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The study aimed to evaluate the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal brackets and adhesive properties of bonded irradiated and non-irradiated teeth.
Sixty-six extracted premolar samples were randomly divided into three groups—(a) Control group consisting of 22 non-irradiated, non-aged teeth (Group 1), (b) 22 non-irradiated, aged samples (Group 2) and (c) 22 irradiated, aged samples (Group 3). Irradiation was done using gamma irradiation with a fractionated dose of 60 Gy for 5 consecutive days per week over 6 weeks. Metal brackets were bonded on all samples with light cure adhesive and subjected to SBS test using universal testing machine. The samples were assessed under the scanning electron microscope to check for the adhesive remnant index (ARI) and tag depth.
There was a statistically significant decrease in the mean SBS of the irradiated samples compared to the non-irradiated teeth. The non-irradiated, aged samples showed a majority of ARI scoring 1 and 2. Whereas, the irradiated samples showed ARI scoring 2 and 3. Approximately, 77·3% of the non-irradiated samples showed no adhesive present on the tooth surface, and 27·2% of the irradiated samples had more than 50% adhesive present on the enamel surface.
There is a statistically significant decrease in SBS of irradiated enamel compared to that of non-irradiated teeth. However, the SBS observed in the three groups was well above the ideal SBS for orthodontic bonding, that is, 5·6–6·8 MPa. The adhesive remnant was found on all samples of the irradiated group. Deeper adhesive resin tags were found in the irradiated group in the resin–enamel interface.
Begonia keralensis Pradeep, Sinj. Thomas & Britto and Begonia bachulkarii Aitawade, Kattuk. & S.R.Yadav were independently described recently from Nelliyampathy in Kerala, India, within two weeks of each other. The names are based on different types but represent the same taxon. Because Begonia bachulkarii is the earliest published name, Begonia keralensis is reduced to synonymy.
Two new species, Begonia bracteolata and Begonia keralensis, are described from the Western Ghats of India. They are placed in the newly created Begonia sect. Flocciferae, along with B. albo-coccinea Hook. and B. floccifera Bedd. Lectotypes are designated for three names within this section. Colour photoplates, illustrations and an identification key to Begonia sect. Flocciferae are also provided.
In the southeastern United States, Amaranthus, or pigweed species, have become troublesome weeds in agricultural systems. To implement management strategies for the control of these species, agriculturalists need information on areas affected by pigweeds. Geographic information systems (GIS) afford users the ability to evaluate agricultural issues at local, county, state, national, and global levels. Also, they allow users to combine different layers of geographic information to help them develop strategic plans to solve problems. Furthermore, there is a growing interest in testing free and open-source GIS software for weed surveys. In this study, the free and open-source software QGIS was used to develop a geographic information database showing the distribution of pigweeds at the county level in the southeastern United States. The maps focused on the following pigweeds: Palmer amaranth, redroot pigweed, and tall waterhemp. Cultivated areas and glyphosate-resistant (GR) pigweed data were added to the GIS database. Database queries were used to demonstrate applications of the GIS for precision agriculture applications at the county level, such as tallying the number of counties affected by the pigweeds, identifying counties reporting GR pigweed, and identifying cultivated areas located in counties with GR pigweeds. This research demonstrated that free and open-source software such as QGIS has strong potential as a decision support tool, with implications for precision weed management at the county scale.
Immunoactivation depends upon the antigen potential to modulate T-cell repertoires. The present study has enumerated the effect of 61 kDa recombinant Leishmania donovani co-factor-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (rLd-iPGAM) on mononuclear cells of healthy and treated visceral leishmaniasis subjects as well as on THP-1 cell line. rLd-iPGAM stimulation induced higher expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in the phagocytic cell, its receptor and CD69 on T-cell subsets. These cellular activations resulted in upregulation of host-protective cytokines IL-2, IL-12, IL-17, tumour necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ, and downregulation of IL-4, IL-10 and tumour growth factor-β. This immune polarization was also evidenced by upregulation of nuclear factor-κ light-chain enhancer of activated B cells p50 and regulated expression of suppressor of mother against decapentaplegic protein-4. rLd-iPGAM stimulation also promoted lymphocyte proliferation and boosted the leishmaniacidal activity of macrophages by upregulating reactive oxygen species. It also induced 1·8-fold higher release of nitric oxide (NO) by promoting the transcription of inducible nitric oxide synthase gene. Besides, in silico analysis suggested the presence of major histocompatibility complex class I and II restricted epitopes, which can proficiently trigger CD8+ and CD4+ cells, respectively. This study reports rLd-iPGAM as an effective immunoprophylactic agent, which can be used in future vaccine design.
