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We have found a class of circular radio objects in the Evolutionary Map of the Universe Pilot Survey, using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. The objects appear in radio images as circular edge-brightened discs, about one arcmin diameter, that are unlike other objects previously reported in the literature. We explore several possible mechanisms that might cause these objects, but none seems to be a compelling explanation.
Attention bias (AB) is a biased information processing towards threat among competing stimuli occurred in early stage of sensory input. Substantial evidence indicates that AB is involved in the development and maintenance of anxiety and depressive disorders. However, little is known about the relationships between AB and individual differences of endocrine and neuropsychological functions.
Thirty healthy participants without major physical illness or axis I/II mental disorders as evaluated with the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, were enrolled. Participants completed a dot-probe task, the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II), the Interpersonal Sensitivity Measure, and the Trail Making Test (TMT). Salivary cortisol levels were measured at three time points per day for consecutive 2 days: immediately and 30 min after awaking in the morning and before sleep at night. Correlation analyses were performed between AB and psychological measures, cortisol levels, and attention measures.
As predicted, AB significantly correlated with BDI-II and Harm avoidance sub-dimension of the TCI. Above all, when those variables that were significantly correlated with AB were included in a step-wise multivariate regression analysis, higher cortisol level at night remained the most influential predictor for AB.
Our results suggest that AB is significantly influenced not only by anxious personality traits and depressive symptoms but also by individual differences of attention function and stress hormonal levels. Particularly, AB modification approach might have a beneficial effect on anxiety in individuals who have high cortisol levels.
There is increasing recognition that pain often coexists with depression. the current survey was undertaken to ascertain patients’ and clinicians’ perceptions of pain as a physical symptom associated with depression.
Web-based surveys were undertaken for patients with depression, and for physicians treating patients with depression (psychiatrists, psychosomatic physicians, general internists).
848 patients aged 20–59 years entered the main survey, of whom 663 returned the completed survey (78.2%). of the respondents, 424 (64.0%) experienced at least one painful symptom, with almost three-quarters (72.1%) reporting that the pain affected mental symptoms and 68.6% indicating that it prevented recovery from depression itself. Among 337 patients who discussed their painful symptoms with their physician, 52.5% initiated the discussion.
456 physicians completed the physician survey. When asked about the influence of pain associated with depression, 61.7% of physicians indicated that they ask their patients about pain during a consultation, and 79.9% considered that painful symptoms might disturb the patients’ daily life and 52.8% felt that they would delay recovery from depression.
The survey provides further evidence of the association between depression and pain, highlighting the fact that pain is prevalent in this patient population. Increased patient and physician awareness of pain in association with depression and improved doctor-patient communication, enabling patients to discuss painful symptoms with their physicians, and vice-versa, should lead to better overall management and treatment strategies.
We present ALMA detection of the [O iii] 88 μm line and 850 μm dust continuum emission in a Y-dropout Lyman break galaxy, MACS0416_Y1. The [O iii] detection confirms the object with a spectroscopic redshift to be z = 8.3118±0.0003. The 850 μm continuum intensity (0.14 mJy) implies a large dust mass on the order of 4×106M⊙. The ultraviolet-to-far infrared spectral energy distribution modeling, where the [O iii] emissivity model is incorporated, suggests the presence of a young (τage ≍ 4 Myr), star-forming (SFR ≍ 60M⊙yr−1), and moderately metal-polluted (Z ≍ 0.2Z⊙) stellar component with a stellar mass of 3 × 108M⊙. An analytic dust mass evolution model with a single episode of star formation does not reproduce the metallicity and dust mass in ≍ 4 Myr, suggesting an underlying evolved stellar component as the origin of the dust mass.
