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Seeds of 15 diverse rice accessions, representing aus, indica, temperate japonica and tropical japonica subpopulations, were produced under temperate climate conditions in Korea and used for vitamin E analysis and seed storage experiments at 45°C and 10.9% seed moisture content. High γ-tocotrienol was significantly positively correlated with seed longevity. In addition, a high β-tocopherol proportion relative to δ-tocopherol was significantly negatively correlated with seed longevity. Using high-density single-nucleotide polymorphism marker data, DNA haplotype analysis showed clear allelic variations in the region of two S-adenosylmethionine synthetase genes: LOC_Os04g42095 and LOC_Os11g15410, which regulate the conversion of δ-tocopherol into β-tocopherol. Four indica accessions with rare and subpopulation-specific alleles showed a 2.3-fold lower β-/δ-tocopherol ratio compared with accessions from other subpopulations.
In this study electrolytic copper powder and atomised high purity iron powders of various size, fractions were consolidated to comparable densities by two very different processes (quasistatic pressing and dynamic, or shook wave, compaction). The resulting pairs of compacts had densities of approximately 0.96 of the theoretical density. These specimens were analysed by X-ray diffraction in order to determine the effect of particle size on the response to compaction.
Remarkably few attempts have been made to estimate contemporary effective population size (Ne) for parasitic species, despite the valuable perspectives it can offer on the tempo and pace of parasite evolution as well as coevolutionary dynamics of host–parasite interactions. In this study, we utilized multi-locus microsatellite data to derive single-sample and temporal estimates of contemporary Ne for a cestode parasite (Schistocephalus solidus) as well as three-spined stickleback hosts (Gasterosteus aculeatus) in lakes across Alaska. Consistent with prior studies, both approaches recovered small and highly variable estimates of parasite and host Ne. We also found that estimates of host Ne and parasite Ne were sensitive to assumptions about population genetic structure and connectivity. And, while prior work on the stickleback–cestode system indicates that physiographic factors external to stickleback hosts largely govern genetic variation in S. solidus, our findings indicate that stickleback host attributes and factors internal to the host – namely body length, genetic diversity and infection – shape contemporary Ne of cestode parasites.
A staple theme in clinical psychology, emotion regulation, or the ability to manage one's emotions, is directly linked with personal wellbeing and the ability to effectively navigate the social world. Until recently, this concept has been limited to a focus on intrapersonal processes, such as suppression. Less emphasis has been placed on developmental, social, and cultural aspects of emotion regulation. We argue here that as social beings, our engagement in emotion regulation may often occur interpersonally, with trusted others helping us to regulate our emotions. This review will highlight recent research on interpersonal emotion regulation processes.
Sleep disturbance is common on in-patient psychiatry wards. This study explored subjective and objective patterns of sleep disturbance and contributory environmental factors. Participants were recruited from mental health acute admission wards and had a range of subjective and objective assessments of sleep. Light intensity and noise levels were measured to characterise potential environmental causes for poor sleep.
We recruited 20 patients; 15% were high risk for obstructive sleep apnoea. Nineteen participants reported poor sleep quality on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, and 90% had significant sleep fragmentation with objective measures. Inside light levels were low (day <200 lux and night <10 lux). Night sound levels were 40–90 db.
Sleep disturbance was highly prevalent. Increased awareness of sleep disorders is needed. Modifiable environmental factors on the ward were implicated, therefore increased awareness and a change of approach to sleep disturbance in in-patient psychiatry is recommended.
Early life exposures affect health and disease across the life course and potentially across multiple generations. The Clinical and Translational Research Institutes (CTSIs) offer an opportunity to utilize and link existing databases to conduct lifespan research.
A survey with Lifespan Domain Taskforce expert input was created and distributed to lead lifespan researchers at each of the 64 CTSIs. The survey requested information regarding institutional databases related to early life exposure, child-maternal health, or lifespan research.
Of 64 CTSI, 88% provided information on a total of 130 databases. Approximately 59% (n=76/130) had an associated biorepository. Longitudinal data were available for 72% (n=93/130) of reported databases. Many of the biorepositories (n=44/76; 68%) have standard operating procedures that can be shared with other researchers.
The majority of CTSI databases and biorepositories focusing on child-maternal health and lifespan research could be leveraged for lifespan research, increased generalizability and enhanced multi-institutional research in the United States.
While our fascination with understanding the past is sufficient to warrant an increased focus on synthesis, solutions to important problems facing modern society require understandings based on data that only archaeology can provide. Yet, even as we use public monies to collect ever-greater amounts of data, modes of research that can stimulate emergent understandings of human behavior have lagged behind. Consequently, a substantial amount of archaeological inference remains at the level of the individual project. We can more effectively leverage these data and advance our understandings of the past in ways that contribute to solutions to contemporary problems if we adapt the model pioneered by the National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis to foster synthetic collaborative research in archaeology. We propose the creation of the Coalition for Archaeological Synthesis coordinated through a U.S.-based National Center for Archaeological Synthesis. The coalition will be composed of established public and private organizations that provide essential scholarly, cultural heritage, computational, educational, and public engagement infrastructure. The center would seek and administer funding to support collaborative analysis and synthesis projects executed through coalition partners. This innovative structure will enable the discipline to address key challenges facing society through evidentially based, collaborative synthetic research.
