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This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Description: Semiconductor physics contains a rich body of theory and working designs. However, their material properties seem to be reaching their limits. Perovskite oxides on the other hand have abundant physical properties, but are still under active investigation. The advent of RHEED-monitoring of pulsed laser deposition allows for the fabrication of structures with single unit cell (4 Å) thick layers. In this way we may be able to fabricate quantum well structures for both applications and fundamental investigations. Superlattices of the Mott insulator LaTiO3 (LTO) and the band gap insulator SrTiO3 (STO) form such a structure. The superlattices are metallic, both as-grown and post-annealed . This has been attributed to the existence of metallic states at the interfaces between LTO and STO . At these interfaces the electron density is found to extend about 10 Å into the STO. However, theoretically, the required length scale for quantum confinement is of the order of 4 Å. A possible way to increase this confinement is to use a buffer material with a larger band gap than that of LTO (similar to semiconductor band gap engineering) and/or with a lower dielectric constant . LaAlO3 (LAO) is such a material (ΔELAO = 5.6 eV vs. ΔESTO = 3.2 eV, εLAO = 24 vs. εSTO = 300). Here we report on the growth of LTO/LAO superlattices on STO substrates. As-grown superlattices of LTO/LAO are metallic, while post-annealing turns them insulating. This may be explained from a disorder-order transition in a 2D Mott-Hubbard model . XPS and EELS measurements of the titanium valence show interesting differences for LTO layers close to and far away from the sample surface. The former, for thin LAO capping layers, show the presence of Ti4+ while the latter only have Ti3+. Hard XPS of samples with varying capping layer thickness shows an exponential dependence of the Ti3+ contents on a length scale of about 5 unit cells.  A. Ohtomo et al., Nature 419, 378-380 (2002).  S. Okamoto & A.J. Millis, Phys. Rev. B 70, 075101 (2004).  D. Heidarian & N. Trivedi, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 126401 (2004).
We report the investigation on the properties of a novel Te precursor (i-C3H7)2Te and its effectiveness in fabricating MoTe2. The vapor pressure of the precursor was obtained by measuring the pressure as a function of its temperature in a sealed chamber. As a result it showed a high vapor pressure of 552.1 Pa at room temperature. The decomposition of the precursor was also investigated using DFT calculation. It was shown that the most likely reaction during the course of the decomposition of (i-C3H7)2Te is (i-C3H7)2Te → H2Te + 2 C3H7. The effectiveness of the precursor on the fabrication of MoTe2 was also investigated. Sputter-deposited MoO3 was tellurized in a quartz-tube furnace at the temperature up to 440°C. The resulting film showed that the 80% of the original MoO3 was tellurized to form MoTe2. It was also shown that further optimization of tellurization is required in order to prevent formation of metal Mo and elemental Te.
We carried out snow-pit observations at Nagaoka, Niigata prefecture, Japan, where the snow layers were at the melting point. It was observed that the water content in the snowpack was nearly constant at approximately 10%, and the coarsening rate of snow particles was about 0.4×10–3mm3 h–1, which was in the range between the rate for dry snow and that for snow soaked in water. The isotope change of snow particles by melting and freezing in a closed system under isothermal conditions at 0˚C was modeled. The temporal change in isotope concentration was calculated for wet snow layers, based on the fractionation between snow particles and liquid water in between the particles, in association with the coarsening of snow particles. The results compared well with field observations. These results suggest that the isotope concentration of the pore water that flows downward from the surface contributed significantly to the isotope change of snow particles.
The Baltic Sea is a semi-enclosed brackish water basin where sea ice occurs annually. The sea-ice study discussed here was conducted as a Finnish-Japanese cooperative research programme entitled "Ice Climatology of the Okhotsk and Baltic Seas’’ to investigate the structure and properties of the brackish ice in the Baltic Sea. Ice, snow and water samples were collected at Santala Bay, near the mouth of the Gulf of Finland, once a week from 20 January to 12 April 1999. The salinity and oxygen isotopic composition (δ18O) of the samples were measured. The ice samples were analyzed stratigraphically. The ice was composed of a granular upper layer, occupying approximately one-third of the entire ice thickness, and underlying columnar ice toward the bottom. The crystallography structure and δ18O values reveal that the granular ice consisted of two layers with different origins, i.e. snow ice and superimposed ice. The fraction of snow relative to the total thickness was estimated. The limited data show a significant contribution of the snow cover to the sea-ice development. The salinity of the granular ice was higher than that of the columnar ice, implying that the mechanism of entrapment of brine may be different between the two ice types.
