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We describe the performance of the Boolardy Engineering Test Array, the prototype for the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder telescope. Boolardy Engineering Test Array is the first aperture synthesis radio telescope to use phased array feed technology, giving it the ability to electronically form up to nine dual-polarisation beams. We report the methods developed for forming and measuring the beams, and the adaptations that have been made to the traditional calibration and imaging procedures in order to allow BETA to function as a multi-beam aperture synthesis telescope. We describe the commissioning of the instrument and present details of Boolardy Engineering Test Array’s performance: sensitivity, beam characteristics, polarimetric properties, and image quality. We summarise the astronomical science that it has produced and draw lessons from operating Boolardy Engineering Test Array that will be relevant to the commissioning and operation of the final Australian Square Kilometre Array Path telescope.
This paper describes the system architecture of a newly constructed radio telescope – the Boolardy engineering test array, which is a prototype of the Australian square kilometre array pathfinder telescope. Phased array feed technology is used to form multiple simultaneous beams per antenna, providing astronomers with unprecedented survey speed. The test array described here is a six-antenna interferometer, fitted with prototype signal processing hardware capable of forming at least nine dual-polarisation beams simultaneously, allowing several square degrees to be imaged in a single pointed observation. The main purpose of the test array is to develop beamforming and wide-field calibration methods for use with the full telescope, but it will also be capable of limited early science demonstrations.
The behavior of cells at the material surface is of critical importance in the design of biomaterials. To understand and control cell responses to surfaces, different surface chemistries are commonly compared. In this study we exploit the chemical diversity of the 20 naturally occurring amino acids to make 20 surfaces with different chemical properties. The biological response of osteoblasts to these surfaces was examined. The osteoblast response to the surfaces was found to be dependant on the wettability of the surface with polar amino acid surfaces (Cys<Ser<Thr<Gln<Asn) promoting osteoblast spreading more than hydrophobic aromatic amino acid surfaces (Phe <Tyr <Trp), aliphatic amino acid surfaces (Leu<Ile<Val<Ala<Met<Gly), and Pro. The surface charge also affected the cellular response with positively charged amino acid surfaces (His<Arg<Lys) producing a higher percentage of spreading cells compared to the negatively charged surfaces (Asp<Glu). Amino acid surfaces provide a range of well defined chemical functionalities that are useful in studying the interactions of cells with material surfaces.
In the present work we develop a theoretical model for roAp stars characterized by the suppression of convection around the magnetic poles. When calculating the growth rates of acoustic oscillations in models of this type we find that most models whose positions in the HR diagram coincide with that of the observed roAp stars are unstable against high-order pulsations.
Growth of larvae of the whitefringed weevil, Graphognathus leucoloma (Boheman), was studied in the laboratory and on various crops in pots in a shadehouse at Kairi, on the Atherton Tableland in north Queensland. In the laboratory at 25.5 ± 1°C there were 11 instars for which head capsule widths and weights were recorded. The first instar weighed 0.14 mg. This was a non-feeding stage capable of prolonged survival, and after 10 weeks in soil without food 60% survived. When provided with carrot (Daucus carota) larvae grew to 2 or 3 mg after 6 to 7 weeks, then increased rapidly in weight reaching 140 mg after 120 days. At 25.5°C the average time from first instar to adult was 311 days, due in part to a long prepupal period. Larval growth was measured on the roots of peanut (Arachis hypogaea) plants in pots in summer and winter. Under summer conditions (mean soil temperature 23.3°C) larvae reached 140 mg in about 120 days, similar to that in the laboratory on carrot. These fully grown larvae remained in the pots over the mild winter without pupating. Larvae developing in autumn/winter grew more slowly, but the fully grown larvae were then exposed to high spring (early summer) temperatures and soon pupated, the average time from first instar to adult being 273 days. The indications are that temperatures above 25°C quickly precondition mature larvae from Tolga for pupation, thus explaining the broad timing of adult emergence in the field in north Queensland. On different plants common near Tolga, larvae grew most quickly on peanuts and on the pasture legumes dolichos (Lablab purpureus) and stylosanthes (Stylosanthes guianensis). Survival on maize equalled that on peanuts (46.5% in sterilized soil) but growth was less. Larval survival and growth on the grass crowsfoot (Eleusine indica), and (surprisingly) on the pasture legume glycine (Neonotonia wightii) was very poor.
Suppression of convection near the poles of magnetic A stars and inhibition of winds near the equator influence chemical composition gradients resulting from diffusion, leading to appreciable horizontal variation in the equilibrium configurations of the stars. We conjecture that it is this variation which is responsible for the apparent alignment of non-radial pulsations with the magnetic axes of the stars, and also for a possible previous misidentification of the modes. We suggest that nonadiabatic excitation can be sufficient to overcome energy leakage into the atmosphere.
The discrepancy between theoretical eigenfrequencies of standard solar models and the frequencies of solar modes of degree between 2 and 5 measured at Stanford is degree-independent for cyclic frequencies above about 2 mHz. Below that frequency the discrepancy for dotriacontapole modes diverges from that of the modes of lower degree. The differences between eigenfrequencies of a simple solar model containing a cloud of weakly interacting particles in its core and of one without do not reproduce this behaviour.
The ethical dimensions of environmental study are considered with particular reference to environmental education. It is argued that moral considerations and value judgements are an inevitable component of any form of environmental investigation or education and the nature of environmental ethics is explored in this context. Methods for transmitting environmental ethics are considered critically and the article concludes by suggesting some alternative approaches to exploring environmental ethics in education.
The structural problems of metal aircraft design largely centre round the difficulty of making efficient compression members. This difficulty is accentuated when loads are small in relation to the size of the structure. For example, the diameter of an aeroplane fuselage cannot usually be less than the height of a man, which results in such small forces at the surface of the shell that the lightest practicable beam is quite disproportionate to its strength.
As a measure of load in relation to size, it is convenient to use a quantity that we suggest may be called the “ structure loading.” This quantity, due to H. Wagner (8), is simply the square root of the applied load divided by a characteristic dimension (such as the length) of the member.
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