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Research has shown that ADHD symptoms and functional impairment often persist beyond childhood into adulthood. Thus an effective therapy that can be tolerated over long-term use in adults is needed. This is the first long term safety and tolerability study of an adult ADHD medication in Asia.
Assess long-term safety, tolerability, and efficacy of atomoxetine (ATX) in adult Japanese ADHD patients.
Demonstrate the safety and tolerability of long-term ATX.
ATX (40-120 mg/day) was evaluated based on integrated analyses of a 10 week double-blind (DB) study and a 48 week open-label long term (LT) extension study. Long-term safety and tolerability were assessed by adverse events, discontinuation rate, and vital-signs. Efficacy measures included change from baseline in Conners’ Adult ADHD Rating Scale- Investigator Rated (CAARS-Inv:SV) total symptoms score, behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-A), and Adult ADHD/QoL Measure (AAQoL).
233 patients took ATX (LT mean final prescribed dose: 108.3 mg/day). AEs leading to discontinuations were seen in 37 (15.9%) patients, the most common being nausea in 10 (4.3%) patients. Statistically significant baseline-to-endpoint reductions in mean CAARS-Inv:SV total symptoms score during in the DB study continued throughout the LT study. Similar reductions were seen in BRIEF-A Self Report scores. These findings along with AAQoL results indicated that patients perceived improvements in both QoL and Executive Function.
Long-term ATX treatment was shown to be generally safe and tolerable in Japanese adult ADHD patients. Results also suggested ATX improved ADHD core symptoms, QoL and Executive Functions.
Recent studies have shown that it is important to understand the brain mechanism specifically by focusing on the common and unique functional connectivity in each disorder including depression.
To specify the biomarker of major depressive disorder (MDD), we applied the sparse machine learning algorithm to classify several types of affective disorders using the resting state fMRI data collected in multiple sites, and this study shows the results of depression as a part of those results.
The aim of this study is to understand some specific pattern of functional connectivity in MDD, which would support diagnosis of depression and development of focused and personalized treatments in the future.
The neuroimaging data from patients with major depressive disorder (MDD, n = 100) and healthy control adults (HC: n = 100) from multiple sites were used for the training dataset. A completely separate dataset (n = 16) was kept aside for testing. After all preprocessing of fMRI data, based on one hundred and forty anatomical region of interests (ROIs), 9730 functional connectivities during resting states were prepared as the input of the sparse machine-learning algorithm.
As results, 20 functional connectivities were selected with the classification performance of Accuracy: 83.0% (Sensitivity: 81.0%, Specificity: 85.0%). The test data, which was completely separate from the training data, showed the performance accuracy of 83.3%.
The selected functional connectivities based on the sparse machine learning algorithm included the brain regions which have been associated with depression.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
An outbreak of enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157 occurred in multiple prefectures of Japan in November 2009. We conducted two case–control studies with trace-back and trace-forward investigations to determine the source. The case definition was met by 21 individuals; 14 (66.7%) were hospitalised, but no haemolytic uraemic syndrome, acute encephalopathy or deaths occurred. Median age was 23 (range 12–48) years and 14 cases were male (66.7%). No significant associations with food were found in a case–control study by local public health centres, but our matched case–control study using Internet surveys found that beef hanging tender (or hanger steak), derived from the diaphragm of the cattle, was significantly associated with illness (odds ratio = 15.77; 95% confidence interval, 2.00–124.11). Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis of isolates from patients and the suspected food showed five different patterns: two in faecal and food samples, and another three in patient faecal samples only, although there were epidemiological links to the meat consumed at the restaurants. Trace-back investigation implicated a common food processing company from outside Japan. Examination of the logistics of the meat processing company suggested that contamination did not occur in Japan. We concluded that the source of the outbreak was imported hanging tender. This investigation revealed that Internet surveys could be useful for outbreak investigations.
Cognitive–behavioral therapy (CBT) is thought to be useful for chronic pain, with the pathology of the latter being closely associated with cognitive–emotional components. However, there are few resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (R-fMRI) studies. We used the independent component analysis method to examine neural changes after CBT and to assess whether brain regions predict treatment response.
We performed R-fMRI on a group of 29 chronic pain (somatoform pain disorder) patients and 30 age-matched healthy controls (T1). Patients were enrolled in a weekly 12-session group CBT (T2). We assessed selected regions of interest that exhibited differences in intrinsic connectivity network (ICN) connectivity strength between the patients and controls at T1, and compared T1 and T2. We also examined the correlations between treatment effects and rs-fMRI data.
