In instrumented indentation tests for a thin film coating on a substrate (film/substrate composite), it is well known that the substrate-affected contact area estimated through conventional approximations includes significant uncertainties, leading to a crucial difficulty in determining the elastic modulus and the contact hardness. To overcome this difficulty, an instrumented indentation microscope that enables researchers to make an in situ determination of the contact area is applied to an elastoplastic film on substrates having various values of their elastic moduli. Using the indentation microscope, the substrate-affected indentation contact parameters including contact hardness of the film/substrate composites are determined directly as well as quantitatively without any undesirable assumptions and approximations associated with the contact area estimate. The effect of a stiffer substrate on the contact profile of impression is significant, switching the profile from sinking in to piling up during penetration, and resulting in the substrate-affected contact hardness being highly enhanced at deeper penetrations. Through the present experimental study, it is demonstrated how efficient that instrumented indentation microscopy is in determining the substrate-affected elastoplastic contact parameters of film/substrate composite systems.