We observed the 2 July 2019 total solar eclipse with a variety of imaging and spectroscopic instruments recording from three sites in mainland Chile: on the centerline at La Higuera, from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, and from La Serena, as well as from a chartered flight at peak totality in mid-Pacific. Our spectroscopy monitored Fe X, Fe XIV, and Ar X lines, and we imaged Ar X with a Lyot filter adjusted from its original H-alpha bandpass. Our composite imaging has been compared with predictions based on modeling using magnetic-field measurements from the pre-eclipse month. Our time-differenced sites will be used to measure motions in coronal streamers.
Wetting of a planar solid substrate is investigated in the presence of a macroscopic particle in the complete wetting regime. A drop of silicone oil spreads on the substrate and its macroscopic edge is incident on the particle at the late stage of spreading. The drop–particle interaction is observed in detail by shadowgraph and interferometry. Although the spreading drop edge is pinned by the particle for a short time, a sharp acceleration occurs when the liquid starts wetting the extra surface area offered by the particle and forming a meniscus. This process yields a net gain in spreading speed. A theoretical model based on the classical wetting dynamics dictated by Cox’s law is developed. It predicts that the capillary energy of the meniscus gives rise to a rapid motion of the liquid edge, showing good agreement with the dynamics observed in the experiments.
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Ross River virus (RRV) of the genus Alphavirus, family Togaviridae are mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes and the symptoms they cause in patients are similar to dengue. A chikungunya (CHIK) outbreak re-emerged in several Asian countries during 2005–2006. This study aimed to clarify the prevalence of CHIKV infection in suspected dengue patients in six countries in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Seven hundred forty-eight serum samples were from dengue-suspected patients in South Asia and Southeast Asia, and 52 were from patients in Fiji. The samples were analysed by CHIKV IgM capture ELISA, CHIKV IgG indirect ELISA and focus reduction neutralization test against CHIKV or RRV. CHIK-confirmed cases in South Asia, particularly Myanmar and Sri Lanka, were 4·6%, and 6·1%, respectively; and in Southeast Asia, particularly Indonesia, the Philippines and Vietnam, were 27·4%, 26·8% and 25·0%, respectively. It suggests that CHIK was widely spread in these five countries in Asia. In Fiji, no CHIK cases were confirmed; however, RRV-confirmed cases represented 53·6% of suspected dengue cases. It suggests that RRV is being maintained or occasionally entering from neighbouring countries and should be considered when determining a causative agent for dengue-like illness in Fiji.
We discuss an overall picture of star formation in the Galaxy. Recent high-resolution magneto-hydrodynamical simulations of two-fluid dynamics with cooling/heating and thermal conduction have shown that the formation of molecular clouds requires multiple episodes of supersonic compression. This finding enables us to create a new scenario of molecular cloud formation through interacting shells or bubbles on galactic scales. We estimate the ensemble-averaged growth rate of individual molecular clouds, and predict the associated cloud mass function. This picture naturally explains the accelerated star formation over many million years that was previously reported by stellar age determination in nearby star forming regions. The recent claim of cloud-cloud collisions as a mechanism for forming massive stars and star clusters can be naturally accommodated in this scenario. This explains why massive stars formed in cloud-cloud collisions follows the power-law slope of the mass function of molecular cloud cores repeatedly found in low-mass star forming regions.
This is a study of the growth and decline of cities for the purpose of identifying those events in which they significantly increased in size. Significant changes in the scale of cities are important for understanding the long-term trend toward more complex and hierarchical human societies. We report the results of an inventory of cycles, upsweeps, and collapses of settlements in five separate interpolity systems. Upsweeps are instances in which the largest settlement in a world system significantly increases in size. Collapses occur when the size of the largest settlement greatly decreases and stays down for a significant period of time rather than rebounding. We use regional interpolity systems (world systems) rather than single polities or settlements as our unit of analysis. Because the accurate designation of sweeps requires interval scale measures, we are limited to those regions and time periods for which quantitative estimates of largest settlement sizes are regularly available. We find a total of 18 upsweeps and five downsweeps, and only two instances of prolonged systemwide settlement collapse. We also investigate whether or not the rate of cycles has increased over the long run, and we find that cycles of city growth and decline have not accelerated. We also find a greater rate of urban cycles in the Western (Central) System than in the East Asian System, which supports the usual notion that the Western city system was less stable than the Eastern city system.