Precision weed management, an application of precision agriculture, accounts for within-field variability of weed infestation and herbicide damage. Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) provide a unique platform for remote sensing of field crops. They are more efficient and flexible than manned agricultural airplanes in acquiring high-resolution images at low altitudes and low speeds. UAVs are more universal than agricultural aircraft, because the latter are used only in specific regions. We have developed and used UAV systems for red–green–blue digital and color–infrared imaging over crop fields to identify weed species, determine crop injury from dicamba at different doses, and detect naturally grown glyphosate-resistant weeds. This article presents remote sensing technologies for weed management and focuses on development and application of UAV-based low-altitude remote sensing technology for precision weed management. In particular, this article futher discusses the potential application of UAV-based plant-sensing systems for mapping the distributions of glyphosate-resistant and glyphosate-susceptible weeds in crop fields.
Sheep and hair fescue are perennial, tuft forming grasses that spread by seed and form dense sods in wild blueberry fields. These sods compete with the crop for resources and hinder harvest. Field and greenhouse studies were conducted in 2015 to evaluate 1) the effect of sequential glufosinate and foramsulfuron applications on suppression of fescues in the greenhouse and field, and 2) efficacy of glufosinate and foramsulfuron on fescue seedlings when applied at 2, 4, 6, and 8 wk after seedling emergence in the greenhouse. Glufosinate applications at 750 and 1,005 g ai ha−1 followed by foramsulfuron application at 35 g ai ha−1 reduced fescue leaf number and biomass relative to foramsulfuron application alone in the greenhouse. In the field study, fescue flowering tuft density, tuft inflorescence height, seed production, and seed viability were reduced by foramsulfuron alone, but there was a trend towards lower seed production and tuft height when fescues were treated with glufosinate at 1,005 g ha−1 followed by foramsulfuron. Foramsulfuron caused low seedling mortality at all application timings evaluated, but glufosinate caused >90% mortality in seedlings when applied at 2, 4, 6, or 8 wk after seedling emergence. Our results suggest that sequential applications of these herbicides are less effective under field conditions relative to results obtained in the greenhouse, though burndown glufosinate applications may have a role in reducing fescue seedling recruitment. Additional research should be conducted to determine the effect of early spring and autumn glufosinate applications on fescue seedling recruitment and suppression of established fescue tufts with subsequent foramsulfuron applications.
The genebank at ICRISAT, India that serves as a world repository for sorghum germplasm conserves 39,234 accessions from 93 countries, including 6249 from seven South Asian countries: Afghanistan (6), Bangladesh (9), India (6101), the Maldives (10), Nepal (8), Pakistan (90) and Sri Lanka (25). A total of 5340 georeferenced accessions were used to identify gaps, and 5322 accessions that were characterized at ICRISAT were used to assess the diversity in the collection. Accessions of basic races varied widely than those of intermediate races for flowering in the postrainy season, plant height in both rainy and postrainy seasons, panicle exsertion, panicle length and width, seed size and 100 seed weight. Landraces from India were late flowering, tall and produced stout panicles and larger seeds. Landraces from Pakistan flowered early in both seasons and produced stout panicles and those from Sri Lanka were late flowering and tall in both seasons, produced more basal tillers and stout panicles. A total of 110 districts in 20 provinces of India, 13 districts in three provinces of Pakistan, three districts in Bangladesh and five districts in four provinces of Sri Lanka were identified as geographical gaps. Sorghum bicolor subsp. verticilliflorum, S. halepense and S. propinquum were identified as taxonomic gaps in the collection. Therefore, it is suggested to explore the districts identified as gaps to enrich the variability in the world collection of sorghum at ICRISAT.
This article explores the politicization of ethnicity in Nepal since 1990. In particular it looks at how ideas of indigeneity have become increasingly powerful, leading to Nepal becoming the first and—to date—only Asian country to have signed International Labour Organization Convention number 169 (hereafter ILO 169). The rise of ethnic politics, and in particular the reactive rise of a new kind of ethnicity on the part of the ‘dominant’ groups—Bahuns (Brahmans) and Chhetris (Kshatriyas)—is the key to understanding why the first Constituent Assembly in Nepal ran out of time and collapsed at the end of May 2012. This collapse occurred after four years and four extensions of time, despite historic and unprecedentedly inclusive elections in April 2008 and a successful peace process that put an end to a ten-year civil war.
