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Experimental political science has transformed in the last decade. The use of experiments has dramatically increased throughout the discipline, and technological and sociological changes have altered how political scientists use experiments. We chart the transformation of experiments and discuss new challenges that experimentalists face. We then outline how the contributions to this volume will help scholars and practitioners conduct high-quality experiments.
Whereas scholars have typically modeled climate change as a global collective action challenge, we offer a dynamic theory of climate politics based on the present and future revaluation of assets. Climate politics can be understood as a contest between owners of assets that accelerate climate change, such as fossil fuel plants, and owners of assets vulnerable to climate change, such as coastal property. To date, obstruction by “climate-forcing” asset holders has been a large barrier to effective climate policy. But as climate change and decarbonization policies proceed, holders of both climate-forcing and “climate-vulnerable” assets stand to lose some or even all of their assets' value over time, and with them, the basis of their political power. This dynamic contest between opposing interests is likely to intensify in many sites of political contestation, from the subnational to transnational levels. As it does so, climate politics will become increasingly existential, potentially reshaping political alignments within and across countries. Such shifts may further undermine the Liberal International Order (LIO); as countries develop pro-climate policies at different speeds and magnitudes, they will have incentives to diverge from existing arrangements over trade and economic integration.
The Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaea is a ‘Critically Endangered’ migratory shorebird. The species faces an array of threats in its non-breeding range, making conservation intervention essential. However, conservation efforts are reliant on identifying the species’ key stopover and wintering sites. Using Maximum Entropy models, we predicted Spoon-billed Sandpiper distribution across the non-breeding range, using data from recent field surveys and satellite tracking. Model outputs suggest only a limited number of stopover sites are suitable for migrating birds, with sites in the Yellow Sea and on the Jiangsu coast in China highlighted as particularly important. All the previously known core wintering sites were identified by the model including the Ganges-Brahmaputra Delta, Nan Thar Island and the Gulf of Mottama. In addition, the model highlighted sites subsequently found to be occupied, and pinpointed potential new sites meriting investigation, notably on Borneo and Sulawesi, and in parts of India and the Philippines. A comparison between the areas identified as most likely to be occupied and protected areas showed that very few locations are covered by conservation designations. Known sites must be managed for conservation as a priority, and potential new sites should be surveyed as soon as is feasible to assess occupancy status. Site protection should take place in concert with conservation interventions including habitat management, discouraging hunting, and fostering alternative livelihoods.
The dendrite morphologies of the cast nickel-based superalloy CMSX-4® (CMSX-4® is registered trademarks of the Cannon-Muskegon Corporation) and the austenitic stainless steel HP microalloy have been obtained via an automated serial-sectioning process which allows three-dimensional (3D) microstructural characterization. The dendrite arm spacing, volume fraction of segregation, and fraction of porosity have been determined. This technique not only increases the depth, scope, and level of detailed microstructural characterization but also delivers microstructural data for modeling and simulation.
Innovation Concept: Effective communication for ad hoc teams is critical to successful management of multisystem trauma patients, to improve situational awareness and to mitigate risk of error. OBJECTIVES 1. Improve communication of ad hoc teams. 2. Identify system gaps. INNOVATION Team in situ simulations provide a unique opportunity to practice communication and assess systems in the real environment. Our trauma team consists of residents and staff from emergency services, general surgery, orthopedics, anaesthesia, nursing and respiratory therapy. Methods: A team of subject matter experts (SME's) from trauma, nursing, emergency medicine and simulation co-developed curriculum in response to a needs assessment that identified gaps in systems and team communication. The simulation occurred in the actual trauma bay. The on-call trauma team was paged and expected to manage a simulated multisystem trauma patient. Once the team arrived, they participated in a briefing, manikin-based simulation and a communication and system focused debriefing. Curriculum, Tool, or Material: Monthly scenarios consisted of management of a blunt trauma patient, emergency airway and massive hemorrhage protocol. Teams were assessed on communication skills and timeliness of interventions. Debriefing consisted of identification of system gaps and latent safety threats. Feedback was given by each discipline followed by SME's. Information was gathered from participant evaluations (5-point Likert scale and open ended questions) and group debrief. Feedback was themed and actions taken to co-create interventions to communication gaps and latent safety threats. As a result, cricothyroidotomy trays were standardized throughout the hospital to mitigate confusion, time delay and unfamiliarity during difficult airway interventions. Participants felt the exercise was an effective means of practicing interprofessional communication and role clarity, and improved their attitude towards the same. Conclusion: In situ simulation-based education with ad hoc trauma teams can improve interprofessional communication and identify latent safety threats for the management of multisystem trauma patients.
