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Seeds of 15 diverse rice accessions, representing aus, indica, temperate japonica and tropical japonica subpopulations, were produced under temperate climate conditions in Korea and used for vitamin E analysis and seed storage experiments at 45°C and 10.9% seed moisture content. High γ-tocotrienol was significantly positively correlated with seed longevity. In addition, a high β-tocopherol proportion relative to δ-tocopherol was significantly negatively correlated with seed longevity. Using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism marker data, DNA haplotype analysis showed clear allelic variations in the region of two S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes: LOC_Os04g42095 and LOC_Os11g15410, which regulate the conversion of δ-tocopherol into β-tocopherol. Four indica accessions with rare and subpopulation-specific alleles showed a 2.3-fold lower β-/δ-tocopherol ratio compared with accessions from other subpopulations.
IARC's designation of crystalline silica as a “probable carcinogen” triggered the requirement to label products containing greater than 0.1 % crystalline silica. For perlite and other materials which may contain crystalline silica in levels close to 0.1% an accurate determination is critical from both legal and marketing considerations.
Existing analytical techniques for the determination of crystalline silica at levels of less than 1.0% were found to be inadequate to meet the new requirements. An improved technique based on x-ray diffraction has been developed specifically to analyze perlite for crystalline silica, which occurs largely in the form of quartz, at the 0.1%. level. The technique employs long counting times and improved sample preparation and mounting to increase both precision and accuracy, and to lower the detection limit to less than 0.1%.
The technique was tested on a large number of samples from a variety of sources and proven to give excellent results for all types of expanded perlites and perlite ores. The procedures developed are applicable to a wide variety of materials in addition to perlite.
Pale soft exudative pork (PSE) is a major problem affecting swine industries worldwide that results in significant economic loss because it reduces processing and saleable product yields. The PSE condition results from a rapid rate of muscle glycolysis early postmortem and a rapid drop in muscle pH while the temperature of the carcass is still high. Stress prior to slaughter can increase the rate of glycolysis and postmortem acidification. Blood acid-base has been used as an indicator of stress in pigs. The objective of this experiment was to investigate the relationship between blood acid-base status at slaughter and fresh meat quality in pigs.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
A large eddy simulation framework is used to explore the structure of the turbulent flow in a thermally stratified wind turbine array boundary layer. The flow field is driven by a constant geostrophic wind with time-varying surface boundary conditions obtained from a selected period of the CASES-99 field experiment. Proper orthogonal decomposition is used to extract coherent structures of the turbulent flow under the considered thermal stratification regimes. The flow structure is discussed in the context of three-dimensional representations of key modes, which demonstrate features ranging in size from the wind turbine wakes to the atmospheric boundary layer. Results demonstrate that structures related to the atmospheric boundary layer flow dominate over those introduced by the wind farm for the unstable and neutrally stratified regimes; large structures in atmospheric turbulence are beneficial for the wake recovery, and consequently the presence of the turbulent wind turbine wakes is diminished. Contrarily, the flow in the stably stratified case is fully dominated by the presence of the turbines and highly influenced by the Coriolis force. A comparative analysis of the test cases indicates that during the stable regime, higher-order modes contribute less to the overall character of the flow. Under neutral and unstable stratification, important turbulence dynamics are distributed over a larger range of basis functions. The influence of the wind turbines on the structure of the atmospheric boundary layer is mainly quantified via the turbulence kinetic energy of the first ten modes. Linking the new insights into structure of the wind turbine/atmospheric boundary layer and their interaction addressed here will benefit the formulation of new simplified models for commercial application.
Targets have been developed to measure supersonic radiation transport in aerogel foams using absorption spectroscopy. The target consists of an aerogel foam uniformly doped with either titanium or scandium inserted into an undoped aerogel foam package. This creates a localized doped foam region to provide spatial resolution for the measurement. Development and characterization of the foams is a key challenge in addition to machining and assembling the two foams so they mate without gaps. The foam package is inserted into a beryllium sleeve and mounted on a gold hohlraum. The target is mounted to a holder created using additive manufacturing and mounted on a stalk. The manufacturing of the components, along with assembly and metrology of the target are described here.
Mental health stigma and discrimination are significant problems. Common coping orientations include: concealing mental health problems, challenging others and educating others. We describe the use of common stigma coping orientations and explain variations within a sample of English mental health service users.