A tall waterhemp population from Missisippi was suspected to be resistant to glyphosate. Glyphosate dose response experiments resulted in GR50 (dose required to reduce plant growth by 50%) values of 1.28 and 0.28 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate for the glyphosate-resistant (GR) and -susceptible (GS) populations, respectively, indicating a five-fold resistance. The absorption pattern of 14C-glyphosate between the GR and GS populations was similar up to 24 h after treatment (HAT). Thereafter, the susceptible population absorbed more glyphosate (55 and 49% of applied) compared to the resistant population (41 and 40% of applied) by 48 and 72 HAT, respectively. Treatment of a single leaf in individual plants with glyphosate at 0.84 kg ha−1, in the form of 10 1-µl droplets, provided greater control (85 vs. 29%) and shoot fresh weight reduction (73 vs. 34% of nontreated control) of the GS plants compared to the GR plants, possibly indicating a reduced movement of glyphosate in the GR plants. The amount of 14C-glyphosate that translocated out of the treated leaves of GR plants (20% of absorbed at 24 HAT and 23% of absorbed at 48 HAT) was significantly lower than the GS plants (31% of absorbed at 24 HAT and 32% of absorbed at 48 HAT). A potential difference in shikimate accumulation between GR and GS populations at different concentrations of glyphosate was also studied in vitro. The IC50 (glyphosate concentration required to cause shikimate accumulation at 50% of peak levels measured) values for the GR and GS populations were 480 and 140 µM of glyphosate, respectively, resulting in more shikimate accumulation in the GS than the GR population. Sequence analysis of 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS), the target site of glyphosate, from GR and GS plants identified a consistent single nucleotide polymorphism (T/C, thymine/cytosine) between GR/GS plants, resulting in a proline to serine amino acid substitution at position 106 in the GR population. The GR and GS plants contained equal genomic copy number of EPSPS, which was positively correlated with EPSPS gene expression. Thus, glyphosate resistance in the tall waterhemp population from Mississippi is due to both altered target site and nontarget site mechanisms. This is the first report of an altered EPSPS-based resistance in a dicot weed species that has evolved resistance to glyphosate.
A field study was conducted on an s-triazine–adapted soil to determine the effects of s-triazine exclusion interval (1, 2, 3, or 4 yr), crop production system (continuous corn or continuous soybean), and rhizosphere proximity (bulk or rhizosphere soil) on atrazine degrader populations and activity. Atrazine degrader populations were quantified by a radiological Most Probable Number technique, while degrader activity was assessed via mineralization of ring-labeled 14C-atrazine. As the s-triazine exclusion interval increased, atrazine degrader populations declined exponentially, regardless of crop or rhizosphere proximity. Crop and exclusion interval interacted to affect degrader populations (P = 0.0043). Pooled over rhizosphere and bulk soil, degrader populations were 1.5-fold higher and declined 2.8-fold faster in soybean than corn. An interaction between rhizosphere proximity and exclusion interval was also noted (P = 0.0021), whereby degrader populations were 1.9-fold higher and declined 2.8-fold slower in rhizosphere compared with bulk soil, regardless of crop. The time required for 50% mineralization of ring-labeled 14C-atrazine (DT50) following exclusion of s-triazine herbicides increased linearly at a rate of 2.2 d yr−1. In contrast, the DT50 for this site prior to a known s-triazine application was 85 d and declined exponentially over 5 yr of successive atrazine applications: 24.5 d after 1 yr, 10.8 d after two successive years, and 3.8 d after five successive atrazine applications. Omitting s-triazines can reduce degrader populations and activity in adapted soils, but more than 4 yr is required to return mineralization kinetics to nonadapted levels, regardless of crop or rhizosphere proximity.
