Phase E is only slightly anisotropic in axial compression and we attribute this to the role of the intralayer cations in the structure. The degree of hydration and the vacancy concentration appear to be coupled in Phase E.
The octahedral-framework mineral bernalite, Fe(OH)3, provides a rare opportunity to examine directly the effects of a vacant A site upon the physical properties of perovskite-like structures. Here, we report the effect upon compressibility. Bernalite has been reported previously as having space group Immm (Birch et al., 1993), but numerous reflections violating I-centering were observed in the present study. A case is presented for bernalite having orthorhombic space group Pmmn. Lattice parameters were refined using the Le Bail method for a metrically tetragonal cell and their variation with pressure at room temperature was determined from 17 measurements at pressures from 10–4 to 9.3 GPa using synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction. No discontinuities in the compression curves of lattice parameters were observed. Fitting to a second-order Birch-Murnaghan equation-of-state (KT0' = 4) gives V0 = 438.51±0.06 Å3 and KT0 = 78.2±0.4 GPa. Second-order fits of (a/a0)3 and (c/c0)3 give elastic moduli KT0a = 82.0(6) GPa and KT0c = 71.6(4) GPa: the shorter cation–cation distance is the more compressible. These values are very close to those of stottite, FeGe(OH)6, which has tilt system a+a+c–. The difference in the elastic moduli KT0a and KT0c of bernalite and their close similarity to the stottite values support the revised Pmmn structure (tilt system a+b+c–) for bernalite proposed here. The compressional anisotropy observed in bernalite may reflect its highly anisotropic and directional H-bonding topology.