To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
How do people answer polar questions? In this fourteen-language study of answers to questions in conversation, we compare the two main strategies; first, interjection-type answers such as uh-huh (or equivalents yes, mm, head nods, etc.), and second, repetition-type answers that repeat some or all of the question. We find that all languages offer both options, but that there is a strong asymmetry in their frequency of use, with a global preference for interjection-type answers. We propose that this preference is motivated by the fact that the two options are not equivalent in meaning. We argue that interjection-type answers are intrinsically suited to be the pragmatically unmarked, and thus more frequent, strategy for confirming polar questions, regardless of the language spoken. Our analysis is based on the semantic-pragmatic profile of the interjection-type and repetition-type answer strategies, in the context of certain asymmetries inherent to the dialogic speech act structure of question–answer sequences, including sequential agency and thematic agency. This allows us to see possible explanations for the outlier distributions found in ǂĀkhoe Haiǁom and Tzeltal.
The galactopoietic effect of growth hormone (GH) in lactating ruminants is well established; however the mechanisms that mediate these effects are not well understood. The first objective of this study was to determine the effect of GH on the synthesis of the major casein and whey proteins. The second objective was to identify the genes and pathways that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk synthesis. A single subcutaneous injection of a commercially available slow release formulation of GH (Lactatropin®), or physiological saline solution (control) was administered to non-pregnant dairy cows (n=4/group) in mid-late lactation. Milk samples were collected for composition analysis and mammary lobulo-alveolar tissue was collected postmortem 6 days post injection. Gene expression profiles were evaluated using either a 22 000 bovine complementary DNA microarray or quantitative PCR (qPCR), and microarrays were validated by qPCR. The yield of all the major casein and whey proteins was increased 32% to 41% in GH-treated cows, with the exception of α-lactalbumin yield which was elevated by 70% relative to controls. Treatment with GH treatment tended to increase the concentration of α-lactalbumin but had no effect on the concentration of any of the major milk proteins. Messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance of the major whey and casein genes, with the exception of α-s2-casein, was increased in response to GH compared with controls, which is consistent with the positive effect of GH on milk production. Treatment with GH treatment influenced the mRNA abundance of genes involved in cell growth and proliferation, transcriptional and translational regulation, actin cytoskeleton signalling, lipid metabolism and cell death. This study has provided new insights into the cell signalling that may be involved in mediating the effect of GH on milk production in the mammary gland of lactating dairy cows.
The current trends in stimulated Brillouin scattering and optical phase conjugation are overviewed. This report is formed by the selected papers presented in the “Fifth International Workshop on stimulated Brillouin scattering and phase conjugation 2010” in Japan. The nonlinear properties of phase conjugation based on stimulated Brillouin scattering and photo-refraction can compensate phase distortions in the high power laser systems, and they will also open up potentially novel laser technologies, e.g., phase stabilization, beam combination, pulse compression, ultrafast pulse shaping, and arbitrary waveform generation.
Two independent ovarian cancer cell lines and fibroblast controls were treated with nonequilibrium atmospheric pressure plasma (NEAPP). Most ovarian cancer cells were detached from the culture dish by continuous plasma treatment to a single spot on the dish. Next, the plasma source was applied over the whole dish using a robot arm. In vitro cell proliferation assays showed that plasma treatments significantly decreased proliferation rates of ovarian cancer cells compared to fibroblast cells. FACS and Western blot analysis showed that plasma treatment of ovarian cancer cells induced apoptosis. NEAPP could be a promising tool for therapy for ovarian cancers.
We investigated effects of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma irradiation on growth characteristics of bread yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisie). Nitric oxide of 400 ppm and O3 above 200 ppm are produce by the DBD plasmas. DBD plasma irradiation of 50 and 100 s enhances the growth of yeast in the lag phase, whereas 150 s irradiation suppresses the growth. There is an optimum duration of plasma irradiation for the growth promotion.
Using a N2 gas plasma apparatus (BLP-TES, NGK Insulators, Ltd), we showed that N2 gas plasma treatment of influenza A virus caused degradation of viral nucleoproteins. These findings suggest that N2 gas plasma treatment may contribute to infection prevention control for influenza.
Growth enhancement characteristics of plants are investigated using an atmospheric discharge plasma. Atmospheric pressure plasma torch is consisted of alumina ceramics tube and the steel mesh electrodes wound inside and outside of the tube. The growth enhancement was observed in the length of stem and root of plants after the plasma irradiation to seeds. The stem length increases approximately 2.8 times after the cultivation time of 24 h. And the effect is found to be maintained for 40 h, after sowing seeds. The mechanism of the growth enhancement would be the redox reaction inside plant cells induced by oxygen radicals.
