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To study 2D and 3D dosimetric values for bladder and rectum, and the influence of bladder volume on bladder dose in high dose rate (HDR) intracavitary brachytherapy (ICBT). The large patient data incorporated in this study would better represent the inherent variations in many parameters affecting dosimetry in HDR-ICBT.
Material and Methods:
We prospectively collected data for 103 consecutive cervical cancer patients (over 310 HDR fractions) undergoing CT-based HDR-ICBT at our centre. Correlation among bladder and rectum maximum volume doses and corresponding International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurement (ICRU) point doses were estimated and analysed. Impact of bladder volume on bladder maximum dose was assessed.
The ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum varied from the volumetric doses to these organs. Further, bladder volume poorly correlated with bladder maximum dose for volume variations encountered in the clinical practice at our centre.
ICRU point doses to bladder and rectum are less likely to correlate with long-term toxicities to these organs. Further, in clinical practice where inter-fraction bladder volume does not vary widely there is no correlation between bladder volume and bladder dose.
Multiple genes/variants have been implicated in various epileptic conditions. However, there is little general guidance available on the circumstances in which genetic testing is indicated and test selection in order to guide optimal test appropriateness and benefit. This is an account of the development of guidelines for genetic testing in epilepsy, which have been developed in Ontario, Canada. The Genetic Testing Advisory Committee was established in Ontario to review the clinical utility and validity of genetic tests and the provision of genetic testing in Ontario. As part of their mandate, the committee also developed recommendations and guidelines for genetic testing in epilepsy. The recommendations include mandatory prerequisites for an epileptology/geneticist/clinical biochemical geneticist consultation, prerequisite diagnostic procedures, circumstances in which genetic testing is indicated and not indicated and guidance for selection of genetic tests, including their general limitations and considerations. These guidelines represent a step toward the development of evidence-based gene panels for epilepsy in Ontario, the repatriation of genetic testing for epilepsy into Ontario molecular genetic laboratories and public funding of genetic tests for epilepsy in Ontario.
Rapid exposure of a trauma patient is an essential component of the primary survey. No gold standard exists regarding the best technique to remove clothing from a trauma patient. The purpose of this study is to compare two techniques of clothing removal versus usual practice using standard trauma shears.
Advanced Care Paramedic (ACP) students were randomized to either the Cut and Rip (CAR) or Cut Alone (CAL) techniques to remove clothing from a standardized trauma mannequin. Practicing paramedics were recruited to remove clothing from the mannequin using Usual Practice (UP). Total time and time for removal of individual pieces of clothing was recorded.
Twenty-four participants (8 per group) were recruited to participate. The student groups (CAR, CAL) were similar in mean age (29, 27), years of practice (1 student >5 years) and male gender (63, 43%). The UP group was older (mean 34), more experienced (63% practice >5 years), and had a higher level of training (63% ACP) but a similar percentage of males (63%). Removal time was significantly less in the CAR group compared to the CAL group (mean 104 seconds, 95% CI 88–120 vs. mean 136 seconds, 95% CI 119–154, p=0.02). Removal times in the UP group were not significantly different from the other groups (mean 124 seconds, 95% CI 108–140, p>0.05).
The CAR technique is faster than both CAL and UP groups to remove clothing from a standard trauma mannequin.
Expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers were used to analyse genetic diversity among three Lens species. The SSR loci amplified successfully in wild species, with 94·82% transferability in Lens culinaris subsp. orientalis, 95·4% in Lens nigricans, 98·81% in L. culinaris subsp. odemensis, 94·82% in L. culinaris subsp. tomentosus and 96·55% in Lens ervoides. Ninety-nine alleles (average 3·41 alleles/locus) were detected by 29 SSR markers. Based on the unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean cluster analysis, all the genotypes were grouped into three clusters at a similarity level of 0·30. The diversity analysis indicated no species-specific clustering of the wild and cultivated species. Wild species L. nigricans and L. culinaris subsp. odemensis, L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and L. ervoides were grouped in Cluster I, whereas the Mediterranean land races of L. culinaris subsp. culinaris and L. culinaris subsp. tomentosus formed a separate group in Cluster II A. Cluster II B comprised L. ervoides, L. culinaris subsp. orientalis and L. culinaris subsp. culinaris. Clusters II C, II D and II F included cultivated Indian lentil genotypes. Cluster II E comprised Indian and Mediterranean germplasm lines. Cluster II F included three early maturing germplasm lines, whereas Cluster III included only two germplasm lines. The functional annotation of SSR-containing unigenes revealed that a majority of genes were involved in an important transport-related function or were a component of metabolic pathways. A high level of polymorphism of EST-SSRs and their transferability to related wild species indicated that these markers could be used for molecular screening, map construction, comparative genomic studies and marker-assisted selection.
