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Several research teams have previously traced patterns of emerging conduct problems (CP) from early or middle childhood. The current study expands on this previous literature by using a genetically-informed, experimental, and long-term longitudinal design to examine trajectories of early-emerging conduct problems and early childhood discriminators of such patterns from the toddler period to adolescence. The sample represents a cohort of 731 toddlers and diverse families recruited based on socioeconomic, child, and family risk, varying in urbanicity and assessed on nine occasions between ages 2 and 14. In addition to examining child, family, and community level discriminators of patterns of emerging conduct problems, we were able to account for genetic susceptibility using polygenic scores and the study's experimental design to determine whether random assignment to the Family Check-Up (FCU) discriminated trajectory groups. In addition, in accord with differential susceptibility theory, we tested whether the effects of the FCU were stronger for those children with higher genetic susceptibility. Results augmented previous findings documenting the influence of child (inhibitory control [IC], gender) and family (harsh parenting, parental depression, and educational attainment) risk. In addition, children in the FCU were overrepresented in the persistent low versus persistent high CP group, but such direct effects were qualified by an interaction between the intervention and genetic susceptibility that was consistent with differential susceptibility. Implications are discussed for early identification and specifically, prevention efforts addressing early child and family risk.
Recently analysed hypervelocity impact data from retrieved satellites are summarised. Analyses of perforation data show that mean densities are low (around 1.5-2 g/cm3), impact velocities are consistent with radar meteor observations and that high aspect ratio particles are not found. Mean data, for Fmax > 30 μm agrees well with the Grün et al. Interplanetary flux model, though there is evidence of a strong bias towards the Earth apex of motion direction. For Fmax < 30 μm the data at LDEF's altitude is dominated by space debris.
High levels of dietary concentrates are often used to support milk production and it is important to investigate ways to feed them efficiently. Fats have the greatest energy density of any feed ingredient and the inclusion of protected fats in the dairy cow ration enables a high energy but balanced ration to be fed. The aim of this trial was to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of Megalac (Volac International Ltd, Herts) to dairy cows and to compare milk yield, milk composition, fertility and body condition score (BCS).
We report the first results of the ongoing survey using HST/WFPC2 (F300W) in parallel with ACS within the Chandra Deep Field South. A sample of 34 objects were identified in the WFPC2 images and their counterparts were found in the ACS images taken by the GOODS team; 6 of them are stars. Galaxies were classified as early-, late-types, and starbursts by template fitting which was also used to determine their photometric redshifts (z< 1). Analysis of the light concentration, asymmetry and clumpiness shows that this sample is a mixed bag, containing dwarf ellipticals, early- and late-spirals, and peculiar objects which resemble mergers in progress. This result has important implications for galaxy evolution since the intermediate redshifts are the epoch when the rise in the volume-averaged star formation rate occurs.
Observers studying the cosmology and evolutionary history of our Universe through the statistical properties of ‘normal’ galaxies have four main tools at their disposal. (1) The number-redshift relation. Although a very powerful diagnostic, spectroscopic surveys are currently limited to B < 24m and significantly incomplete in the range, 23m< B < 24m. (2) Galaxy number-magnitude counts. Although by themselves, they cannot constrain models as tightly as spectroscopy, they can be measured ∼ 4m fainter, where cosmological effects are expected to be significant. (3) Galaxy colours over a wide wavelength range, which provide additional constraints. (4) The dependence of galaxy clustering with magnitude. ω(θ) can be measured to the limit of the counts.
Here we report on the latest Durham count and clustering work.
Several studies suggest that neighborhood deprivation is a unique risk factor in child and adolescent development of problem behavior. We sought to examine whether previously established intervention effects of the Family Check-Up (FCU) on child conduct problems at age 7.5 would persist through age 9.5, and whether neighborhood deprivation would moderate these effects. In addition, we examined whether improvements in parent–child interaction during early childhood associated with the FCU would be related to later reductions in child aggression among families living in the highest risk neighborhoods. Using a multisite cohort of at-risk children identified on the basis of family, child, and socioeconomic risk and randomly assigned to the FCU, intervention effects were found to be moderated by neighborhood deprivation, such that they were only directly present for those living at moderate versus extreme levels of neighborhood deprivation. In addition, improvements in child aggression were evident for children living in extreme neighborhood deprivation when parents improved the quality of their parent–child interaction during the toddler period (i.e., moderated mediation). Implications of the findings are discussed in relation to the possibilities and possible limitations in prevention of early problem behavior for those children living in extreme and moderate levels of poverty.