We describe an ultra-wide-bandwidth, low-frequency receiver recently installed on the Parkes radio telescope. The receiver system provides continuous frequency coverage from 704 to 4032 MHz. For much of the band (
), the system temperature is approximately 22 K and the receiver system remains in a linear regime even in the presence of strong mobile phone transmissions. We discuss the scientific and technical aspects of the new receiver, including its astronomical objectives, as well as the feed, receiver, digitiser, and signal processor design. We describe the pipeline routines that form the archive-ready data products and how those data files can be accessed from the archives. The system performance is quantified, including the system noise and linearity, beam shape, antenna efficiency, polarisation calibration, and timing stability.
Older adults with dementia are particularly vulnerable to adverse outcomes resulting from anticholinergic use. We aimed to: (i) Examine the anticholinergic burden of patients with dementia attending a Psychiatry of Later Life (PLL) service (ii) Examine concomitant prescription of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) and anticholinergics and (iii) Compare the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden (ACB) scale with a recently published composite list of anticholinergics.
Retrospective chart review of new referrals with a diagnosis of dementia (n = 66) seen by the PLL service, Tallaght University Hospital, Dublin, Ireland, over a consecutive period of 4 months.
The mean ACB score was 2.2 (range = 0–9, SD = 2.1). 37.9% (n = 25) had a clinically significant ACB score (>3) and 42.1% (n = 8) of those taking AChEIs had a clinically significant ACB score. A significantly greater number of medications with anticholinergic activity were identified using the composite list versus the traditional ACB scale (2.3 v.1.5, p = 0.001).
We demonstrated a significant anticholinergic burden amongst patients with dementia attending a specialist PLL service. There was no difference in anticholinergic burden between groups prescribed and not prescribed AChEIs, indicating that these medications are being prescribed without discontinuation of potentially inappropriate medications with anticholinergic activity. The true anticholinergic burden experienced by patients may be underestimated by the use of the ACB score alone, although the clinical significance of this finding is unclear. Calculation of true clinical anticholinergic burden load and its translation to a specific rating scale remains a challenge.
Advancements in computer technology have enabled three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction, data-stitching, and manipulation of 3D data obtained on X-ray imaging systems such as micro-computed tomography (μ-CT). Likewise, intuitive evaluation of these 3D datasets can be enhanced by recent advances in virtual reality (VR) hardware and software. Additionally, the generation, viewing, and manipulation of 3D X-ray diffraction datasets, such as pole figures employed for texture analysis, can also benefit from these advanced visualization techniques. We present newly-developed protocols for porting 3D data (as TIFF-stacks) into a Unity gaming software platform so that data may be toured, manipulated, and evaluated within a more-intuitive VR environment through the use of game-like controls and 3D headsets. We demonstrate this capability by rendering μ-CT data of a polymer dogbone test bar at various stages of in situ mechanical strain. An additional experiment is presented showing 3D XRD data collected on an aluminum test block with vias. These 3D XRD data for texture analysis (χ, ϕ, 2θ dimensions) enables the viewer to visually inspect 3D pole figures and detect the presence or absence of in-plane residual macrostrain. These two examples serve to illustrate the benefits of this new methodology for multidimensional analysis.