Cross-sectional survey data were collected as part of the Viewpoint survey of mental health service users’ experiences of discrimination (n = 3005). Linear regression analyses were carried out to identify factors associated with the three stigma coping orientations.
The most common coping orientation was to conceal mental health problems (73%), which was strongly associated with anticipated discrimination. Only 51% ever challenged others because of discriminating behaviour, this being related to experienced discrimination, but also to higher confidence to tackle stigma.
Although stigma coping orientations vary by context, individuals often choose to conceal problems, which is associated with greater anticipated and experienced discrimination and less confidence to challenge stigma. The direction of this association requires further investigation.
Pulse arrival time measurements allow the determination of accurate pulsar periods, period derivatives and, provided the data span is at least one year, precise pulsar positions. If observations are frequent and reasonably regular, irregularities in the period can also be investigated. To minimize the effect of possible variations in dispersion measure, it is important that these observations be made at a relatively high frequency, preferably above 1 GHz. To eliminate pulse shape variations due to variable ionospheric Faraday
rotation, the pulse total intensity or one of the circular polarizations must be recorded.
With permanency planning taking the spotlight increasingly in the field of foster care, i t becomes urgent to examine the definition of permanency, the effect on practice, and the implications for service delivery.
The aim of this preliminary study was to adapt Layer-by-Layer (LbL) assembly to fabricate nanocomposite coatings onto open-cell porous structures, enabling customization of mechanical properties and porosity to obtain materials suitable for bone tissue scaffold applications. LbL assembly is a well-established method for fabricating multilayer films with nanometre scale precision over thickness that is based on electrostatic attractions and involves the adsorption of oppositely charged electrolytes onto a substrate. Using LbL assembly, polymer-nanoclay composite coatings were deposited onto open-cell foam substrates. The elastic modulus of coated specimens in compression was improved from 0.078 MPa to 1.736 MPa. The results suggest that polymer-nanoclay coatings deposited via LbL assembly have the potential to improve mechanical properties of porous substrates and fabricate materials with mechanical properties comparable to that of a cancellous bone tissue upon deposition of a sufficient number of multilayers.
Polarization observations of integrated pulse profiles have been made in seven frequency ranges between 170 MHz and 2700 MHz. Forty-nine pulsars have been observed at three or more of these frequencies. The frequency variation of the degree of linear and circular polarization is discussed for these pulsars.
Cricopharyngeal dysfunction following head and neck cancer treatment may lead to a significant reduction in oral intake. Carbon dioxide laser is an established procedure for the treatment of non-malignant cricopharyngeal disorders. We report our experience of laser cricopharyngeal myotomy with objective swallowing outcome measures, before and after treatment.
We identified 11 patients who had undergone carbon dioxide laser cricopharyngeal myotomy for dysphagia following radiotherapy, with or without chemotheraphy between January 2006 and July 2011. We analysed the swallowing outcomes following carbon dioxide laser cricopharyngeal myotomy by retrospective grading of pre- and post-procedure videofluoroscopic swallowing study of liquids, using the validated Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile.
The median Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile score was 13 pre-myotomy and 10 post-myotomy. This difference between scores was non-significant (p = 0.41). The median, cricopharyngeal-specific Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile variables (14 and 17) improved from 3 to 2, but were similarly non-significant (p = 0.16). We observed the improved Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile scores post-procedure in the majority of patients.
Endoscopic carbon dioxide laser cricopharyngeal myotomy remains a viable option in treatment-related cricopharyngeal dysfunction; its targeted role requires further prospective study. Objective analysis of the technique can be reported using the validated Modified Barium Swallow Impairment Profile.
We present two distinct methods to nanostructure the surface of amorphous silicon to produce unique, nanoscale surface features. One method is a dry etch process that employs a modified Bosch1 process on an advanced silicon etcher to produce needle-like features of amorphous silicon. Likewise, we also investigated metal-assisted wet chemical etching2 as an alternative method to nanostructure the amorphous silicon to produce porous-like features. The resulting surface topography leads to an optically black appearance over patterned or large areas. This is a result of the interspacing between each needle and pore that leads to a high optical absorption. Thus, we designate it as black amorphous silicon (b-a-Si). We have deposited and formed regions of b-a-Si on variety of insulating films and metal electrodes, including chrome and titanium. In this study, we characterize the electrical and optical properties of as-deposited amorphous silicon and nanostructured amorphous silicon.