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Issues in traditional cross-section sampling of paintings and other cultural artifacts with a scalpel, such as crumbling, delamination and paint compression, can deter conservators from sampling fragile paint layers. Often, such sampling carries the risk of causing further damage from a scalpel, which outweighs the benefits of scientific investigation. Here, we show that femtosecond lasers offer a viable alternative to obtaining cross-sections with minimal damage to the surrounding artwork. A Regenerative Ti:Sapphire amplifier system with a pulse duration of 70 femtoseconds, a few milliwatts of average power and a repetition rate of 1 kHz (1000 pulses/sec) was used for the study. Tests were performed on oil paintings ranging in age from the 19th century to late 20th century. Effective settings were determined to be 2 mW of power at a speed of 10mm/sec using an 800nm laser. Preliminary results suggest femtosecond lasers could be a viable alternative for obtaining paint cross-sections when traditional sampling methods cause unnecessary damage to fragile materials.
The Fukushima Daiichi and Daini Nuclear Power Plant workers experienced multiple stressors as both victims and onsite workers after the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and subsequent nuclear accidents. Previous studies found that disaster-related exposures, including discrimination/slurs, were associated with their mental health. Their long-term impact has yet to be investigated.
A total of 968 plant workers (Daiichi, n = 571; Daini, n = 397) completed self-written questionnaires 2–3 months (time 1) and 14–15 months (time 2) after the disaster (response rate 55.0%). Sociodemographics, disaster-related experiences, and peritraumatic distress were assessed at time 1. At time 1 and time 2, general psychological distress (GPD) and post-traumatic stress response (PTSR) were measured, respectively, using the K6 scale and Impact of Event Scale Revised. We examined multivariate covariates of time 2 GPD and PTSR, adjusting for autocorrelations in the hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD at time 1 (β = 0.491, p < 0.001) and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.065, p = 0.025, adjusted R2 = 0.24). Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted with higher PTSR at time 1 (β = 0.548, p < 0.001), higher age (β = 0.085, p = 0.005), and discrimination/slurs experiences at time 1 (β = 0.079, p = 0.003, adjusted R2 = 0.36).
Higher GPD at time 2 was predicted by higher GPD and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1. Higher PTSR at time 2 was predicted by higher PTSR, higher age, and discrimination/slurs experience at time 1.
Introduction: In order to achieve the best possible outcomes for patients requiring resuscitation (PRRs) in the emergency department (ED), health care providers (HCPs) must provide an efficient, multi-disciplinary and coordinated response. A quality improvement (QI) project was undertaken to improve HCP response to PRRs at two tertiary care hospital EDs in Toronto. Methods: We conducted a before-and-after mixed-method survey to evaluate the perception of the adequacy of HCP response and clarity of HCP role when responding to PRRs. The results were compared using the Chi-square test. Qualitative responses to the first survey were also used to inform the development of the QI project. Through interviews of key stakeholders and with continuous input from front-line ED HCPs, a multi-disciplinary team modified the ED resuscitation protocol. This included standardized pre-hospital communication form with paramedics, ED-wide overhead announcement of ‘Code Resus’, dedicated HCPs assigned to respond to PRRs, and specific duties assigned to each responder. Change initiatives were reinforced through education and posters in the ED. Six months after implementation, a second survey was conducted to evaluate the sustained effects of the intervention. Results: Baseline measures indicated that 16 of 52 (30.8%) nurses surveyed believed their role was often or always apparent to themselves and others when they attended to a PRR (on a 5-point rating scale). This proportion increased to 35 of 55 (63.6%) nurses in the post-implementation survey (p < 0.001). Regarding adequacy of the number of HCPs responding to PRRs, 17 of 39 (43.6%) physicians and 23 of 53 (43.4%) nurses surveyed thought the appropriate number of HCPs responded to PRRs; the remainder thought that there were too few or too many HCPs. In the post-implementation survey, 34 of 41 (82.9%) physicians (p < 0.001) and 36 of 56 (64.3%) nurses (p = 0.029) surveyed felt that the appropriate number of HCPs attended to PRRs. Conclusion: Using a quality improvement approach, we identified and quantified perceived deficiencies in HCP response to PRRs in the ED. Through feedback-based modifications of the ED resuscitation protocol and by engaging HCP stakeholders, change initiatives were implemented to improve HCP response. As a result, this project achieved significant and sustained improvements in HCPs’ perceived response to PRRs.
Using the IRAM 30 m telescope, we perform a molecular line survey of the 3 and 2 mm wavelength ranges towards 5 selected positions in the Galactic center region, sampling shocked regions, ultraviolet (UV) and X-ray pervaded regions, and positions with rich organic chemistry. These surveys have the potential to be used as chemical templates for different types of activity, such as photodissociated regions (PDRs), shocks and X-ray dominated regions (XDRs). Complementary, molecular surveys done towards extragalactic nuclei, that are also dominated by these physical activities, were carried by our group.
The Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) is composed of
many Filamentary Discharges (FDs), and it can be applied to ozone
generation, gaseous pollution control, etc. In our laboratory, we
investigated efficient cleaning methods of diesel exhaust gas by DBD. From
the results of numerical simulation of chemical reactions, a homogeneous DBD
was expected to improve the efficiency of pollution control and also the
ozone yield. Recently, we found that a DBD device using alumina as barrier
material can generate an Atmospheric Pressure Townsend Discharge (APTD) in
air. In this research, we setup two ozonizers with different discharge modes
of FD and APTD, and compared the ozone yield. The experimental results
showed that the ozone yield was higher by the FD mode than by the APTD mode
in lower Specific Input Energy (SIE) region. However in the region that the
SIE is larger than 420J/L, the APTD mode showed higher ozone yield than FD
The aim was to estimate the incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection in health-care workers (HCWs) in Japan. We repeated cross-sectional surveys of HCWs with QuantiFERON®-TB Gold (QFT-G) in 2003, 2005 and 2007 at a hospital with tuberculosis (TB) wards, and 311 HCWs who underwent QFT-G testing two or three times were included in the study. Five HCWs (1·8%) converted from negative to positive. Incidence of new TB infection was estimated to be 0·6/100 person-years by the CDC's definition. Thirteen positive persons (41%) reverted from positive to negative. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified a significant association between QFT-G conversion and working in TB wards. The IFN-γ levels of all but two subjects with reverting or converting QFT-G results were close to the test's cut-off. The incidence of Mtb infection in HCWs at our hospital was higher than that estimated for the general population in Japan. Criteria for defining QFT-G conversion and reversion need further investigation considering the high proportion of reversion, as the incidence of infection would have changed if we had applied other definitions.
Newly developed interferon-gamma release assays have become commercially available to detect tuberculosis (TB) infection in adults. However, little is known about their performance in children. We compared test results between the QuantiFERON-TB® Gold test (QFT) and tuberculin skin test (TST) in young children living with pulmonary TB patients in Cambodia. Of 195 children tested with both QFT and TST, the TST-positive rate of 24% was significantly higher than the QFT-positive rate of 17%. The agreement between the test results was considerable (κ-coefficient 0·63). Positive rates increased from 6% to 32% for QFT and from 15% to 43% for TST, according to the sputum smear grades of the index cases. The presence of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) scars did not significantly affect the results of TST or QFT in a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, QFT can be a substitute for TST in detecting latent TB infection in childhood contacts aged ⩽5 years, especially in those who may have a false-positive TST due to BCG vaccination or non-tuberculous mycobacterial infection.
Characterization by reciprocal space mapping of x-ray diffraction (XRD) intensity was carried out for epitaxial layers of GaN-based laser structures on two GaN substrates: GaN substrate and GaN template on sapphire substrate. The difference between these two substrates was shown clearly. The distribution of XRD intensity of the epitaxial layers on GaN substrate was smaller than that of the epitaxial layers on GaN template on sapphire substrate. In the lasers with the epitaxial structure on GaN substrate, the light output power was as high as 200 mW under continuous-wave operation at room temperature. Excellent noise characteristics with relative intensity noise of -132 dB/Hz were also obtained at a low light output power of 3 mW without any high-frequency modulation. These results support that GaN substrates are promising for realizing GaN-based lasers with high performance.
Hg (mercury) in GaAs is known to be a moderately deep acceptor impurity, having a 52 meV activation energy. Optical properties of Hg acceptors in GaAs were systematically investigated as a function of Hg concentration, [Hg]. Samples were prepared by high-energy ion-implantation of Hg+ into GaAs grown by the liquid encapsulated Czochralski (LEC) method. Heat treatment was made by furnace annealing and rapid thermal annealing. Photoluminescence measurements at 2K revealed that the Hg-related so-called “g” line is formed in addition to the well-defined conduction band-to-Hg acceptor transition, (e, Hg). Additionally, three shallow emissions are formed for net hole concentrations INA-NDI greater than 2×1017cm−3 . This is the first demonstration that even Hg in GaAs makes multiple shallow emissions due to acceptor-acceptor pairs and LEC GaAs can be used for the investigations of these emissions.
Highly oriented YBCO films were produced on MgO(100) single crystal substrates. The direction of c axis was perpendicular to the film plane, whereas those of a and b axes were at random directions. The critical current density of the films was significantly high ca. 7x105 A/cm2. The critical transition temperature (Tc) of the YBCO film formed on a metal substrate, predeposited with YSZ as a buffer layer, was similar to those of the YBCO on MgO substrate. The possibility for the formation of superconductor films on metal substrates is suggested from these results.
The process of development of the crista ampullaris has been investigated in the mouse using SEM.
Cristae ampullaris of the CBA/CBA mice, from the 13.5th gestational day to the day 2 weeks by were studied.
On the 13.5th gestational day, there were numerous microvilli and a primary cilium on the crista ampullaris. Sensory hairs first appeared on the 14.5th gestational day. The kinocilium and stereocilia were short and the length of the stereocilia was almost constant. The formation of the cupula, which had fine networklike structures, started on the 14.5th gestational day.
Nitrogen atoms exist in silicon as non-reactive nitrogen molecules. This is concluded from two I-R absorption experiments: one is the nitrogen isotope effects on N- N pairs and the other is silicon isotope shifts at 10 K. Intrinsic resistivities (over 20 K ohm-cm) are obtained by annealing at 1000°C, 1 min. in N2 in both p- and n-type nitrogen doped thin wafers. Resistivity increases are due to deep- level generations: 0.66 eV above the valence band for p-type and mainly 0.44 eV below the conduction band for n-type material. These deep levels are considered to be formed by nitrogen pairs and divacancies which are incorporated during growth. Since divacancies are easy to out diffuse to the wafers surface, the deep levels are also irreversibly removed. Diffusion coefficient of Si intersititialswici'ch are annihilated with divacancies in the lattice are calculated as 6×10−6cm2/s and 2×10−6cm2/s at 900°C and 1000°C respectively. Migration energy of Si interstitials is about 4.5 eV.
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