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The U.S. Department of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA-ARS) has been a leader in weed science research covering topics ranging from the development and use of integrated weed management (IWM) tactics to basic mechanistic studies, including biotic resistance of desirable plant communities and herbicide resistance. ARS weed scientists have worked in agricultural and natural ecosystems, including agronomic and horticultural crops, pastures, forests, wild lands, aquatic habitats, wetlands, and riparian areas. Through strong partnerships with academia, state agencies, private industry, and numerous federal programs, ARS weed scientists have made contributions to discoveries in the newest fields of robotics and genetics, as well as the traditional and fundamental subjects of weed–crop competition and physiology and integration of weed control tactics and practices. Weed science at ARS is often overshadowed by other research topics; thus, few are aware of the long history of ARS weed science and its important contributions. This review is the result of a symposium held at the Weed Science Society of America’s 62nd Annual Meeting in 2022 that included 10 separate presentations in a virtual Weed Science Webinar Series. The overarching themes of management tactics (IWM, biological control, and automation), basic mechanisms (competition, invasive plant genetics, and herbicide resistance), and ecosystem impacts (invasive plant spread, climate change, conservation, and restoration) represent core ARS weed science research that is dynamic and efficacious and has been a significant component of the agency’s national and international efforts. This review highlights current studies and future directions that exemplify the science and collaborative relationships both within and outside ARS. Given the constraints of weeds and invasive plants on all aspects of food, feed, and fiber systems, there is an acknowledged need to face new challenges, including agriculture and natural resources sustainability, economic resilience and reliability, and societal health and well-being.
Maintenance electroconvulsive therapy (mECT) is an option in the treatment of affective disorders which progress is not satisfactory. It is certainly neglected and underused during the clinical practice.
To evaluate the efficacy of mECT in reducing recurrence and relapse in recurrent depression within a sample of three patients.
We followed up these patients among two years since they received the first set of electroconvulsive sessions. We applied the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) in the succesives consultations for evaluating the progress.
The three patients were diagnosed with Recurrent Depressive Disorder (RDD). One of them is a 60 year old man that received initially a cycle of 12 sessions; since then he received 10 maintenance sessions. Other one is a 70 year old woman that received initially a cycle of 10 sessions; since then she received 6 maintenance sessions. The last one is a 55 year old woman that received initially a cycle of 14 sessions; since then she received 20 maintenance sessions.
All of them showed a significant reduction in depressive symptoms evaluated through BDI and clinical examination. In the first case, we found a reduction in the BDI from the first consultation to the last that goes from 60 to 12 points; in the second case, from 58 to 8 points; and in the last case, from 55 to 10 points. The main sections that improved were emotional, physical and delusional.
As side-effects of the treatment, we found anterograde amnesia, lack of concentration and loss of focus at all of them.
We find mECT as a very useful treatment for resistant cases of affective disorders like RDD.
It should be considered as a real therapeutic option when the first option drugs have been proved without success.
Subjective memory complaints remain a relevant aspect to be considered in patients with mild cognitive impairment. Likewise, their association with depressive symptoms, quality of life and cognitive performance is also an objective to be studied in such patients.
Our clinical case represents just one opportunity to study how memory complaints are related to depressive states and how they affect the quality of life of patients with mild cognitive impairment.
We conducted a bibliographical review by searching for articles in Pubmed.
PERSONAL HISTORY: Male, 73 years old, separated, residing alone in Valladolid. He has home help, a person comes to help him with the household chores. Little social and family circle.
History in Mental Health
He has a history of an admission in 2013 to this Short Hospitalization Unit for ethanol detoxification. Since then, he has been followed up in the Mental Health Unit. According to the reports, he has been diagnosed with depressive disorder and cluster B personality disorder.
Current psychopharmacological treatment: diazepam, olanzapine, duloxetine 60 mg, quetiapine.
Toxic habits: history of chronic ethanol consumption. Smoker. He denies other toxic habits.