Introduction: There is increasing evidence to support the integration of simulation into medical training; however, no national emergency medicine (EM) simulation curriculum currently exists. Using Delphi methodology, we aimed to identify and establish content validity evidence for EM curricular content best suited for simulation-based training to inform national postgraduate EM training. Methods: A national panel of experts in EM simulation-related education iteratively rated potential curricular topics, on a 4-point scale, to determine those best suited for simulation-based training. After each round, responses were analyzed and topics scoring <2/4 were removed. Remaining topics were resent to the panel for further ratings until consensus was achieved, defined as Cronbach α ≥ 0.95. At conclusion of the Delphi process, topics that were rated ≥3.5/4 were considered core curricular topics, while those rated 3.0-3.5 were considered extended curricular topics. Results: Forty-four experts from 13 Canadian centres participated. Two hundred and eighty potential curricular topics, in 29 domains, were generated from a systematic review of the literature, analysis of relevant educational documents and a survey of Delphi panelists. Three rounds of Delphi surveys were completed before consensus was achieved, with response rates ranging from 93-100%. Twenty-eight topics, in 8 domains, reached consensus as core curricular topics. An additional 35 topics, in 14 domains, reached consensus as extended curricular topics. Conclusion: Delphi methodology allowed for achievement of expert consensus and content validation of EM curricular content best suited for simulation-based training. These results provide a foundation for improved integration of simulation into postgraduate EM training and can be used to inform a national simulation curriculum to supplement clinical training and optimize learning.
Introduction: Hypotension is known to be associated with increased mortality in severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of <90 mmHg is the threshold for hypotension in consensus TBI treatment guidelines; however, evidence suggests hypotension should be defined at higher levels for these patients. Our objective was to determine the influence of hypotension on mortality in TBI patients requiring ICU admission using different thresholds of SBP on arrival at the emergency department (ED). Methods: Retrospective cohort study of patients with severe TBI (Abbreviated Injury Scale Head score ≥3) admitted to ICU at the QEII Health Sciences Centre (Halifax, Canada) between 2002 and 2013. Patients were grouped by SBP on ED arrival ( <90 mmHg, <100 mmHg, <110 mmHg). We performed multiple logistic regression analysis with mortality as the dependent variable. Models were adjusted for confounders including age, gender, Injury Severity Score (ISS), injury mechanism, and trauma team activation (TTA). Results: A total of 1233 patients sustained a severe TBI and were admitted to the ICU during the study period. The mean age was 43.4 ± 23.9 years and most patients were male (919/1233; 74.5%). The most common mechanism of injury was motor vehicle collision (491/1233; 41.2%) followed by falls (427/1233; 35.8%). Mean length of stay in the ICU was 6.1 ± 6.4 days, and the overall mortality rate was 22.7%. SBP on arrival was available for 1182 patients. The <90 mmHg group had 4.6% (54/1182) of these patients; mean ISS was 20.6 ± 7.8 and mortality was 40.7% (22/54). The <100 mmHg had 9.3% (110/1182) of patients; mean ISS was 19.3 ± 7.9 and mortality was 34.5% (38/110). The <110 mmHg group had 16.8% (198/1182) of patients; mean ISS was 17.9 ± 8.0 and mortality was 28.8% (57/198). After adjusting for confounders, the association between hypotension and mortality was 2.22 (95% CI 1.19-4.16) using a <90 mmHg cutoff, 1.79 (95% CI 1.12-2.86) using a <100 mmHg cutoff, and 1.50 (95% CI 1.02-2.21) using a <110 mmHg cutoff. Conclusion: While we found that TBI patients with a SBP <90 mmHg were over 2 times more likely to die, patients with an SBP <110 mmHg on ED arrival were still 1.5 times more likely to die from their injuries compared to patients without hypotension. These results suggest that establishing a higher threshold for clinically meaningful hypotension in TBI patients is warranted.