There is some evidence that suggests that the banteng is not a monophyletic species (see Hassanin & Ropiquet 2006); however, phylogenetic studies of this species are few and continue to be confounded by hybridization, small sample sizes (Nijman et al. 2003) and the inability to obtain tissue samples from all subspecies. Grzimek (1987) did not accept the separation of banteng into three subspecies as valid. He argued that interbreeding of small populations of wild banteng with domestic or feral cattle still occurred continuously. This suggestion was supported by Corbert & Hill (1992), who also did not recognize the existence of banteng subspecies. Timmins et al. (2008) proposed that Bos javanicus lowi should be included into Bos javanicus javanicus, yet no molecular studies have investigated the phylogeny of B. j. lowi due to the difficulty of obtaining tissue samples from wild individuals. Timmins et al. (2008) also proposed Bos javanicus javanicus and Bos javanicus birmanicus should be tentatively accepted as different subspecies. It is essential to clarify the genetic description of all subspecies through morphometric and molecular analysis prior to a merger of subspecies. For instance, four haplotypes from six faecal samples of banteng in Thai forests similar to Cambodia’s banteng have been reported (Manatchaiworakul et al. 2011). However, these first analyses require further investigations to better understand the relationships between different banteng populations.
In this study, biodegradable foams were produced using cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) and starch (S). The availability of high volumes of CNFs at lower costs is rapidly progressing with advances in pilot-scale and commercial facilities. The foams were produced using a freeze-drying process with CNF/S water suspensions ranging from 1 to 7.5 wt. % solids content. Microscopic evaluation showed that the foams have a microcellular structure and that the foam walls are covered with CNF`s. The CNF's had diameters ranging from 30 nm to 100 nm. Pore sizes within the foam walls ranged from 20 nm to 100 nm. The materials` densities ranging from 0.012 to 0.082 g/cm3 with corresponding porosities between 93.46% and 99.10%. Thermal conductivity ranged from 0.041 to 0.054 W/m-K. The mechanical performance of the foams produced from the starch control was extremely low and the material was very friable. The addition of CNF's to starch was required to produce foams, which exhibited structural integrity. The mechanical properties of materials were positively correlated with solids content and CNF/S ratios. The mechanical and thermal properties for the foams produced in this study appear promising for applications such as insulation and packaging.
Technetium-99, a β-emitting radioactive fission product of 235U, formed in nuclear reactors, presents a major challenge to nuclear waste disposal strategies. Its long half-life (2.1 x 105 years) and high solubility under oxic conditions as the pertechnetate anion [Tc(VII)O4] is particularly problematic for long-term disposal of radioactive waste in geological repositories. In this study, we demonstrate a novel technique for quantifying the transport and immobilisation of technetium-99m, a γ-emitting metastable isomer of technetium-99 commonly used in medical imaging. A standard medical gamma camera was used for non-invasive quantitative imaging of technetium-99m during co-advection through quartz sand and various cementitious materials commonly used in nuclear waste disposal strategies. Spatial moments analysis of the resulting 99mTc plume provided information about the relative changes in mass distribution of the radionuclide in the various test materials. 99mTc advected through quartz sand demonstrated typical conservative behaviour, while transport through the cementitious materials produced a significant reduction in radionuclide centre of mass transport velocity over time. Gamma camera imaging has proven an effective tool for helping to understand the factors which control the migration of radionuclides for surface, near-surface and deep geological disposal of nuclear waste.
Quaternary herpetofaunas from eight palaeontological localities in western Canada (British Columbia: Bear Flat; Alberta: Eagle Cave, January Cave, Rat's Nest Cave, Hand/Wintering Hills, Fletcher Site, Stampede Site and Little Fish Lake) are described in detail for the first time. Identifications of taxa from these localities include frogs (Rana sp., Bufo sp., and Anura indet.), salamanders (cf. Ambystoma sp.), and snakes (cf. Thamnophis sp. and cf. Pituophis sp.). Preglacial and postglacial herpetofaunas are distinctly separated by a boundary resulting from the advance and retreat of glacial ice across northern North America. The taxonomic records presented here represent a conservative, morphology-based approach to identification that resulted in less taxonomic resolution than is commonly found in literature on Quaternary herpetofaunas. Nonetheless, the resultant data set was useful for establishing a framework that is indicative of biogeographic stability in Quaternary reptiles and amphibians of western Canada. We hypothesise that the observed stability may be related to evolutionary adaptations (e.g. cold-tolerance) in specific lineages.
This study examined whether late-learning English–German second language (L2) learners and late-learning German–English L2 learners use prosodic cues to disambiguate temporarily ambiguous first language and L2 sentences during speech production. Experiments 1a and 1b showed that English–German L2 learners and German–English L2 learners used a pitch rise and pitch accent to disambiguate PP-attachment sentences in German. However, the same participants, as well as monolingual English speakers, only used pitch accent to disambiguate similar English sentences. Taken together, these results indicate the L2 learners used prosody to disambiguate sentences in both of their languages and did not fully transfer cues to disambiguation from their first language to their L2. The results have implications for the acquisition of L2 prosody and the interaction between prosody and meaning in L2 production.