The sensitive analysis of radionuclide migration for the scenarios on deterioration or loss of safety functions expected in HLW disposal system due to the human error (initial defective scenarios) is performed in this study. Release rates for Cs-135 and Se-79 are estimated from Monte Carlo-based analysis. Maximum release rates of Se-79 and Cs-135 from natural barrier in initial defective scenarios for vitrified waste and overpack are approximately equivalent to that in normal scenario on all safety function working. Maximum release rate of Se-79 in initial defective scenario of buffer under the condition of colloidal migration is about 30 times as high as that in normal scenario. Maximum release rate of Cs-135 in initial defective scenario of plugs is about two orders of magnitude higher than that in normal scenario. These results especially indicate the need to understand the feasibility on two types of initial defective scenario, leading to the loss of restraint for colloidal migration in buffer and the loss of restraint with plugs from short-circuit migration.
It is difficult to get a real scale image of the solar system through lecture. A scale model is a classical and one of good solutions (e.g. Handa et al.2003, Handa et al.2008). Through this model, people living in or visiting to the city can physically understand the scale of the solar system. This scale gives 1 cm for Earth's diameter and 115 m for 1 AU. However, some gadget is required to make it attractive for public citizens.
We estimated the genetic parameters related to feed intake (FI), feed efficiency traits (including feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake (RFI) of digestible crude protein (DCP) and total digestible nutrients (TDN)), beef marbling score (BMS), melting point of fat (MP) and fatty acid composition. Fat and meat (Musculus trapezius) samples were taken from the carcasses of 863 Japanese Black steers derived from 65 sires, for determination of the MP and fatty acid composition of the total lipid in intramuscular adipose tissue. Genetic parameters were estimated using uni- and bivariate animal models. In addition, pedigree information for 4841 animals was used. Heritability estimates for BMS, MP, individual fatty acids, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA), the ratio of saturated fatty acids to MUFA (MUS) and the ratio of elongation (ELONG) were generally high. The FI values of TDN and DCP were also high, but FCRs and RFIs of those were low (0.09 to 0.22). Genetic correlation of BMS with MP was −0.34 (favorable) and with C18:1, MUFA, MUS and ELONG values were 0.40, 0.28, 0.29 and 0.37, respectively (favorable). Genetic correlations of MP with C18:1, MUFA, MUS and ELONG were negative (also favorable) and high (−0.85, −0.98, −1.00 (−0.996) and −0.66, respectively). The correlation estimates for feed efficiency traits of DCP were quite similar to those of TDN. Genetic correlations of BMS with FCRs and RFIs of TDN and DCP were all positive (unfavorable; 0.21 to 0.51), and in particular, the correlations with RFIs of those were high. The correlations of C18:1, MUFA, MUS and ELONG with RFIs of TDN and DCP were positive (unfavorable) but low (0.06 to 0.17), whereas the corresponding correlations with FCRs of those were all negative (favorable; −0.38 to −0.10). These results suggest that the quantity and quality of beef fat can be simultaneously improved and that the quality of beef fat (fatty acid composition) can be improved directly or indirectly with MP. Furthermore, selecting MP or fatty acid traits does not significantly affect feed efficiency.