We compared growth enhancement of radish induced by O2, air, and Ar plasma irradiation. The average length of radish sprouts cultivated for 4 days after O2 plasma irradiation is 70% longer than that of sprouts without irradiation. The O2 plasma irradiation is more effective in enhancing growth than air and Ar radio frequency plasma irradiation. Cell morphology and cell size of sprouts with O2 plasma irradiation is nearly the same as those without irradiation. These results suggest that plasma induced acceleration of cell proliferation brings about the rapid growth.
A hospital disaster drill is commonly carried out based on the activities assigned beforehand by the occupational description. However, it is difficult for each staff the role is fixing to understand the global image of a disaster correspondence in a hospital disaster when their role is assigned and fixed. We have developed the understandable drill about the whole practice at each hospital in disaster. We keenly realized the necessity of a standard disaster medicine. Therefore we have developed the disaster drill which can be held per hospital. As a goal of a course, each hospital personnel could understand the global image of the disaster, and aimed at the daily course which can master necessary minimum skill to correspond a disaster in each hospital. From the reasons above, we created the course which consisted of a lecture, individual skill training, and a gross training. As essential skill, it starts with (1) management of disaster countermeasures office (2) management of triage post (3) treatment at room (4) support of conveyance between hospitals (5) information control. In order to employ these individual skill booths efficiently we divided attendances into five groups. Five hospitals started from 2008, were carried out 11 times, and about 500 persons took this disaster drill on a course. We expect that cost to bellower, the course to be simpler, and the quality of training will improve by holding this course repeatedly.
The Bi-based oxide superconducting wire is one of the most promising materials for practical uses such as electric power transmission, electromagnets and so on. For the higher performances required in these applications, it is necessary to increase the critical current (Ic). We have carried out synchrotron radiation X-ray diffraction analysis to improve our manufacturing processes and thus to achieve higher Ic. We have performed in situ X-ray diffraction measurements during the sintering and cooling processes, and observed the decrease of Bi-2223(=(Bi,Pb)2Sr2Ca2Cu3Ox) phase during the cooling process. We have also evaluated the distribution of the crystal orientation in whole wire thickness, by measuring the rocking curves. We have observed that the distribution of the crystal orientation is improved by a refinement of the process conditions.
A histopathological study was performed to clarify the characteristics of granuloma formation and liver fibrosis in Schistosoma mekongi infection in comparison with S. japonicum infection. Mice were exposed to S. mekongi (Laotian strain) and S. japonicum (Japanese strain) cercariae, and were dissected at 6, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks post-exposure. In the liver, granulomas in S. mekongi infection were cellular, initially organized with foam cells, and continuously appeared in the intralobular area, while granulomas in S. japonicum infection were fibrous and did not continuously appear in the intralobular area. Portal fibrosis was not seen in S. mekongi infection, but was commonly seen in S. japonicum infection in the later weeks. Granulomas in the small intestine were seen mainly in the submucosa with foam cells in S. mekongi infection and without foam cells in S. japonicum infection. The lung granulomas contained mainly histiocytes in both S. mekongi and S. japonicum infection. The absence of portal fibrosis in S. mekongi infection allows schistosome eggs to infiltrate into the intralobular area continuously, which can be what lies behind the ultrasonographic differences; the echogenic network pattern as was seen in S. japonicum infection, has not been noted in S. mekongi infection.
This study aimed to analyse vocal performance and to investigate the nature of the neoglottal sound source in patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy, using a high-speed digital imaging system.
High-speed digital imaging analysis of neoglottal kinetics was performed in two patients who had undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy; laryngotopography, inverse filtering analysis and multiline kymography were also undertaken.
In case one, laryngotopography demonstrated two vibrating areas: one matched with the primary (i.e. fundamental) frequency (75 Hz) and the other with the secondary frequency (150 Hz) at the neoglottis. In case two, laryngotopography showed two vibrating areas matched with the fundamental frequency (172 Hz) at the neoglottis. The interaction between the two areas was considered to be the sound source in both patients. The waveform of the estimated volume flow at the neoglottis, obtained by inverse filtering analysis, corresponded well to the neoglottal vibration patterns derived by multiline kymography. These findings indicated that the specific sites identified at the neoglottis by the present method were likely to be the sound source in each patient.
High-speed digital imaging analysis is effective in locating the sites responsible for voice production in patients who have undergone supracricoid laryngectomy with cricohyoidoepiglottopexy. This is the first study to clearly identify the neoglottal sound source in such patients, using a high-speed digital imaging system.
Using a hard exotemplate procedure, hierarchically structured carbonaceous foams have been designed, using silica monolith as inorganic template and phenolic resin as carbon precursor. The open cell carbonaceous monoliths exhibit specific surface areas from 500 to 800 m2.g-1, essentially based on microporosity and macropores ranging from 0.05 up to 50 μm. Application as electrochemical energy storage devices have been checked and discuss inhere.
