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Lipid metabolism and inflammation contribute to cardiovascular disease development. This study investigated whether the consumption of cranberry (CR; Vaccinium macrocarpon) can alter high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism and prevent inflammation in mice expressing human apolipoprotein A-I transgene (hApoAITg), which have similar HDL profiles to those of humans. Male hApoAITg mice were fed a modified American Institute of Nutrition-93M high-fat/high-cholesterol diet (16% fat, 0.25% cholesterol, w/w; n=15) or high-fat/high-cholesterol diet containing CR (5 % dried CR powder, w/w, n=16) for 8 weeks. There were no significant differences in body weight between the groups. Serum total cholesterol, non-HDL cholesterol and triglyceride concentrations were significantly lower in control than CR group with no significant differences in serum HDL-C and apoA-I. Mice fed CR showed significantly higher serum lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase activity than the control. Liver weight and steatosis were not significantly different between the groups, but hepatic expression of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism was significantly lower in the CR group. In the epididymal white adipose tissue (eWAT), the CR group showed higher weights with decreased expression of genes for lipogenesis and fatty acid oxidation. The mRNA abundance of F4/80, a macrophage marker, and the numbers of crown-like structures were less in the CR group. In the soleus muscle, the CR group also demonstrated higher expression of genes for fatty acid β-oxidation and mitochondrial biogenesis than those of the control. In conclusion, although CR consumption elicited minor effects on HDL metabolism, it prevented obesity-induced inflammation in eWAT with concomitant alterations in soleus muscle energy metabolism.
The co-occurrence of the 2020 Atlantic hurricane season and the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic creates complex dilemmas for protecting populations from these intersecting threats. Climate change is likely contributing to stronger, wetter, slower-moving, and more dangerous hurricanes. Climate-driven hazards underscore the imperative for timely warning, evacuation, and sheltering of storm-threatened populations – proven life-saving protective measures that gather evacuees together inside durable, enclosed spaces when a hurricane approaches. Meanwhile, the rapid acquisition of scientific knowledge regarding how COVID-19 spreads has guided mass anti-contagion strategies, including lockdowns, sheltering at home, physical distancing, donning personal protective equipment, conscientious handwashing, and hygiene practices. These life-saving strategies, credited with preventing millions of COVID-19 cases, separate and move people apart. Enforcement coupled with fear of contracting COVID-19 have motivated high levels of adherence to these stringent regulations. How will populations react when warned to shelter from an oncoming Atlantic hurricane while COVID-19 is actively circulating in the community? Emergency managers, health care providers, and public health preparedness professionals must create viable solutions to confront these potential scenarios: elevated rates of hurricane-related injury and mortality among persons who refuse to evacuate due to fear of COVID-19, and the resurgence of COVID-19 cases among hurricane evacuees who shelter together.
Do your students struggle to see the point in learning a language other than English? Do you teach in an English-dominant setting? If so, this book is a 'must-read'. It offers international perspectives on CLIL, a revolutionary teaching approach where students study subjects, for example physics or history, in a language which is not their own. Informed by research carried out by the authors, it addresses the issues of developing CLIL in Anglophone contexts and shows how to implement this method of language learning successfully in the reality of the classroom. Through three key themes, sustainability, pedagogy and social justice, each author explores CLIL as a means of addressing the high levels of cultural diversity and socio-economic disparity in Anglophone-dominant settings. Authored by experts in the field, it offers a set of flexible teaching tools, which serve to combine language and content, ultimately enhancing the learning experience of students.
The aim of this study was to examine whether the presence of risk alleles of the norepinephrine transporter gene (SLC6A2) polymorphisms is associated with differences in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) measured by 99mTc-HMPAO single photon emission computerized tomography in a Korean sample of ADHD.
The present study included 24 children with ADHD (9.5±2.4 years), consisting of 20 boys and 4 girls, aged 6-16 years. We investigated the G1287A and -3081(A/T) polymorphisms of the SLC6A2. The rCBF was compared between the ADHD subjects with and without risk alleles at the G1287A polymorphism and at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism. Image analyses were performed with voxelwise t-statistics using SPM2.
1) The ADHD subjects with the A allele (risk allele) at the G1287A polymorphism showed reduced perfusion in the left middle frontal gyrus, left inferior parietal lobule, precuneus, right superior frontal gyrus, and right superior parietal lobule as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
2) The ADHD subjects with the A allele at the G1287A polymorphism showed increased perfusion in the right middle frontal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, right superior temporal gyrus, right fusiform gyrus, right precentral gyrus, and right anterior lobe of cerebellum as compared with ADHD subjects without the A allele (p< 0.001).
3) No significant perfusion differences were found between ADHD subjects with and without the T allele (risk allele) at the -3081(A/T) polymorphism.
Our findings suggest that the SLC6A2 G1287A polymorphism might exert differential effects on rCBF in children with ADHD.