During the 2009 influenza pandemic, a rapid assessment of disease severity was a challenge as a significant proportion of cases did not seek medical care; care-seeking behaviour changed and the proportion asymptomatic was unknown. A random-digit-dialling telephone survey was undertaken during the 2011/12 winter season in England and Wales to address the feasibility of answering these questions. A proportional quota sampling strategy was employed based on gender, age group, geographical location, employment status and level of education. Households were recruited pre-season and re-contacted immediately following peak seasonal influenza activity. The pre-peak survey was undertaken in October 2011 with 1061 individuals recruited and the post-peak telephone survey in March 2012. Eight hundred and thirty-four of the 1061 (78.6%) participants were successfully re-contacted. Their demographic characteristics compared well to national census data. In total, 8.4% of participants self-reported an influenza-like illness (ILI) in the previous 2 weeks, with 3.2% conforming to the World Health Organization (WHO) ILI case definition. In total, 29.6% of the cases reported consulting their general practitioner. 54.1% of the 1061 participants agreed to be re-contacted about providing biological samples. A population-based cohort was successfully recruited and followed up. Longitudinal survey methodology provides a practical tool to assess disease severity during future pandemics.
In 2016, imported Zika virus (ZIKV) infections and the presence of a potentially competent mosquito vector (Aedes albopictus) implied that ZIKV transmission in New York City (NYC) was possible. The NYC Department of Health and Mental Hygiene developed contingency plans for a urosurvey to rule out ongoing local transmission as quickly as possible if a locally acquired case of confirmed ZIKV infection was suspected. We identified tools to (1) rapidly estimate the population living in any given 150-m radius (i.e. within the typical flight distance of an Aedes mosquito) and (2) calculate the sample size needed to test and rule out the further local transmission. As we expected near-zero ZIKV prevalence, methods relying on the normal approximation to the binomial distribution were inappropriate. Instead, we assumed a hypergeometric distribution, 10 missed cases at maximum, a urine assay sensitivity of 92.6% and 100% specificity. Three suspected example risk areas were evaluated with estimated population sizes of 479–4,453, corresponding to a minimum of 133–1244 urine samples. This planning exercise improved our capacity for ruling out local transmission of an emerging infection in a dense, urban environment where all residents in a suspected risk area cannot be feasibly sampled.
Significant increases in excess all-cause mortality, particularly in the elderly, were observed during the winter of 2014/15 in England. With influenza A(H3N2) the dominant circulating influenza A subtype, this paper determines the contribution of influenza to this excess controlling for weather. A standardised multivariable Poisson regression model was employed with weekly all-cause deaths the dependent variable for the period 2008–2015. Adjusting for extreme temperature, a total of 26 542 (95% CI 25 301–27 804) deaths in 65+ and 1942 (95% CI 1834–2052) in 15–64-year-olds were associated with influenza from week 40, 2014 to week 20, 2015. This is compatible with the circulation of influenza A(H3N2). It is the largest estimated number of influenza-related deaths in England since prior to 2008/09. The findings highlight the potential health impact of influenza and the important role of the annual influenza vaccination programme that is required to protect the population including the elderly, who are vulnerable to a severe outcome.
