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To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
Rapid exposure of a trauma patient is an essential component of the primary survey. No gold standard exists regarding the best technique to remove clothing from a trauma patient. The purpose of this study is to compare two techniques of clothing removal versus usual practice using standard trauma shears.
Advanced Care Paramedic (ACP) students were randomized to either the Cut and Rip (CAR) or Cut Alone (CAL) techniques to remove clothing from a standardized trauma mannequin. Practicing paramedics were recruited to remove clothing from the mannequin using Usual Practice (UP). Total time and time for removal of individual pieces of clothing was recorded.
Twenty-four participants (8 per group) were recruited to participate. The student groups (CAR, CAL) were similar in mean age (29, 27), years of practice (1 student >5 years) and male gender (63, 43%). The UP group was older (mean 34), more experienced (63% practice >5 years), and had a higher level of training (63% ACP) but a similar percentage of males (63%). Removal time was significantly less in the CAR group compared to the CAL group (mean 104 seconds, 95% CI 88–120 vs. mean 136 seconds, 95% CI 119–154, p=0.02). Removal times in the UP group were not significantly different from the other groups (mean 124 seconds, 95% CI 108–140, p>0.05).
The CAR technique is faster than both CAL and UP groups to remove clothing from a standard trauma mannequin.
Expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were used to analyse genetic diversity among three Lens species. The SSR loci amplified successfully in wild species, with 94·82% transferability in Lens culinaris subsp. orientalis, 95·4% in Lens nigricans, 98·81% in L. culinaris subsp. odemensis, 94·82% in L. culinaris subsp. tomentosus and 96·55% in Lens ervoides. Ninety-nine alleles (average 3·41 alleles/locus) were detected by 29 SSR markers. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis, all the genotypes were grouped into three clusters at a similarity level of 0·30. The diversity analysis indicated no species-specific clustering of the wild and cultivated species. Wild species L. nigricans and L. culinaris subsp. odemensis, L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and L. ervoides were grouped in Cluster I, whereas the Mediterranean land races of L. culinaris subsp. culinaris and L. culinaris subsp. tomentosus formed a separate group in Cluster II A. Cluster II B comprised L. ervoides, L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and L. culinaris subsp. culinaris. Clusters II C, II D and II F included cultivated Indian lentil genotypes. Cluster II E comprised Indian and Mediterranean germplasm lines. Cluster II F included three early maturing germplasm lines, whereas Cluster III included only two germplasm lines. The functional annotation of SSR-containing unigenes revealed that a majority of genes were involved in an important transport-related function or were a component of metabolic pathways. A high level of polymorphism of EST-SSRs and their transferability to related wild species indicated that these markers could be used for molecular screening, map construction, comparative genomic studies and marker-assisted selection.
As indicated by the sporadic Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases reported from the districts of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, the disease is endemic in the state despite the fact that a JE vaccination programme has been ongoing in the state since 2006. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the annual trend of JE in UP during January 2011 to December 2013. CSF and/or serum samples collected from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases were referred to the virology laboratory at King George's Medical University, Lucknow and were tested for anti-JEV IgM antibodies by JEV MAC-ELISA kit. The study reveals that 26·9%, 9·9% and 14·8% of AES cases were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of the total JE confirmed cases, 30% were adults. Males were more commonly affected than females. A distinct peak of JE was seen in the monsoon and post-monsoon season, although sporadic cases were also reported in other months. JE vaccination by district in UP is discussed. This study reports that the proportion of JE positives in AES cases is decreasing in UP although the number of AES cases has not decreased. The study also discusses the probable causes of this decrease, including JE vaccination and natural periodicity due to herd immunity.
We have been developing a collection of low-cost experiments for exploring the science of glassy materials through hands-on activities with sucrose based glass (a.k.a. hard candy). These form a mini-curriculum of glass science, consisting of inter-related experiments and home built apparatuses. It provides an environment to develop an understanding of glassy materials through active, prolonged engagement. Some of our earlier experiments were reported four years ago. Since that report we have made substantial improvements and added new topics, including electrical and thermal conductivity, an improved DTA apparatus, and improved methodology for crystallization kinetics. All of our experiments are designed to be low-cost (typically <$100) and the apparatuses are designed for construction by students or teachers.
Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3/ZrO2 heterostructured thin films with different individual layer ZrO2 thicknesses are deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol-gel process. The current versus voltage (I-V) measurements of the above multilayered thin films in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) device structures are taken in the temperature range of 310 to 410K. The electrical conduction mechanisms contributing to the leakage current at different field regions have been studied in this work. Various models are used to know the different conduction mechanisms responsible for the leakage current in these devices. It is observed that Poole-Frenkel mechanism is the dominant conduction process in the high field region with deep electron trap energy levels (φt) whereas space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism is contributing to the leakage current in the medium field region with shallow electron trap levels (Et). Also, it is seen that Ohmic conduction process is the dominant mechanism in the low field region having activation energy (Ea) for the electrons. The estimated trap level energy varies from 0.2 to 1.31 eV for deep level traps and from 0.08 to 0.18 eV for shallow level traps whereas the activation energy for electrons in ohmic conduction process varies from 0.05 to 0.17 eV with the increase of ZrO2 sub layer thickness. An energy band diagram is given to explain the dominance of the various leakage mechanisms in different field regions for these heterostructured thin films.
In this article, we present two new novel finite difference approximations of order two and four, respectively, for the three dimensional non-linear triharmonic partial differential equations on a compact stencil where the values of u, ∂2u/∂n2 and ∂4u/∂n4 are prescribed on the boundary. We introduce new ideas to handle the boundary conditions and there is no need to discretize the derivative boundary conditions. We require only 7- and 19-grid points on the compact cell for the second and fourth order approximation, respectively. The Laplacian and the biharmonic of the solution are obtained as by-product of the methods. We require only system of three equations to obtain the solution. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed methods.
This paper assesses the reasons for entry into sex work and its association with HIV risk behaviours among mobile female sex workers (FSWs) in India. Data were collected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in 22 districts across four high HIV prevalence states in India during 2007–2008. Analyses were limited to 5498 eligible mobile FSWs. The reasons given by FSWs for entering sex work and associations with socio-demographic characteristics were assessed. Reported reasons for entering sex work include poor or deprived economic conditions; negative social circumstances in life; own choice; force by an external person; and family tradition. The results from multivariate analyses indicate that those FSWs who entered sex work due to poor economic conditions or negative social circumstances in life or force demonstrated elevated levels of current inconsistent condom use as well as in the past in comparison with those FSWs who reported entering sex work by choice or family tradition. This finding indicates the need for a careful assessment of the pre-entry contexts among HIV prevention interventions since these factors may continue to hinder the effectiveness of efforts to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS in India and elsewhere.
Examination of the brain regions that show aberrant activations and/or
deactivations during semantic word generation could pave the way for a
better understanding of the neurobiology of cognitive dysfunction in
To examine the pattern of functional magnetic resonance imaging blood
oxygen level dependent activations and deactivations during semantic word
generation in schizophrenia.
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was performed on 24 participants
with schizophrenia and 24 matched healthy controls during an overt,
paced, ‘semantic category word generation’ condition and a baseline ‘word
repetition’ condition that modelled all the lead-in/associated processes
involved in the performance of the generation task.
The brain regions activated during word generation in healthy individuals
were replicated with minimal redundancies in participants with
schizophrenia. The individuals with schizophrenia showed additional
activations of temporo-parieto-occipital cortical regions as well as
subcortical regions, despite significantly poorer behavioural performance
than the healthy participants. Importantly, the extensive deactivations
in other brain regions during word generation in healthy individuals
could not be replicated in those with schizophrenia.
More widespread activations and deficient deactivations in the poorly
performing participants with schizophrenia may reflect an inability to
inhibit competing cognitive processes, which in turn could constitute the
core information-processing deficit underlying impaired word generation
In this work, we present progress towards device fabrication using purified, semiconducting-enriched SWNT as the base material. Nanotubes were deposited in different densities (low, moderate, and high density) with different gate length of transistors and effect of each parameter has been studied using DC measurements. It is been shown that the nanotube network density plays a significant role in controlling the performance of such devices. By controlling the density of nanotubes in the network, we laid down a road map to predict and enhance the device performance based on their mobility and on/off ratio. From this work the DC analysis of devices characterization shows a mobility more than 90 cm2/V-s and also on/off ratios as high as, 105 have been achieved. We have demonstrated the first density-control technique over the nanotube network as a key point to modify the transistor’s mobility and on/off ratio . When dense network mats of nanotubes were deposited, devices outperformed with higher mobility more than 90 cm2/V-s, enabling a faster switching speed. While relatively low-density mats yielded devices with on/off ratio of more than 105, which makes this technique feasible for low power nanoelectronics. Besides, the effect of various gate lengths have been studied which reveals an interesting trend between the channel length and the mobility.
