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In a representative nationwide survey, the Psychiatry and Migration Working Group of the German Federal Conference of Psychiatric Hospital Directors (Bundesdirektorenkonferenz) examined the use of inpatient psychiatric and psychotherapeutic services in Germany by patients of immigrant origin. Questionnaires were sent to a total of 350 general hospital psychiatric clinics throughout Germany, and 131 clinics responded. As shown by the 2005 Microcensus , almost one-fifth (18.6%) of the German population is of immigrant origin. In our study, persons of immigrant origin comprised 17% of patients in the responding facilities. This indicates that the percentage of inpatient psychiatric services used by patients of immigrant origin is almost proportionate to these patients’ percentage of the general population. The largest group of immigrant patients in our study were those of Russian heritage, followed by patients of Turkish, Arabic, or other origin. Almost two-thirds of the immigrant patients were born in Germany, and a considerably larger percentage were German citizens (74%). Sixty-two per cent of all patients of immigrant origin spoke a language other than German (e.g. Russian, Turkish, Polish) at home. Patients of immigrant origin were significantly more likely to receive an ICD-10 F2 diagnosis, and it was precisely patients with this diagnosis who were observed to experience difficulties in communication with caregivers.
The Society of Precision Agriculture Australia Inc. (SPAA) is recognised as a leading, grower driven farming group in Australia. As an organisation it provides programs and services to its members and wider industry to promote the development and adoption of Precision Agriculture (PA) technologies as a means of enhancing the profitability and sustainability of agricultural production systems. This is achieved through publishing Australia’s only PA-dedicated magazine, delivering field days, seminars and conducting on-farm PA demonstrations and experiments. SPAA provides farmers with an independent source of advice on new concepts and equipment. The grains industry was the springboard for initial adoption, with winegrapes, horticulture and the sugar industry the focus sectors for further expansion. The purpose of this paper is to share the SPAA experience with a view to assisting the development of similar organisations in other countries
When individual patients' medical decisions contribute to population-level trends, physicians may struggle with how to promote justice while maintaining respect for patient autonomy. This article argues that this tension might be resolved by using the informed consent conversation as an opportunity to position patients as societal stewards.
Ion angular current and energy distributions are important parameters for ion thrusters, which are typically measured at a few tens of centimetres to a few metres distance from the thruster exit. However, fully kinetic particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations are not able to simulate such domain sizes due to high computational costs. Therefore, a parallelisation strategy of the code is presented to reduce computational time. The calculated ion beam angular distributions in the plume region are quite sensitive to boundary conditions of the potential, possible additional source contributions (e.g. from secondary electron emission at vessel walls) and charge exchange collisions. Within this work a model for secondary electrons emitted from the vessel wall is included. In order to account for limits of the model due to its limited domain size, a correction of the simulated angular ion energy distribution by the potential boundary is presented to represent the conditions at the location of the experimental measurement in
distance. In addition, a post-processing procedure is suggested to include charge exchange collisions in the plume region not covered by the original PIC simulation domain for the simulation of ion angular distributions measured at
We investigated electronic structure of one-dimensional biradical molecular chain which is constructed by exploiting the covalency between organic molecules of a diphenyl derivative of s-indacenodiphenalene (Ph2-IDPL). To control the crystallinity, we used gas deposition method. Ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) revealed developed band structure with wide dispersion of the one-dimensional biradical molecular chain.
Structure-related ionization energy (IE) of vacuum-deposited titanyl-phthalocyanine (OTiPc) thin films was investigated by using in situ ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) and X-ray diffractometry. Distinct molecular orientations (i.e. lying-flat and standing-up orientation) in different polymorphous (i.e. monoclinic β-phase and triclinic α-phase) were observed on a surface of polycrystalline (poly-) Au and octadecyltrichlorosilane-self assembled monolayer (OTS-SAM). For the two structures IE of the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) of OTiPc thin films altered significantly by 0.55 eV. The different IE was attributed to surface dipole potential and strong intermolecular interaction.
Trichinella nativa infection (trichinellosis) is highly prevalent in Arctic wildlife, but the human burden of trichinellosis in present-day Greenland is unknown. The study aimed to determine Trichinella seroprevalence in an eastern Greenlandic hunting community and to evaluate risk factors for seropositivity. Overall, 998 inhabitants aged ⩾10 years in the Ammassalik municipality were tested for Trichinella-specific IgG antibodies. Background information was obtained from questionnaires. Seropositivity was 1·4% in persons aged <40 years and increased to >12% in those aged ⩾60 years. Older age, occupation as hunter or fisherman, and consumption of polar bear meat significantly increased the risk of Trichinella seropositivity. The seropositivity age pattern probably reflects changes in dietary preferences, but could also reflect mandatory meat inspection since 1966. However, preventive measures against Trichinella infection should be strengthened in Greenland.