Abnormal ICN connectivity of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and inferior parietal lobule within the dorsal attention network (DAN) and of the paracentral lobule within the sensorimotor network in patients with chronic pain normalized after CBT. Higher ICN connectivity strength in the OFC indicated greater improvements in pain intensity. Furthermore, ICN connectivity strength in the dorsal posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) within the DAN at T1 was negatively correlated with CBT-related clinical improvements.
We conclude that the OFC is crucial for CBT-related improvement of pain intensity, and that the dorsal PCC activation at pretreatment also plays an important role in improvement of clinical symptoms via CBT.
This study aimed to investigate the function of tissue plasminogen activator in the olfactory epithelium of mice following neural injury.
Transmission electron microscopy was used to study the changes in the morphology of the olfactory epithelium 1–7 days after surgical ablation of the olfactory bulb (bulbectomy).
Prior to bulbectomy, a uniformly fine material was observed within some regions of the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator. At 2–3 days after bulbectomy, there were degenerative changes in the olfactory epithelium. At 5–7 days after bulbectomy, we noted drastic differences in olfactory epithelium morphology between mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator and wild-type mice (comparisons were made using findings from a previous study). The microvilli seemed to be normal and olfactory vesicles and receptor neuron dendrites were largely intact in the olfactory epithelium of mice deficient in tissue plasminogen activator.
The tissue plasminogen activator plasmin system may inhibit the regeneration of the olfactory epithelium in the early stages following neural injury.
Dome Fuji is potentially one of the best astronomical sites in Antarctic plateau. We have a plan to build a 2-m class infrared telescope at Dome Fuji, and have been evaluating the site since the 2006/2007 Antarctic summer. We present the outline of a 2-m class telescope project and some results of our SODAR measurements.
Hydrophobic property of PDMS surface was improved by the 400 W UV-Vis lamp light irradiation in the atmospheric condition for several ten minutes. As a result of this surface treatment, the surface became to hydrophilic character for one month long. This surface treatment technique applied to PDMS micro-fluidic device and verified valve-less switching. The UV-Vis light irradiated to PDMS micro fluidic pattern with partly covered by aluminum foil. Finally inlet and outlets were connected 0.5 mm diameter tubes. The syringe pumps injected the distilled water into the inlet of the PDMS micro channel at the flow rates of 0.5, 5.0, and 50 μl/min for the both width channel. As results of water injection water flowed only the UV-Vis treated channel at the flow rates of 0.5 and 5.0 μl/min. On the other hand, the water flowed for all channels at the flow rate of 50 μl/min. This result was observed from 5.0 μl/min flow again for both width devices which dried by air. These results were occurred by the difference of the flow conductance and wettability. The mechanism of this hyrophilicity of PDMS was reported to form Si-O in the surface by means of glassy surface. From the IR spectra, the Si-O-Si peak shifted to higher wave number for UV-Vis irradiated PDMS than the untreated PDMS comparing with the other IR peaks. This result showed that the Si-O-Si network bonding of PDMS changed to the O-Si-O bonding around the surface.
Nanoscience: an area that promises new understanding of nature with the aid of rapid progress of nanotechnology. Nanotechnology: the use of nanoscience to build new technologies that will change the world. Nanoscience and Nanotechnology have captured the attention of the public, government, and corporations. How they will influence our lives depend on how we prepare ourselves, and our successors. Here we present a brief outline of the efforts being taken at Osaka University since 2004, in order to prepare our future scientists, engineers, and leaders in the rapidly flourishing trans-/multi-disciplinary field of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology.
Using a waveguide spectrometer chip as an example, we describe how high index contrast waveguides systems such as silicon-on-insulator can be combined with microphotonic design rules to extend the performance of waveguide devices. The challenges arising in the implementation of silicon microphotonic technology are discussed, and recent work addressing the issues of waveguide coupling, polarization sensitivity, waveguide loss and massively parallel data acquisition is reviewed.
Pump and probe experiments have been performed on Er-doped rib-loaded waveguides containing Si nanoclusters grown by reactive magnetron sputtering. An Er3+ absorption cross-section of about 5×10−21 cm2 has been found at 1534 nm by insertion losses measurements. Transmission measurements at 1310 nm under optical pumping (488 nm) shows a decreasing of the signal because of confined carrier absorption of the Si nanoclusters. Amplification experiments at 1535 nm evidence two pump power regimes: losses due to confined carrier absorption in the Si nanoclusters at low pump powers and signal amplification at high pump powers. For strong optical pumping, signal enhancement of about 1.2 dB/cm was observed.
