Characterization and genotype identification are essential for rational conservation, management and genetic diversity evaluation. In this work, simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to identify 57 accessions of sweet potato kept at the ‘in vitro’ Gene Bank of INTA, Argentina. This collection includes primitive materials from primary zones of dispersion, commercial varieties, breeding clones and foreign materials from different parts of the world (Africa, Asia and USA). Average similarity between the materials evaluated was 0.367. Grouping analysis revealed six clusters and a strong association with skin colour of storage roots. The set of selected SSR markers allowed us to verify identity, detect duplicates and estimate the genetic similarity of the materials analysed. This characterization complements morphological data and provides tools to estimate the variation of diversity between local and foreign germplasm groups.