Introduction: Our emergency department (ED) sees a low volume of high acuity pediatric cases. A needs assessment revealed that 68% of our Emergency Physicians (EP) manage pediatric patients in less than 25% of their shifts. The same percentage of EPs as well as ED nurses indicated they were uncomfortable managing a critically unwell neonate. Thus, an interprofessional curriculum focused on pediatric emergencies for ED staff was developed. In-situ simulation education was chosen as the most appropriate method to consolidate each didactic block of curriculum, and uncover important system gaps. Methods: Needs assessment conducted, and emerging themes informed IPE curriculum objectives. A committee of experts in simulation, pediatric emergencies and nursing education designed a full-day, RCPSC accredited, interprofessional in-situ simulation program. Results: Progressive segmental strategy maximized learning outcomes. The initial phase (2 hrs) comprised an” early recognition of sepsis” seminar and 4 rotating skills stations (equipment familiarity, sedating the child, IV starts, and mixing IV medication). This deliberate, adaptive, customized practice was enhanced by expert facilitation at each station, directly engaging participants and providing real-time feedback. The second phase allowed interprofessional teams of MDs, RNs and Physician Assistants to apply knowledge gained from the didactic and skills stations to in-situ simulated emergencies. Each group participated in two pediatric emergency scenarios. Scenarios ran 20 minutes, followed by a 40 minute debrief. Each scenario had a trained debriefer and content expert. The day concluded with a final debrief, attended by all participants. Formalized checklists assessed participants knowledge translation during simulation exercises. Participants assessed facilitators and evaluated the simulation day and curriculum via anonymous feedback forms. Debriefing sessions were scribed and knowledge gaps and system errors were recorded. Results were distributed to ED leaders and responsibilities assigned to key stakeholders to ensure accountability and improvement in system errors. Results All participants reported the experience to be relevant and helpful in their learning. All participants requested more frequent simulation days. System gaps identified included: use of metric vs imperial measurements, non-compatible laryngoscope equipment, inadequate identification of team personnel. As a result, the above-mentioned equipment has been replaced, and we are developing resuscitation room ID stickers for all team roles. Conclusion: Simulation as a culmination to a didactic curriculum provides a safe environment to translate acquired knowledge, increasing ED staff comfort and familiarity with rare pediatric cases. Additionally, is an excellent tool to reveal system gaps and allow us to fill these gaps to improve departmental functioning and safety.
Introduction: BACKGOUND In the modern era of terrorism and senseless violence, it is essential that hospital staff have expertise in implementation of a mass casualty incident (MCI) plan. OBJECTIVES 1. To assess current gaps in implementation of an academic urban hospital code orange plan using live simulation and tabletop exercise. 2. To identify and educate front-line staff to champion a hospital-wide MCI plan. INNOVATION Historically, in order to limit resource utilization and impact on patient care, disaster response training of front-line staff involved tabletop exercises only. The tenets of experiential learning suggest that learner engagement through realistic active practice of skills achieves deeper uptake of new knowledge. We enhanced the traditional tabletop approach through novel use of live actor patients presenting to an academic, urban emergency department (ED) during a hospital-wide MCI simulation. Methods: To assess the current code orange plan, an interprofessional, committee comprising expert leaders in trauma, emergency preparedness, emergency medicine and simulation integrated tabletop and live simulation to stage a MCI based on a mock incident at a new subway station. ED staff, the trauma team and champions from medicine, surgery and critical care participated along with support departments such as Patient Flow, Patient Transport, Environmental Services and the Hospital Emergency Operations Centre. Ten live actor patients and eight virtual patients presented to the ED. The exercise occurred in situ in the ED. Other participating departments conducted tabletop exercises and received live actor patients. Results: CURRICULUM Staff decanted the ED and other participating units using their current knowledge of hospital code orange policy. Live and virtual patients were triaged and managed according to severity of injuries. Live actor patients were assessed, intervened and transported to their designated unit. Virtual patients were managed through verbal discussion with the simulation controllers. An ED debrief took place using a plus/delta approach followed by a hospital-wide debrief. Conclusion: CONCLUSION An interprofessional hospital-wide MCI simulation revealed important challenges such as communication, command and control and patient-tracking . The exercise ignited enthusiasm and commitment to longitudinal practice and improvement for identified gaps.
The discovery of the first electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational wave signal has generated follow-up observations by over 50 facilities world-wide, ushering in the new era of multi-messenger astronomy. In this paper, we present follow-up observations of the gravitational wave event GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart SSS17a/DLT17ck (IAU label AT2017gfo) by 14 Australian telescopes and partner observatories as part of Australian-based and Australian-led research programs. We report early- to late-time multi-wavelength observations, including optical imaging and spectroscopy, mid-infrared imaging, radio imaging, and searches for fast radio bursts. Our optical spectra reveal that the transient source emission cooled from approximately 6 400 K to 2 100 K over a 7-d period and produced no significant optical emission lines. The spectral profiles, cooling rate, and photometric light curves are consistent with the expected outburst and subsequent processes of a binary neutron star merger. Star formation in the host galaxy probably ceased at least a Gyr ago, although there is evidence for a galaxy merger. Binary pulsars with short (100 Myr) decay times are therefore unlikely progenitors, but pulsars like PSR B1534+12 with its 2.7 Gyr coalescence time could produce such a merger. The displacement (~2.2 kpc) of the binary star system from the centre of the main galaxy is not unusual for stars in the host galaxy or stars originating in the merging galaxy, and therefore any constraints on the kick velocity imparted to the progenitor are poor.