In this work, we present progress towards devices fabrication using all semiconducting nanotubes as the starting material. Individual nanotubes are known to have intrinsic mobility of more than 10,000 cm2/V-s but using a network of nanotubes will decrease this mobility because of tube-tube screening effect and junction resistance. Here we are using solution-based deposition of purified 99% semiconducting single-walled nanotubes as the channel in field effect transistors. DC analysis of devices’ characterization shows a high mobility, more than 50 cm2/Vs, and good on/off ratio in the range of more than 103 and 104. A critical issue is the ink formulation and dependence of electronic properties on the nanotube density after deposition. In addition, the channel length also plays an important role in controlling both mobility and on/off ratio.
In this work, TOPO(tri-octyl phosphine oxide)/TOP(tri-octyl phosphine)-capped cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dots (QD's) of varied sizes (5–9 nm) prepared at different input Cd:Se precursor ratio's (1:1–2:1) using chemical route were dispersed in conducting polymer matrices viz poly[2-methoxy,5-(2-ethyl-hexyloxy)-1,4-phenylene vinylene] (MEH-PPV) and poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) respectively. The properties of polymer:CdSe nanocomposites are evaluated by means of photoluminescence (PL), UV-VIS absorption, Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) techniques respectively. The emission and structural properties of polymer-CdSe nanocomposites are found to be dependent on their morphology. The better quality of smallest sized CdSe QD's (size ~5 nm) in conjunction with regioregular P3HT polymer, leads to higher photostability of P3HT:CdSe QD's nanocomposites as compared to that for corresponding MEH-PPV:CdSe nanocomposites, thus making it as an attractive candidate for hybrid solar cells application.
This study aimed to determine the relationship between hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and ABO/Rhesus blood groups, age and sex. A total of 20 000 patients who came to donate blood in the blood bank of GSVM Medical College, Kanpur were enrolled in the study. Demographic data recorded for each patient included age, sex and blood group. Blood samples were tested for anti-HCV antibodies and ABO/Rhesus blood group antigen typing was performed. The overall positive rate of anti-HCV was 0·34%. We found that seropositivity for HCV increased with age. Anti-HCV antibodies were detected in 1/765 women (0·13%), compared to 67/19 235 men (0·35%). Seroprevalence of HCV was found to be higher in blood group O individuals (0·42%) and lowest in blood group AB individuals (0·04%). The results of this study demonstrate that that HCV infection may not be related to age and sex but the possible association of blood group antigens with HCV infection cannot be ruled out.
The nonlinear propagation of a superluminal, linearly polarized electromagnetic wave in the presence of a relativistic cold electron beam is investigated. At large amplitudes the wave couples to the electron-beam plasma mode owing to two important nonlinear effects, namely the relativistic variation of the electron mass and the excitation of longitudinal space charge fields by strong v × B forces. The nonlinear propagation equations for the coupled electromagnetic and longitudinal waves are derived within the context of a relativistic cold-fluid model. Nonlinear travelling-wave solutions are sought to describe the saturated state of the coupled system. Using Hamiltonian techniques, a wide variety of solutions are obtained and their characteristics discussed.
In this paper certain injectivity conditions in terms of extensions of monomorphisms are considered. In particular, it is proved that a ring R is a quasi-Frobenius ring if and only if every monomorphism from any essential right ideal of R into R(N)R can be extended to RR. Also, known results on pseudo-injective modules are extended. Dinh raised the question if a pseudo-injective CS module is quasi-injective. The following results are obtained: M is quasi-injective if and only if M is pseudo-injective and M2 is CS. Furthermore, if M is a direct sum of uniform modules, then M is quasi-injective if and only if M is pseudo-injective. As a consequence of this it is shown that over a right Noetherian ring R, quasi-injective modules are precisely pseudo-injective CS modules.
“Solar X-ray Spectrometer (SOXS)” mission on-board GSAT-2 Indian spacecraft was launched on 08 May 2003 by GSLV-D2 and deployed in geostationery orbit to study the X-ray emission from solar flares with high spectral and temporal resolution. The SOXS consists of two independent payloads viz. SOXS Low Energy Detector (SLD) payload, and SOXS High Energy Detector (SHD) payload. The SLD consists of two solid state detectors Si PIN and CZT, which cover the energy range from 4-60 keV, while the SHD has NaI(Tl)/CsI(Na) sandwiched phoswich detector that covers energy range from 20 keV to 10 MeV. We present very briefly the science objectives and instrumentation of SLD payload. After the successful In-orbit Tests (IOT), the first light was fed into SLD payload on 08 June 2003 when the solar flare was already in progress. We briefly present the first results from the SLD payload.