We have made a preliminary map of the Horsehead nebula in CO (J=1-0) using the NRO 45-m telescope. The HPBW is 15″, the grid spacing 10″, and the velocity resolution is ∼0.1km/s. Figure 1 shows the integrated intensity with a velocity interval 10-11.5 km/s, which we found represents well the shape of the dark globule of the Horsehead. The coincidence of the CO feature and the dark nebulocity is strikingly well, especially at the sharp edges in the south and in the west (from the neck to the ears). The quality of the data are not satisfactory, though. The typical noise level is 1 K rms in TA, and the accuracies of the pointing and the intensity calibration is rather low due to the bad weather during the observation. Some scanning effects in the intensities can be recognized in Figure 1. One of the reason why the gap obtically seen beneath the jaw is not clear in the CO map may be attributed to the pointing errors.
We report the synthesis of MoS2(1-x)Te2x by co-sputtering deposition and effect of mixture on its bandgap. The deposition was carried out at room temperature, and the sputtering power on individual MoS2 and MoTe2 targets were varied to obtain films with different compositions. Investigation with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the formation of Mo-Te and Mo-S bonds after post-deposition annealing (PDA), and one of the samples exhibited composition ratio of Mo:S:Te = 1:1.2:0.8 and 1:1.9:0.1 achieving 1:2 ratio of metal to chalcogen. Bandgap of MoS1.2Te0.8 and MoS1.9Te0.1 was evaluated with Tauc plot analysis from the extinction coefficient obtained by spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements. The obtained bandgaps were 1.0 eV and 1.3 eV. The resulting bandgap was lower than that of bulk MoS2 and higher than that of bulk MoTe2 suggesting mixture of both materials was achieved by co-sputtering.
In the summer of 1972, the amount of ice melt obtained by stake measurements on the McCall Glacier, Brooks Range, was compared with the discharge of a small controlled run-off site, and with heat balance calculations. For daily values the agreement was not always good; however, for the 11 d period for which the study was carried out, the agreement can be considered as excellent. The amount of ice melt calculated from run-off and heat balance gave 3.5 and 1.2% higher values, respectively, than the direct measurements. This is encouraging, insofar as it suggests that it may be possible to calculate the combined ice, water, and heat balance for the glacier as a whole.
Seasonal variations of water-balance components at an experimental watershed
were measured for three hydrologic years. Snowfall accounts for 47% of the
annual precipitation, and snowmelt runoff comprises 45% of the total runoff.
Evaporation changed markedly during the season; it increased during May to
August, decreased in September and October, and was negligibly small during
the period of snow cover in winter. Losses due to evaporation reached half
of the precipitation during summer, and total loss is about 26 % of the
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin films were fabricated by two-step chemical vapor deposition (CVD) using (t-C4H9)2S2 and the effects of temperature, gas flow rate, and atmosphere on the formation were investigated in order to achieve high-speed low-temperature MoS2 film formation. From the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) investigations, it was confirmed that c-axis orientation of the pre-deposited Mo film has a significant involvement in the crystal orientation after the reaction low temperature sulfurization annealing and we successfully obtained 3 nm c-axis oriented MoS2 thin film. From the S/Mo ratios in the films, it was revealed that the sulfurization reaction proceeds faster with increase in the sulfurization temperature and the gas flow rate. Moreover, the sulfurization under the H2 atmosphere promotes decomposition reaction of (t-C4H9)2S2, which were confirmed by XPS and density functional theory (DFT) simulation.
We propose and numerically investigate a tunable metasurface made of an array of graphene ribbons to dynamically control terahertz (THz) wavefront. The metasurface consists of graphene micro ribbons on a silver mirror with a SiO2 gap layer. The graphene ribbons are designed to exhibit localized plasmon resonances depending on their Fermi levels to introduce abrupt phase shifts along the metasurface. With interference of the Fabry-Perot resonances in the SiO2 layer, phase shift through the system is largely accumulated, covering up to 2π range for full control of the THz wavefront. Numerical simulations prove that wide-angle reflected THz beam steering from -53° to +53° with a high reflection efficiency as high as 60% is achieved at 5 THz while the propagation direction of THz beam could be switched within 0.6 ps.
The aim of this study is to estimate the lifetime and 12-month prevalence, severity and treatment of Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders fourth edition (DSM-IV) mental disorders in Japan based on the final data set of the World Mental Health Japan Survey conducted in 2002–2006.
Face-to-face household interviews of 4130 respondents who were randomly selected from Japanese-speaking residents aged 20 years or older were conducted from 2002 to 2006 in 11 community populations in Japan (overall response rate, 56%). The World Mental Health version of the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (WMH-CIDI), a fully structured, lay administered psychiatric diagnostic interview, was used for diagnostic assessment.