As indicated by the sporadic Japanese encephalitis (JE) cases reported from the districts of Uttar Pradesh (UP), India, the disease is endemic in the state despite the fact that a JE vaccination programme has been ongoing in the state since 2006. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the annual trend of JE in UP during January 2011 to December 2013. CSF and/or serum samples collected from acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) cases were referred to the virology laboratory at King George's Medical University, Lucknow and were tested for anti-JEV IgM antibodies by JEV MAC-ELISA kit. The study reveals that 26·9%, 9·9% and 14·8% of AES cases were positive for anti-JEV IgM in the years 2011, 2012 and 2013, respectively. Of the total JE confirmed cases, 30% were adults. Males were more commonly affected than females. A distinct peak of JE was seen in the monsoon and post-monsoon season, although sporadic cases were also reported in other months. JE vaccination by district in UP is discussed. This study reports that the proportion of JE positives in AES cases is decreasing in UP although the number of AES cases has not decreased. The study also discusses the probable causes of this decrease, including JE vaccination and natural periodicity due to herd immunity.
Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm rarely diagnosed in the larynx. Traditionally, it has been treated by radical surgery (i.e. total laryngectomy), followed by radiation and/or chemotherapy. Recent advances suggest that it may be treated with combination therapy comprising high-dose radiation and pulse chemotherapy, with a high success rate.
We report the first documented case of subglottic embryonal rhabdomyosarcoma in an adolescent female treated with chemoradiation alone, and review the literature reflecting a move towards organ preservation.
While surgery has been successfully used to treat this neoplasm, combination therapy, as described in our study, also seems effective and has the added advantage of preserving laryngeal function.
A field experiment was carried out at the farm of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi to quantify the effect of elevated carbon dioxide (CO2) and different levels of N fertiliser application on nitrous oxide (N2O) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil under maize. The experiment included five treatments: 60 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open plots, 120 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open plots, 160 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open plots, 120 kg N ha−1 under ambient CO2 (385 ppm) in open top chambers (OTC) and 120 kg N ha−1 under elevated CO2 (500 ± 50 ppm) in the OTC. Peaks of N2O flux were observed after every dose of N application. Cumulative N2O emission was 13% lower under ambient CO2 as compared to the elevated CO2 concentrations. There was an increase in CO2 emissions with application of N from 60 kg ha−1 to 160 kg ha−1. Higher yield and root biomass was observed under higher N treatment (160 kg N ha−1). There was no significant increase in maize yield under elevated CO2 as compared to ambient CO2. The carbon emitted was more than the carbon fixed under elevated CO2 as compared to ambient CO2 levels. The carbon efficiency ratio (C fixed/C emitted) was highest in ambient CO2 treatment in the OTC.
We have been developing a collection of low-cost experiments for exploring the science of glassy materials through hands-on activities with sucrose based glass (a.k.a. hard candy). These form a mini-curriculum of glass science, consisting of inter-related experiments and home built apparatuses. It provides an environment to develop an understanding of glassy materials through active, prolonged engagement. Some of our earlier experiments were reported four years ago. Since that report we have made substantial improvements and added new topics, including electrical and thermal conductivity, an improved DTA apparatus, and improved methodology for crystallization kinetics. All of our experiments are designed to be low-cost (typically <$100) and the apparatuses are designed for construction by students or teachers.
Ba0.8Sr0.2TiO3/ZrO2 heterostructured thin films with different individual layer ZrO2 thicknesses are deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by a sol-gel process. The current versus voltage (I-V) measurements of the above multilayered thin films in metal-insulator-metal (MIM) device structures are taken in the temperature range of 310 to 410K. The electrical conduction mechanisms contributing to the leakage current at different field regions have been studied in this work. Various models are used to know the different conduction mechanisms responsible for the leakage current in these devices. It is observed that Poole-Frenkel mechanism is the dominant conduction process in the high field region with deep electron trap energy levels (φt) whereas space charge limited current (SCLC) mechanism is contributing to the leakage current in the medium field region with shallow electron trap levels (Et). Also, it is seen that Ohmic conduction process is the dominant mechanism in the low field region having activation energy (Ea) for the electrons. The estimated trap level energy varies from 0.2 to 1.31 eV for deep level traps and from 0.08 to 0.18 eV for shallow level traps whereas the activation energy for electrons in ohmic conduction process varies from 0.05 to 0.17 eV with the increase of ZrO2 sub layer thickness. An energy band diagram is given to explain the dominance of the various leakage mechanisms in different field regions for these heterostructured thin films.