We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
Ground-state OH masers identified in the Southern Parkes Large-Area Survey in Hydroxyl were observed with the Australia Telescope Compact Array to obtain positions with high accuracy (~1 arcsec). We classified these OH masers into evolved star OH maser sites, star formation OH maser sites, supernova remnant OH maser sites, planetary nebula OH maser sites and unknown maser sites using their accurate positions. Evolved star and star formation OH maser sites in the Galactic Centre region (between Galactic longitudes of −5° to +5° and Galactic latitudes of −2° and +2°) were studied in detail to understand their distributions.
The Fezzan Project completed its five-year fieldwork cycle in 2001. The geographical research team located numerous additional palaeolake sites within the Edeyen Ubari, using a combination of Remote Sensing technology and field visits. Additional samples were taken for analysis and dating from many lake edge locations, relating to both the large Pleistocene lake and to the numerous smaller Holocene lakes that have been identified by the team. The excavations at Old Germa were taken down through Garamantian occupation levels to the natural subsoil below the earliest cultural horizon. The earliest activity, represented by a few mudbrick walls and hearths built directly on the natural soil, is believed to date to c. 400-300 BC. Traces of several phases of Garamantian buildings were uncovered, along with numerous rubbish pits, which yielded a rich assemblage of finds, including, for the first time, examples of Garamantian figurines, small 3-D sculptures of humans and animals. Work on the various classes of finds (pottery, small finds, lithics and other stone artefacts, metallurgical evidence, etc.) complemented the excavation work. In addition, a small amount of further survey work was carried out on sites in the Wadi al-Ajal, along with a contour survey of Old Germa and standing building survey at a number of other sites.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
Novel field emission (FE) devices are introduced employing lateral architecture. Ultrathin multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) sheet were utilized to fabricate the emitter. Effects of basic configuration of sheets, including the orientation of CNTs and sheet thickness were examined. The novel device achieved the threshold field (the electric field at which current density reach 1 mA/cm2) of 0.67 V/µm and enhancement factor larger than 20,000.
The ability of silver (Ag)-containing borate bioactive glass (BG) coatings to improve the biocompatibility and antibacterial properties of titanium (Ti) implants was investigated in vitro and in vivo in a rabbit tibial fracture model. Dense coatings of borate BG (thickness ≈ 20 μm) containing 0, 0.75, and 1.0 wt% Ag2O were prepared by depositing a layer of particles on Ti plates, followed by sintering at 900 °C. The as-prepared coatings had an adhesive strength of 10 ± 1 MPa, and when immersed in an aqueous phosphate (K2HPO4) solution, the coatings converted to hydroxyapatite, releasing Ag+ ions continuously for over 4 wk. After implantation of BG-coated Ti constructs in a rabbit tibial fracture model and of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-induced osteomyelitis, the BG coating doped with 1.0 wt% Ag2O was most effective for the simultaneous eradication of the infection and fracture fixation. Implants coated with Ag-containing BG coatings could provide an approach for reducing implant-related bone infection.
The optically detected magnetic resonance (ODMR) technique has been employed to examine the nature and formation mechanism of non-radiative defects in GaNAs and InGaAsN. In both alloys, two defects were observed and were shown to be deep-level, non-radiative recombination centers. One of the defects has been identified as a complex involving an AsGa antisite. These two defects gain more importance with increasing N composition up to 3%, presumably due to an increase in their concentration. With a further higher N composition, the defects start to lose importance in carrier recombination that is attributed to an increasingly important role of other new non-radiative channels introduced with a high N composition. On the other hand, effect of In composition up to 3% seems to be only marginal. Both defects were shown to be preferably introduced in the alloys during low-temperature growth by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), but can be rather efficiently removed by post-growth rapid thermal annealing.
A novel system is described for determining physical properties, including bulk modulus and density, of small solid samples. The system consists of a chamber in which the sample weight is measured by a weighing device immersed in a gas of controllable density. Thus, the method of measuring density is based on Archimedes' principle where the weight of an object is reduced by the weight of the displaced fluid. This particular device has been designed for examining the density of disk-shaped samples 3 mm in diameter and 0.4 mm thick. The weighing device has a repeatability of 4 nN and sample densities can be determined to 0.5%.
A significant feature of this device is the ability to measure buoyancy forces at a plurality of gas densities, which allows one to capture nonlinear behaviors associated with closed-cell compressible media. Results are presented for a quasi-closed cell foam that experiences volume reduction as the gas pressure is increased. Volumetric strains are determined as the difference between the observed behavior and the linear behavior of incompressible media. Plots of hydrostatic stress versus volumetric strain are initially linear, as described by the bulk modulus, and exhibit a “kink” at high pressures, presumably due to the complete compression of internal cells.
This paper reports the results of a study of the dynamic 3-dimensional response between a diamond point probe and a commercial hard-disk overcoat/lubricant system. The specific overcoat was CNx with a thickness of 50 Å. The lubricant layer was ZDOL with nominal thicknesses of 11 Å and 24 Å in unbonded and bonded conditions. The experiments were conducted with a constant lateral displacement oscillation in the z, x & y direction of 1 nm at a frequency of 125 Hz. Results of this study show that the bonded lubricant layer increases the lateral force required to maintain a constant lateral displacement oscillation compared to both the unlubricated CNx coating and the CNx coating with the unbonded lubricant.