Lifetime/12-month prevalence of any DSM-IV common mental disorders in Japan was estimated to be 20.3/7.6%. Rank-order of four classes of mental disorders was anxiety disorders (8.1/4.9%), substance disorders (7.4/1.0%), mood disorders (6.5/2.3%) and impulse control disorders (2.0/0.7%). The most common individual disorders were alcohol abuse/dependence (7.3/0.9%), major depressive disorder (6.1/2.2%), specific phobia (3.4/2.3%) and generalized anxiety disorder (2.6/1.3%). While the lifetime prevalence of any mental disorder was greater for males and the middle-aged, the persistence (proportion of 12-month cases among lifetime cases) of any mental disorder was greater for females and younger respondents. Among those with any 12-month disorder, 15.3% were classified as severe, 44.1% moderate and 40.6% mild. Although a strong association between severity and service use was found, only 21.9% of respondents with any 12-month disorder sought treatment within the last 12 months; only 37.0% of severe cases received medical care. The mental health specialty sector was the most common resource used in Japan. Although the prevalence of mental disorders were quite low, mental disorders were the second most prevalent cause of severe role impairment among chronic physical and mental disorders.
These results suggest lower prevalence of mental disorders in Japan than that in Western countries, although the general pattern of disorders, risk factors and unmet need for treatment were similar to those in other countries. Greater lifetime prevalence for males and greater persistence for females seems a unique feature of Japan, suggesting a cultural difference in gender-related etiology and course of disorders. The treatment rate in Japan was lower than that in most other high-income countries in WMH surveys.
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), one of the transition-metal dichalcogenides, is a 2-dimensional semiconducting material that has a layered structure. Owing to excellent optical and electronic properties, the ultra-thin MoS2 film is expected to be used for various devices, such as transistors and flexible displays. In this study, we investigated the physical and chemical properties of sputtered-MoS2 film in the sub-10-nm region by Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). As the results of Raman spectroscopy investigations, we observed two Raman modes, E12g and A1g, in the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. As the thickness of the MoS2 film decreased, the peak frequency difference between E12g and A1g modes increased. From the XPS investigations, we confirmed sulfur reductions from the 2-dimensional MoS2 films. Therefore, we considered that the sulfur vacancies in the MoS2 film affected the Raman peak positions. Moreover, we performed the additional sulfurization of sputtered-MoS2 films. From the XPS and Raman investigations, the quality of the sputtered-MoS2 films was improved by the additional sulfurization.
Low sheet resistance (high mobility) with high transmittance in all wavelength is required for front TCO. High haze value is also required for effective light trapping. For this purpose, we have combined F-doped SnO2 (FTO) with high mobility deposited by LPCVD and reactive ion etching (RIE) processed glass substrate. However, two problems have been found. (1) The mobility of FTO on RIE substrate dropped from that on flat glass (75 to 36 cm2/Vs). To avoid this drop, thicker film is needed. (2) To keep high transmittance with thicker film, lower carrier concentration is needed. But the mobility dropped with lower carrier concentration. In order to solve these constrains, we have adopted a stacked structure using thick non-doped layer of 2700 nm and thin F-doped layer of 500 nm. With this novel approach, we have successfully achieved the high mobility (80 cm2/Vs), low carrier concentration (2.2x1019 /cm3) and high haze value (77% at wavelength of 1000 nm) at the same time. This new developed high-haze SnO2 is a new promising TCO for thin-film Si solar cells.
KNbO3 thick films were deposited on (100)c SrRuO3//(100)SrTiO3 substrates at 240 °C for 3 h by hydrothermal method. Film thickness increased linearly with increasing the deposition number of times and 130 μm thickness was achieved by the 6 time deposition. XRD analysis showed the growth of epitaxial orthorhombic films with the mixture orientation of (100), (010) and (001). Cross-sectional SEM observation showed that the 130 μm-thick film was dense and no obvious voids inside the film. In addition, the crystal structure change along film thickness direction was not detected from the cross-sectional Raman spectral observation.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
The potential of chemically derived graphene as a solution-processable transparent conductive film has been explored. Synthesis of amine-functionalized graphene oxide was intended for its utilization in layer-by-layer assembly. Layer-by-layer assembly of graphene oxide was utilized to fabricate graphene based thin film in a scalable and highly reproducible way. It was found that optical transmittance and sheet resistance of the film decreases with an increase in number of LBL cycles in a reproducible way. The sheet resistance of LBL-assembled GO film improves by an order of magnitude at the same optical transparency due to more homogeneous coverage and better stacking of graphene flakes. Furthermore, we demonstrated the potential for a large-scale deposition of chemically derived graphene.