Ordered arrays of crystalline complex oxides nanostructures were synthesized onto single crystal insulating substrates using aqueous polyvinyl alcohol based electron beam resist precursors. The irradiated zones are insoluble in water (negative-tone resist) due to the electron induced cross linking of polyvinyl alcohol. The subsequent high temperature treatment of the developed precursor samples leads to the formation of ordered arrays of nanodots for low irradiation doses. For high irradiation dosages, epitaxially and oriented nanowires are obtained. These same precursors were shown to be nanoimprintable on single crystal substrates. This allows for future dual processing of a single precursor film gaining nano-structuration from both electron beam and nanoimprint lithography methods.
The aim of this study was to investigate the application of modified clay as a support in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Silver nitrate (AgNO3) was used as the silver precursor in several concentrations (0.005 M, 0.01 M, 0.02 M, 0.05 M, and 0.1 M) to obtain Ag-MMT purified and modified clay nanocomposites. The properties of nanocomposites were also studied as a function of the concentration of the reducing agent, sodium borohydride (NaBH4). It was observed through X-ray Diffraction that the MMT purified structure was gradually exfoliated with increased concentrations of AgNO3, while the modified clay structure remained intact. As observed through UV-vis spectra, samples of Ag+-MMT were reduced with NaBH4 to produce Ago and its particle diameter is dependent on the concentration of NaBH4.
Quantum dot gate (QDG) field-effect transistors (FET) have shown three-state transfer characteristics. Quantum dot channel (QDC) field-effect transistors (FET) have exhibited fourstate ID-VG characteristics. This project aims at studying the effect of incorporating cladded quantum dot layers in the gate region of QDC-FET. Four-state characteristics are explained by carrier transport in narrow energy mini-bands which are manifested in a quantum dot superlattice (QDSL) channel. QDSL is formed by an array of cladded quantum dots (such as SiOx-Si and GeOx-Ge). Multi-state FETs are needed in multi-valued logic (MVL) that can reduce the number of gates and transistors in digital circuits. The fabricated device showed the four-state characteristic (OFF, ‘I1’, ‘I2’, ON).
In this article, we present two new novel finite difference approximations of order two and four, respectively, for the three dimensional non-linear triharmonic partial differential equations on a compact stencil where the values of u, ∂2u/∂n2 and ∂4u/∂n4 are prescribed on the boundary. We introduce new ideas to handle the boundary conditions and there is no need to discretize the derivative boundary conditions. We require only 7- and 19-grid points on the compact cell for the second and fourth order approximation, respectively. The Laplacian and the biharmonic of the solution are obtained as by-product of the methods. We require only system of three equations to obtain the solution. Numerical results are provided to illustrate the usefulness of the proposed methods.
Water-soluble Fe3O4@ZnO composite nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized using a polyol route. The effects of the addition of the ZnO phase were evaluated by varying the Zn/Fe molar ratio in the 0.25-1.00 range as a function of the reaction time. X-ray diffractometry confirmed the formation of the magnetite and ZnO phases and suggested the possible formation of a composite structure. Also, using this method, pure magnetite and ZnO NPs were synthesized. The average crystallite sizes were estimated to 6.3 ± 0.3 nm and 8.6 ± 0.6 nm for magnetite and ZnO NPs, respectively. The samples were examined using transmission electron microscopy. Fourier transform infrared spectra indicated the presence of adsorbed species onto the solids surface, which may explain the good stability of the materials in water. Photoluminescence measurements at room temperature for pure ZnO nanoparticles exhibited the characteristic excitonic emission around 395 nm. Vibrating Sample Magnetometer measurements at room temperature evidenced the superparamagnetic behavior of magnetite nanocrystals, with a saturation magnetization of 60emu/g. The maximum magnetization ranged from 28 to 54emu/g for the composite NPs. Mössbauer spectroscopy measurements at room temperature showed evidence of evolving Fe-sites associated to superparamagnetic particles, as reflected on the coexistence of prominent doublet peaks and very weak sextet peaks.
One of the most important isotopes to be considered for disposal in the proposed UK Geological Disposal Facility (GDF) for higher-activity radioactive wastes will be 99Tc, due to its long half-life, high fission yield and ability to migrate through the geosphere as the pertechnetate ion. Much of the Tc is likely to be in the lower Tc(IV) oxidation state due to the low Eh in the near field. Batch Tc(IV) sorption experiments have been performed from pH 3–13, using 95mTc as a spike, in the presence of quartz, hematite, goethite, plagioclase feldspar, sand and shale. Solutions containing Tc(IV) were prepared at trace concentrations to avoid precipitation of TcO2. Values for the partition coefficient (Rd) were found to range from ∽4 up to ∽2 × 104 cm3 g–1. Rd was heavily dependent on pH in all cases, with the highest values being found in the circumneutral area. These data will inform the performance assessment for the near-field behaviour of technetium in the UK's planned higher-activity wastes GDF. Surface complexation modelling has been performed, fitting the data using both monodentate and bidentate binding models.