Prickly nightshades are troublesome weeds of natural habitats, pastures, feedlots, right-of-ways, and croplands. Native and nonnative invasive weedy species of prickly nightshades were compared to determine growth, development, and morphological differences. Six (Solanum bahamense, Solanum capsicoides, Solanum carolinense, Solanum dimidiatum, Solanum donianum, and Solanum pumilum) of the 18 species of prickly nightshades studied are native to the US. Two species, Solanum citrullifolium and Solanum rostratum, are annuals; the others are perennials or are short lived perennials or annuals in northern extremes of their range in North America. Tables were developed from new and existing data to differentiate vegetative and reproductive characteristics among 18 species of prickly nightshade found in the southeastern US. In greenhouse experiments, average plant height ranged from 24 and 26 cm (9.45 and 10.24 inch) for S. carolinense and Solanum jamaicense, respectively, to 100 and 105 cm for Solanum tampicense and Solanum sisymbriifolium, respectively at 10 wk after emergence (WAE). By 10 WAE, the average number of leaves per plant ranged from < 10 for S. carolinense and Solanum torvum to > 40 leaves/plant for S. rostratum and S. dimidiatum. Average number of nodes/plant main stem ranged from 11, 12, and 14 nodes in S. jamaicense, S. torvum, and S. carolinense, respectively, to 54 nodes in S. rostratum. Average plant dry weights were collected at 10 WAE and were greatest for Solanum mammosum and (> 17 g/plant) (0.6001 oz/plant) and least for S. carolinense (1 g/plant). Based on these data, nightshade growth rate and dry weight were variable among some species and variability may be a result of phenology and life cycles, annual or perennial. Plants of S. rostratum, an annual, were relatively tall and produced high number of nodes and leaves and had the shortest period from emergence to flower among the prickly nightshades evaluated.
Greenhouse and laboratory studies were conducted to confirm and quantify glyphosate resistance, quantify pyrithiobac resistance, and investigate interaction between flumiclorac and glyphosate mixtures on control of Palmer amaranth from Mississippi. The GR50 (herbicide dose required to cause a 50% reduction in plant growth) values for two glyphosate-resistant biotypes, C1B1 and T4B1, and a glyphosate-susceptible (GS) biotype were 1.52, 1.3, and 0.09 kg ae ha−1 glyphosate, respectively. This indicated that the C1B1 and T4B1 biotypes were 17- and 14-fold resistant to glyphosate, respectively, compared with the GS biotype. The C1B1 and T4B1 biotypes were also resistant to pyrithiobac, an acetolactate synthase (ALS) inhibitor, with GR50 values of 0.06 and 0.07 kg ai ha−1, respectively. This indicated that the C1B1 and T4B1 biotypes were 7- and 8-fold, respectively, more resistant to pyrithiobac compared with the GS biotype, which had a GR50 value of 0.009 kg ha−1. Flumiclorac was antagonistic to glyphosate by reducing glyphosate translocation. The C1B1 and T4B1 absorbed less glyphosate 48 h after treatment (HAT) compared with the GS biotype. The majority of the translocated glyphosate accumulated in the shoot above the treated leaf (that contains the apical meristem) in the GS biotype and in the shoot below the treated leaf in the resistant biotypes, C1B1 and T4B1, by 48 HAT. The C1B1 biotype accumulated negligible shikimate levels, whereas the T4B1 and GS biotypes recorded elevated levels of shikimate. Metabolism of glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid was not detected in either of the resistant biotypes or the susceptible GS biotype. The above results confirm multiple resistance to glyphosate and pyrithiobac in Palmer amaranth biotypes from Mississippi and indicate that resistance to glyphosate is partly due to reduced absorption and translocation of glyphosate.
La2NiMnO6 (LNMO) was prepared by a combustion method followed by heating at high temperature. Subsequently, the preformed LNMO was annealed in air, oxygen, or N2 atmosphere and characterized by powder x-ray diffraction (XRD), neutron diffraction, superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry, and dielectric analysis. Structural studies by XRD and neutron diffraction revealed the coexistence of partially cation disordered monoclinic (31%) and rhombohedral (69%) phases in the sample annealed in air. However, the sample annealed in oxygen shows about 50:50% of monoclinic and rhombohedral phases. Relaxor-like behavior with relative permittivity of the order of 104 was observed in the sample annealed in air, while relative permittivity decreases to about 200 in samples annealed in oxygen atmosphere. The magnetic properties indicate a well-defined ferromagnetic phase in the oxygen-annealed sample compared to a feeble ferromagnetic signature in the air-annealed one. The dielectric and ferromagnetism of LNMO samples have been related to formation and annihilation of oxygen vacancies.