Post-genomic research relies on blood samples and health information from great numbers of individuals as well as on access to medical records. Studies of collecting and banking bio-resources have increasingly focused on the policy and commodification issues that arise when human DNA enters the information economy. Yet, what has been given much less attention is the process through which citizens are recruited to contribute to post-genomic research. This article analyses practices of recruiting psychiatric patients to a pharmacogenomic research centre in Denmark. It argues that recruitment activities may be conceived as interpellation practices that ‘hail’ individual patients and ask them to place themselves in relationships to other citizens and state institutions by giving researchers access to blood samples, medical records and sensitive life-and-illness information. The interpellation practices studied demonstrate a tension between techniques that operate through distance (sending out letters with information and consent forms) and techniques that operate through presence (making phone calls to patients). These techniques are not simply seen as contrasting ethical conducts, but as complementary and coexisting ways of constituting spatial and social state–citizen relationships.
The Kepler Mission is a space-based mission whose primary goal is to determine the frequency of Earth-size and larger planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission will monitor more than 100,000 stars for patterns of transits with a differential photometric precision of 20 ppm at V = 12 for a 6.5 hour transit. It will also provide asteroseismic results on several thousand dwarf stars. It is specifically designed to continuously observe a single field of view of greater than 100 square degrees for 3.5 or more years.
This paper provides a short overview of the mission, a brief history of the mission development, expected results, new investigations by the recently chosen Participating Scientists, and the plans for the Guest Observer and Astrophysical Data Programs.
The Kepler Mission is a space-based mission whose primary goal is to detect Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. The mission will monitor more than 100,000 stars for transits with a differential photometric precision of 20 ppm at V=12 for a 6.5 hour transit. It will also provide asteroseismic results on several thousand dwarf stars. It is specifically designed to continuously observe a single field of view of greater than 100 square degrees for 3.5 or more years.
This overview describes the mission design, its goals and capabilities, the measured performance for those photometer components that have now been tested, the Kepler Input Catalog, an overview of the analysis pipeline, the plans for the Follow-up Observing Program to validate the detections and characterize the parent stars, and finally, the plans for the Guest Observer and Astrophysical Data Program.
A positive effect of insulin–glucose–potassium infusion in severe bupivacaine-induced cardiovascular collapse has been described in vivo. It has been speculated that an antagonistic influence of insulin on sodium channel inhibition, transient outward potassium current, calcium-dependent adenosine triphosphatase or even improved myocardial energetics may be responsible for this effect. Using an isolated heart model, we therefore sought to further elucidate insulin effects in l-bupivacaine-induced myocardial depression.
An isolated rat heart constant-pressure perfused, non-recirculating Langendorff preparation was used. Hearts were exposed to l-bupivacaine 5 μg mL−1 and insulin 10 mIU mL−1. Heart rate, systolic pressure, the first derivative of left ventricular pressure (+dP/dt), coronary flow, double product, PR and QRS intervals were recorded. Hearts were freeze-clamped and high-performance liquid chromatography measurement of the total adenine nucleotide pool was performed.
l-Bupivacaine led to a significant decrease in heart rate, +dP/dt, systolic pressure, coronary flow and double product, and to an increase in PR and QRS. Insulin exerted a positive inotropic effect, significantly augmenting +dP/dt and systolic pressure in both l-bupivacaine-treated and control hearts. Heart rate, coronary flow, total adenine nucleotides, PR and QRS were not significantly changed by the insulin intervention.
Insulin did not have a significant effect on total adenine nucleotides in controls and in l-bupivacaine-treated hearts. However, it does exert a positive inotropic action in bupivacaine-induced myocardial depression. We conclude that the positive effect of insulin application lies in positive inotropic action and not in changes in total adenine nucleotides.
The Kepler Mission is a space-based photometric mission with a differential photometric precision of 14 ppm (at V = 12 for a 6.5 hour transit). It is designed to continuously observe a single field of view (FOV) of greater then 100 square degrees in the Cygnus-Lyra region for four or more years. The primary goal of the mission is to monitor more than one-hundred thousand stars for transits of Earth-size and smaller planets in the habitable zone of solar-like stars. In the process, many eclipsing binaries (EB) will also be detected and light curves produced. To enhance and optimize the mission results, the stellar characteristics for all the stars in the Kepler FOV with V < 16 will have been determined prior to launch. As part of the verification process, stars with transit candidates will have radial-velocity follow-up observations performed to determine the component masses and thereby separate eclipses caused by stellar companions from transits caused by planets. The result will be a rich database on EBs. The community will have access to the archive for further analysis, such as, for EB modeling of the high-precision light curves. A guest observer program is also planned to allow for photometric observations of objects not on the target list but within the FOV.
The status of kinematic observations in Local Group dwarf spheroidal
galaxies (dSphs) is reviewed. Various approaches to the dynamical
modelling of these data are discussed and some general features of
dSph dark matter haloes based on simple mass models are presented.