Several cross-sectional studies, but no prospective studies, have reported an association between an abnormal lipid profile and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We hypothesized that an abnormal lipid profile might predict risk for developing PTSD. In this prospective study, we analyzed data from 237 antidepressant-naïve severely injured patients who participated in the Tachikawa Cohort of Motor Vehicle Accident Study. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) levels at baseline were significantly lower in patients with PTSD than those without PTSD at 6 months after motor vehicle accident (MVA) and were inversely associated with risk for PTSD. In contrast, triglycerides (TG) at baseline were significantly higher in patients with PTSD than in those without PTSD at 6 months post-MVA and were positively associated with risk for PTSD. There was no clear association between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or total cholesterol and risk for PTSD. In conclusion, low HDL-C and high TG may be risk factors for PTSD. Determining lipid profiles might help identify those at risk for PTSD after experiencing trauma.
A substantial body of evidence linking late-life depression and dementia is now available. However, precise estimates of the relative risk attributable to late-life depression assessed with specific screening instruments at specified thresholds have not been previously produced.
Summarise dementia risks associated with depression.
Conduct a systematic review of the literature to produce precise and specific risk estimates for all cause dementia, Alzheimer's disease (AD), and vascular dementia (VaD).
The PubMed, PsycInfo, and Cochrane databases were systematically searched. Studies assessing incident dementia using validated measures of clinical depression or depressive symptomatology from prospective population studies were selected. The most specific analyses were conducted using both continuous symptomatology ratings and categorical measures of clinical depression based on single instruments with defined cut-offs.
The literature search yielded 121,301 articles, of which 36 were eligible. Included studies provided a combined sample size of 66,532 individuals including 6593 dementia, 2797 AD, and 585 VaD cases. Random-effects summary estimates showed that the risk associated with depression did not differ by type of dementia. The most widely used instrument was the CES-D. A clinical threshold of 20 produced similar estimates for all-cause dementia (HR 1.83, 95% CI 0.95–3.52) and for AD (HR 1.97, 95% CI 0.96–4.04). Estimates based on other thresholds and continuous measures produced consistent results.
Reliable dementia risk estimates associated with late-life depression can be produced and do not differ between dementia types. Such estimates should be used in evidence-based medicine practice to assess individual risk and to inform policy on interventions to decrease risk in the population.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
The objective of this family-based whole exome sequencing (WES) is to examine genetic variants of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Korean population.
The probands with ASD and their biological parents were recruited in this study. We ascertained diagnosis based on DSM-5™ criteria, using Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule and Autism Diagnostic Interview–Revised. We selected probands with typical phenotypes of ASD both in social interaction/communication and repetitive behaviour/limited interest domains, with intellectual disability (IQ < 70), for attaining homogeneity of the phenotypes. First, we performed WES minimum 50× for 13 probands and high-coverage pooled sequencing for their parents. We performed additional WES for 38 trio families, at least 100× depth. De novo mutations were confirmed by Sanger sequencing. All the sequence reads were mapped onto the human reference genome (hg19 without Y chromosome). Bioinformatics analyses were performed by BWA-MEM, Picard, GATK, and snpEff for variant annotation. We selected de novo mutation candidates from probands, which are neither detected in two pooled samples nor both parents.
Fifty-one subjects with ASD (5 females, 40∼175 months, mean IQ 42) and their families were included in this study. We discovered 109 de novo variants from 46 families. Twenty-nine variants are expected to be amino acid changing, potentially causing deleterious effects. We assume CELSR3, MYH1, ATXN1, IDUA, NFKB1, and C4A/C4B may have adverse effect on central nerve system.
We observed novel de novo variants which are assumed to contribute to development of ASD with typical phenotypes and low intelligence in WES study.
Disclosure of interest
This work has been supported by Healthcare Technology R&D project (No: A120029) by Ministry of Health and Welfare, Republic of Korea.
Alterations in redox modulation are consistently reported in bipolar disorder (BD). MicroRNAs are targeted regulators of gene expression.
Objectives and aims
We aimed to examine if microRNAs that target redox modulators can discriminate between BD and healthy controls.
Data from brains of individuals with and without BD were obtained from Array Collection datasets. MicroRNAs targeting redox modulators were assessed for their ability to discriminate BD from the control group using machine-learning algorithms. Methylation of microRNAs, expression of their transcription factors and redox targets were assessed with ANCOVA with FDR correction. For validation, we acquired plasma samples belonging to 2 families of individuals with and without BD (n = 9). Plasma microRNAs were sequenced using the Ion Total RNA Sequencing Kit (Thermo Fisher Scientific), and microRNAs identified from the in silico analysis were examined in the validation dataset.
We identified 5 miRNAs (hsa-miR-299, hsa-miR-125a, hsa-miR-145, hsa-miR-30b, hsa-miR424) that were common in two of the four in silico datasets. Target genes glutathione peroxidase 4, ATP5A1, ATP5G1, NDUFS1, NDUFC2, and catalase were expressed at different levels between BD and the control group. Furthermore, our results showed that transcription factors CTCF and USF1 might control the expression of hsa-miR-145, while methylation differences were not found. Finally, hsa-miR-30b was significantly increased in the plasma of patients with BD compared to controls in the validation experiment.
Our study demonstrates that microRNAs may have an important role in the initiation of redox changes in BD.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.