Populations of the White-rumped Vulture Gyps bengalensis, Indian Vulture G. indicus and Slender-billed Vulture G. tenuirostris declined rapidly during the mid-1990s all over their ranges in the Indian subcontinent because of poisoning due to veterinary use of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. This paper reports results from the latest in a series of road transect surveys conducted across northern, central, western and north-eastern India since the early 1990s. Results from the seven comparable surveys now available were analysed to estimate recent population trends. Populations of all three species of vulture remained at a low level. The previously rapid decline of White-rumped Vulture has slowed and may have reversed since the ban on veterinary use of diclofenac in India in 2006. A few thousand of this species, possibly up to the low tens of thousands, remained in India in 2015. The population of Indian Vulture continued to decline, though probably at a much slower rate than in the 1990s. This remains the most numerous of the three species in India with about 12,000 individuals in 2015 and a confidence interval ranging from a few thousands to a few tens of thousands. The trend in the rarest species, Slender-billed Vulture, which probably numbers not much more than 1,000 individuals in India, cannot be determined reliably.
Vocalisations are commonly expressed by gregarious animals, including cattle, as a form of short- and long-distance communication. They can provide conspecifics with meaningful information about the physiology, affective state and physical attributes of the caller. In cattle, calls are individually distinct meaning they assist animals to identify specific individuals in the herd. Consequently, there is potential for these vocalisations to be acoustically analysed to make inferences about how individual animals or herds are coping with their external surroundings, and then act on these signals to improve feed conversion efficiency, reproductive efficiency and welfare. In the case of dairy farming, where herd sizes are expanding and farmers are becoming more reliant on technologies to assist in the monitoring of cattle, the study of vocal behaviour could provide an objective, cost effective and non-invasive alternative to traditional measures of welfare. The vocalisations of cattle in response to calf separation, social isolation and painful husbandry procedures, alongside changes to feeding and oestrous activity are here reviewed. For future application of sound technology, research is first necessary to analyse the acoustic structure of cattle vocalisations and determine the specific information they encode. This review draws together the latest research in field of cattle bioacoustics highlighting how the source–filter theory and affective state dimensional approach can be adopted to decode this information and improve on-farm management.
Childhood trauma is a risk factor for psychosis. Deficits in response inhibition are common to psychosis and trauma-exposed populations, and associated brain functions may be affected by trauma exposure in psychotic disorders. We aimed to identify the influence of trauma-exposure on brain activation and functional connectivity during a response inhibition task.
We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine brain function within regions-of-interest [left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, right supplementary motor area, right inferior parietal lobule and dorsal anterior cingulate cortex], during the performance of a Go/No-Go Flanker task, in 112 clinical cases with psychotic disorders and 53 healthy controls (HCs). Among the participants, 71 clinical cases and 21 HCs reported significant levels of childhood trauma exposure, while 41 clinical cases and 32 HCs did not.
In the absence of effects on response inhibition performance, childhood trauma exposure was associated with increased activation in the left IFG, and increased connectivity between the left IFG seed region and the cerebellum and calcarine sulcus, in both cases and healthy individuals. There was no main effect of psychosis, and no trauma-by-psychosis interaction for any other region-of-interest. Within the clinical sample, the effects of trauma-exposure on the left IFG activation were mediated by symptom severity.
Trauma-related increases in activation of the left IFG were not associated with performance differences, or dependent on clinical diagnostic status; increased IFG functionality may represent a compensatory (overactivation) mechanism required to exert adequate inhibitory control of the motor response.