Solid-state based battery technology offers, in principle, the largest temperature range (from room temperature to 500 °C) of any battery technology. In fluoride based batteries, the chemical reaction used to create electrical energy is a solid-state reaction of a metal with fluoride anion . Among the various types of solid preparation techniques, the mechanochemical synthesis has been recognized as a powerful route to novel, high-performance, and low-cost materials . Thus, a mixed and highly disordered fluoride phase with retained cubic symmetry can be obtained with a very high Fˉ diffusivity .
In our group, a series of new electrolytes was developed, namely LaF3-BaF2-KF solid solutions, using mechanosynthesis method. The cubic structure of the product was confirmed by XRD. The nanoscale nature and morphology of the samples were characterized by SEM and TEM. First Solid-state electrochemical cells were built with LiF based composite cathode, LaF3-BaF2-KF derived electrolyte and Fe based composite anode.
Olivine (LiFePO4)-carbon nanofibre composites were synthesized through a combination of electrospinning and solvothermal methods. Morphology, distribution and crystal structure of these composites were investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Electrochemical properties of synthesized LiFePO4-carbon fibre composite cathodes have been studied in litium ion coin cells by means of galvanostatic cycling and cyclic voltammetry. As compared to pristine LiFePO4, there was significant improvement in the specific capacity (˜25% at 0.1C rate) of LiFePO4 - ECNF owing to the improved conductivity.
Fabrication of all-solid-state Li battery has been strongly required to overcome safety issue of present Li battery. One of promising structures for ceramics electrolyte in all-solid-state battery is 2-layered structure composed of 3 dimensionally ordered macroporous layer (3DOM) and dense layer. In this study, we prepared LLT ceramics electrolyte with the 2-layered structure by suspension filtration method. Thicknesses of the dense and the porous layers were about 17 and 111 μm, respectively. The porous layer involved uniform pores of 1.8 μm in diameter. An electrochemical property of LiMn2O4/2-layered LLT composite, prepared by impregnation of precursor sol for LiMn2O4 into the pores followed by calcination, was tested. A rechargeable behavior of the composite electrode was clearly observed. From this result, it can be said that the composite can work as rechargeable battery. The discharge capacity of the composite was 27 mA h g-1.
LiFePO4/graphene-oxide (GNO) composites were prepared by co-precipitation method. Their structure and morphology were investigated by X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectra, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. A low content of GNO can be uniformly dispersed in the matrix of LiFePO4 nano particles, while at a higher content, GNO will aggregate severely and has a negative effect on the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4. Further heat treatment can improve the crystallinity of LiFePO4, and improve the electrochemical performance of LiFePO4 with a relatively low content of GNO.
We have employed anodic oxidation of Ti foils to prepare self-organized TiO2 nanotube arrays which show enhanced electrochemical properties for applications as Li-ion battery electrode materials. The lengths and pore diameters of TiO2 nanotubes can be finely tuned by varying voltage, electrolyte composition, or anodization time. The as-prepared nanotubes are amorphous and can be converted into anatase nanotubes with heat treatment at 480oC and nanotubes of mixed anatase/rutile phases by heating at 580oC. The morphological features of nanotubes remain unchanged after annealing. Amorphous nanotubes with a length of 3.0 μm and an outer diameter of 125 nm delivers a capacity of 91.2 μA h cm-2 at a current density of 400 μA cm-2, while those with a length of 25 μm and an outer diameter of 158 nm display a capacity of 533 μA h cm-2. The 3-μm long anatase nanotubes and nanotubes of mixed phases show lower capacities of 53.8 μA h cm-2 and 63.1 μA h cm-2, respectively at the same current density. The amorphous TiO2 nanotubes with a length of 1.9 μm exhibit a capacity five times higher than that of TiO2 compact layer even when the nanotube array is cycled at a current density 80 times higher than that for the compact layer. The amorphous nanotubes show excellent capacity retention ability over 50 cycles. Cycled nanotubes show little change in morphology compared to the nanotubes before cycling, indicating the high structural stability of TiO2 nanotubes.
Lithium borophosphate glasses 0.45Li2O-(0.55-x)P2O5-xB2O3 (where 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.40) were investigated focusing on the influence of cation mobility changes due to mixed glass former effect. It was found that glass transition temperature (Tg) increases and molar volume decreases with B2O3 addition. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) spectra showed that besides P-O-P, B-O-B and P=O, P-O-, B-O- bond peaks, an intermediate O1s peak due to P-O-B bonds emerges in glasses with B2O3 contents x ≥ 0.15. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for the same systems have been performed with an optimized potential, fitted to match bond lengths, coordination numbers and ionic conductivity (σdc). Structural effects on ion transport as the origin of the mixed glass former effect can be quantified by applying the bond valence analysis (BV) approach to the equilibrated MD trajectories.