Size control of silicon nanowires (SiNWs) synthesized by laser ablation of a Si target with nickel (Ni) as catalysts were investigated. The diameter of SiNWs decreased with decreasing synthesis temperature and content of Ni catalyst. Gradual down shift and asymmetric broadening of Si optical phonon peak depending on the diameter of SiNWs were observed for continuously, thermally oxidized SiNWs and SiNWs with smaller diameters formed at lower temperature. This can be interpreted by the phonon confinement effect. On the other hand, further thermal oxidation produced an upshift of the optical phonon peak. This is considered to be due to compressive stress since this stress was relieved by removing the surface oxide layers formed around the SiNW cores, resulting in a downshift of the optical phonon peak.
Hydrogen passivation effect on the enhancement of photoluminescence (PL) of Er ions in SiO2 films contained Si nanocrystallites (nc-Si) has been investigated. Er-doped SiO2 films were fabricated by laser ablation of Er-deposited Si substrate in oxygen gas atmosphere. The PL intensity of Er ions and nc-Si were increased by hydrogen gas treatments, while ESR signal intensity of residual defects located at the interfaces between nc-Si and SiO2 was decreased. These results indicate that hydrogen passivation of residual defects is useful for the enhancement of the Er PL.
Rib-loaded silica waveguides containing Si nanocrystals were grown by quadruple implantation of Si ions into a 2 μm-thick thermally-grown SiO2 layer. The thickness of the resulting flat-profile active region was about 300 nm, with a 9.5% Si excess (determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy). Complete phase separation and nanocrystal formation was assured by annealing at 1100 °C, and studied by means of optical tools such as Raman and luminescence. The rib-loaded structure of the waveguides was fabricated by photolithographic and reactive ion etching processes, with patterned rib widths ranging from 1 to 8 μm. Efficient light propagation was observed when end-fire coupling a probe signal both at 633 nm and 780 nm into the waveguides, with attenuation losses as low as 11 dB/cm. Signal amplification experiments, with pulsed and continuous wave (CW) top pumping, have shown increased signal absorption when the pump power is raised. This couples with the lack of any fast component in the time decay of the amplified spontaneous emissions as measured by ns pulsed pumping Variable Stripe Length (VSL) experiments. These two phenomena are interpreted as due to the lack of stimulated emission in these nanocrystalline systems.
A fundamental concept combining a molecular behavior and macro-continuum phenomenon is presented for a multicomponent solute diffusion problem in bentonite clay, which is a key component of the Engineering Barrier System (EBS) of high-level radioactive waste disposal (HLRW). Bentonite is a micro-inhomogeneous material. Properties of the saturated bentonite are characterized by the constituent clay mineral (montmorillonite) and water, namely montmorillonite hydrate. We analyze its molecular behavior by applying a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation to inquire into the physicochemical properties such as diffusivity of chemical species. For extending the microscopic characteristics of constituent materials to a macroscopic diffusion behavior of the micro-inhomogeneous material we apply a homogenization analysis (HA).
mechanism of general flowering in Dipterocarpaceae in the Malay
Peninsula is revealed through field survey and meteorological data
analyses. The regions of general flowering coincide with those which
experienced a low night-time temperature (LNT) c. 2 mo before
flowering. This supports the hypothesis that low air temperature induces
the development of floral buds of dipterocarps. LNT was found to be
caused by radiative cooling during dry spells in winter when the
northern subtropical ridge (STR) occasionally migrates southwards with a
dry air mass into the equatorial region. LNT events usually occur in La
Niña episodes, not in El Niño episodes as believed
previously. This is because the southward migration of the STR is
associated with the intensification of local meridional Hadley
Circulation in the western Pacific, which is strengthened in a La
Niña episode. Results suggest that El Niño-like climate
change in increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations may be
critical for the tropical rain forest biome in south-east Asia.
Near-infrared (NIR) emission in galaxies is mainly radiated by old population low temperature stars, which construct the basic stellar structure and keep the trails of past galaxy evolution. On the other hand, optical observations show recent star formation activity, especially in spiral galaxies. Therefore multi-color observations from optical to near-infrared wavelengths are very important to understand the past and recent star-formation history. Nearby large galaxies are well studied not only in optical but also in mid- and far-infrared by IRAS, CO and HI radio observations. However, the study in the near-infrared is still limited because large format arrays are not common. Here we show a wide-field, near-infrared imaging of nearby elliptical and spiral galaxies and discuss their star-formation history.
Sofue (1996, 1997) presented accurate rotation curves of nearby galaxies, which are almost completely sampled from the inner to outer regions. The conspicuous common feature of the rotation curves is a steep rise at the inner bulge. The rise suggests a compact massive concentration near the nucleus (Sofue 1996). The study of the light distribution at the inner bulge demands accurate surface photometry at near-infrared wavelengths, where dust extinction is much less effective than in the optical. Most of Sofue's samples are nearby large galaxies, so that observations with a wide field view is clue to constructing reliable light distribution models.