The patient presents a worsening of his mood of 15 days of evolution, coinciding with a voluntary decrease of his psychopharmacological treatment that the patient has carried out on his own. He walks with the aid of a crutch. Hypomimic facies. Slowed language, circumstantial, with speech focused on current discomfort.
On assessment, he reports initial improvement after reducing his medication, but in recent days he has experienced a decrease in initiative accompanied by feelings of emptiness, sadness and loneliness. He refers to memory complaints for which he is awaiting evaluation by Neurology. The patient explains that at other times in his life he has presented self-harming ideas that he has been controlling. At this time he expresses desire for improvement and adequate future plans, and accepts plans to attend a memory workshop. He also reports visual hallucinations with no affective repercussions and preserved judgment of reality.
Treatment adjustment: Duloxetine 60 mg, 2cp/day. The patient is recommended to lead an active lifestyle and attend a day center or memory workshop.
In numerous patients with mild cognitive impairment, we have observed that memory complaints are closely related to depressive symptoms and to the patient’s functioning in daily life.
In one study memory complaints were a negative predictor of quality of life in these patients.
Therefore, in addition to considering the importance of treating depressive symptoms, it is also important to address quality of life in patients with mild cognitive impairment.
The presence of perceptual disturbances and psychotic symptoms associated with substance abuse are widely known. While the abuse of substances is becoming more widespread, there is a general perception that their use entails fewer risks. 25I-NBOMe is a recently introduced hallucinogenic drug producing visual hallucinations and euphoria. Although people consume it like LSD, its chemical structure is different to LSD. 25I-NBOMe is related to other phenylethylamine derivatives (amphetamines and mescaline).
Present a clinical case of psychosis triggered after the consumption of new emerging drugs and highlight that the extension of their consumption in the general population, especially in the most vulnerable, can trigger prolonged psychotic symptoms.
We present a clinical case report of a subject who developed perceptual disturbances and paranoid symptoms. These lasted for months.
We describe the case of a 30-year-old man who required psychiatric admission after a single NBOMe intake five months earlier. He began with self-referential experiences and delusional ideas of prejudice, persecution and control in social networks. For months, intrusive images appeared in the form of flashbacks. He remains isolated, hardly sleeps and is easily irritated. He previously worked and had a well social network. Since adolescence, he had occasionally used alcohol, cannabis and cocaine. An uncle was diagnosed with schizophrenia. Treatment with long-term injectable aripiprazole started, reducing the symptoms and managing to recover work activity in a year.
25I-NBOMe has its main activity as 5HT2 receptor agonism, which is associated with increased dopaminergic activity in the brain. Hallucinations, delusions, anxiety symptoms and depersonalization appear during acute consumption. However, some patients have developed a persistent hallucinatory chronic syndrome after consumption. As its use is expanding, it probably could increase the number of patients with induced chronic psychoses, especially those with greater susceptibility. One of the possible causes would be its analogous structure to other derivatives of phenylethylamine, which increase the risk of psychosis, and another would be the erroneous perception of being a less dangerous drug.
Background: SMA affects individuals with a broad age range and spectrum of disease severity. Risdiplam (EVRYSDI®) is a centrally and peripherally distributed, oral SMN2 pre-mRNA splicing modifier. Methods: SUNFISH is a multicenter, two-part, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind study in patients with Types 2/3 SMA. Part 1 assessed the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of different risdiplam dose levels in patients with Types 2/3 SMA. Part 2 assessed the efficacy and safety of the selected dose of risdiplam versus placebo in Type 2 and non-ambulant Type 3 SMA. In Part 2, participants were treated with risdiplam or placebo for 12 months, then received risdiplam in a blinded manner until month 24. At month 24, patients were offered the opportunity to enter the open-label extension phase. Results: Change from baseline in MFM32 total score (Part 2- primary endpoint) in patients treated with risdiplam versus placebo was met at month 12. These increases in motor function were sustained in the second and third year after risdiplam treatment. Here we present 4-year efficacy and safety data from SUNFISH. Conclusions: SUNFISH is ongoing and will provide further long-term efficacy and safety data of risdiplam in a broad population of individuals with SMA.