Present progress in developments of glassy alloy composites for bit-patterned-media and non-equilibrium Cu-based alloys for conductive materials of electrical connectors are reviewed. It is proven that the imprinting of the Pd-based glassy alloy thin film is favorable for the formation of nano-structured devices. Detailed imprinted morphologies formed by different imprinting conditions were examined. In addition, technology of large area imprinting up to 2.5 inches area has been successfully developed and it is now available for production. These technological developments will be utilized for next generation bit-patterned-media with high data density. A newly developed non-equilibrium Cu-Zr-Ag alloy was prepared into sheet form by the combination of casting, cold rolling and annealing. The alloy sheet exhibited high tensile strength of exceeding 1500 MPa and good electrical conductivity of 30% IACS. However, bending ductility should be improved for the actual production of connector. Through the several examinations, remaining issues that should be solved are discussed in the framework of industrialization and commercialization. These obtained results suggest that the glassy alloy composite or non-equilibrium alloy designed by the glass-forming rules have a great potential to develop innovative products in the near future.
An experimental study on the adhesion of thin films was conducted for the ultraviolet (UV)-cured SiOC films on Si substrate by examining the mechanical energy balance during the indentation process combined with atomic force microscopy observation. The effect of UV cure on the interfacial delamination toughness and the structure of the SiOC films are discussed. The energy release rate of the SiOC film/Si substrate interfacial delamination increases with the increases in the time of UV curing, indicating that the indentation method is efficient to examine the adhesion of coating. As the UV curing time increases, the film thickness and the Si–CH3 bond structure decrease, whereas the SiO2 network structure develops and the mechanical properties of the film are improved. Furthermore, the energy release rate of SiOC film/Si interfacial delamination is well correlated in a proportional manner to the Young's modulus of the film.
A new Pd79Au1.5Ag3Si16.5 bulk metallic glass was successfully synthesized in a maximum casting thickness range to 3 mm. Upon heating, the single glassy phase decomposed into Pd-rich crystalline phases and a Si-rich amorphous phase due to solute partitioning. In addition to high thermal stability, this bulk glassy alloy also exhibited a high degree of ductility and excellent corrosion resistance, showing potential applications as biomaterials.
Unwoven cloth coated with 32 mg/g of a copolymer of N-benzyl-4-vinyl-pyridinium chloride and styrene was found to be effective in removing micro-organisms from water. In experiments demonstrating removal of Escherichia coli by filtration through ten sheets of the unwoven cloth, the rate of removal was 99·99% at a filtration rate of 2·6 cm/h, and remained at 99% even at a high filtration rate of 300 cm/h and a low influent concentration of the bacterial cells such as 10 cells/ml. The rate of removal tended to increase with a decrease in the influent bacterial concentration. Seven other bacteria and two yeasts were effectively removed by filtration through the unwoven cloth. Filtration through the unwoven cloth was also effective in removing spores of fungi from water but was not very effective in removing bacteriophage T4 from aqueous solution.
Bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) with high thermal stability and good corrosion resistance were synthesized in the (Cu0.6Hf0.25Ti0.15)100−x−yNiyNbx system by copper mold casting. The addition of Ni element causes an extension of a supercooled liquid region (ΔTx = Tx – Tg) from 60 K for Cu60Hf25Ti15 to 70 K for (Cu0.6Hf0.25Ti0.15)95Ni5. The simultaneous addition of Ni and Nb to the alloy is effective in improving synergistically the corrosion resistance in 1 N HCl, 3 mass% NaCl, and 1 N H2SO4 + 0.01 N NaCl solutions. The highly protective Hf-, Ti-, and Nb-enriched surface film is formed by the rapid initial preferential dissolution of Cu and Ni, which is responsible for the high corrosion resistance of the alloys in the solutions examined.
The artificial nano-clay powder was newly examined as a gelator of electrolyte of quasi-solid-state dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC). The size of clay has two main distributions with 1.4 nm and 20 nm in diameter which are confirmed by STEM observation. The gelation point was determined by using Rheometer. The gel state maintained with more than 5wt% nano-clay in the acetonitrile based solvent. The quasi-solid-state DSSC with nano-clay electrolyte (10 wt%) was successfully showed a high photoelectric conversion efficiency of 10.3%, which is equivalent to that using a liquid electrolyte.