We present the Cosmological Double Radio Active Galactic Nuclei (CosmoDRAGoN) project: a large suite of simulated AGN jets in cosmological environments. These environments sample the intra-cluster media of galaxy clusters that form in cosmological smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations, which we then use as inputs for grid-based hydrodynamic simulations of radio jets. Initially conical jets are injected with a range of jet powers, speeds (both relativistic and non-relativistic), and opening angles; we follow their collimation and propagation on scales of tens to hundreds of kiloparsecs, and calculate spatially resolved synthetic radio spectra in post-processing. In this paper, we present a technical overview of the project, and key early science results from six representative simulations which produce radio sources with both core- (Fanaroff-Riley Type I) and edge-brightened (Fanaroff-Riley Type II) radio morphologies. Our simulations highlight the importance of accurate representation of both jets and environments for radio morphology, radio spectra, and feedback the jets provide to their surroundings.
Obesity is highly prevalent and disabling, especially in individuals with severe mental illness including bipolar disorders (BD). The brain is a target organ for both obesity and BD. Yet, we do not understand how cortical brain alterations in BD and obesity interact.
We obtained body mass index (BMI) and MRI-derived regional cortical thickness, surface area from 1231 BD and 1601 control individuals from 13 countries within the ENIGMA-BD Working Group. We jointly modeled the statistical effects of BD and BMI on brain structure using mixed effects and tested for interaction and mediation. We also investigated the impact of medications on the BMI-related associations.
BMI and BD additively impacted the structure of many of the same brain regions. Both BMI and BD were negatively associated with cortical thickness, but not surface area. In most regions the number of jointly used psychiatric medication classes remained associated with lower cortical thickness when controlling for BMI. In a single region, fusiform gyrus, about a third of the negative association between number of jointly used psychiatric medications and cortical thickness was mediated by association between the number of medications and higher BMI.
We confirmed consistent associations between higher BMI and lower cortical thickness, but not surface area, across the cerebral mantle, in regions which were also associated with BD. Higher BMI in people with BD indicated more pronounced brain alterations. BMI is important for understanding the neuroanatomical changes in BD and the effects of psychiatric medications on the brain.
Genes associated with educational attainment may be related to or interact with adolescent alcohol, tobacco and cannabis use. Potential gene–environment interplay between educational attainment polygenic scores (EA-PGS) and adolescent alcohol, tobacco, and cannabis use was evaluated with a series of regression models fitted to data from a sample of 1871 adult Australian twins. All models controlled for age, age2, cohort, sex and genetic ancestry as fixed effects, and a genetic relatedness matrix was included as a random effect. Although there was no evidence that adolescent alcohol, tobacco or cannabis use interacted with EA-PGS to influence educational attainment, there was a significant, positive gene–environment correlation with adolescent alcohol use at all PGS thresholds (ps <.02). Higher EA-PGS were associated with an increased likelihood of using alcohol as an adolescent (ΔR2 ranged from 0.5% to 1.1%). The positive gene–environment correlation suggests a complex relationship between educational attainment and alcohol use that is due to common genetic factors.
There are life events that may increase the possibilities of suffering some kind of Psychopathology. The most validated model for understanding the aetiology of psychosis is based on genetic and environmental risk factors and their interaction, likely involving epigenetic mechanisms. It is necessary to consider those events as risk factors for Mental Health.
Study of risk and prognostic factors in psychosis.
Review of scientific literature based on a relevant clinical case.
We present the case of a 28-year-old male patient from Peru, currently living in Germany. History of sexual abuse in childhood. He started taking drugs at the age of 8. In the emergency department, he reports that since the beginning of the pandemic, after listening to a speech by the Pope, he begins to interpret signals about situations occurring around him. He begins to read about mystical-religious subjects, changes the style of music he listens to and recognises changes in his personality. He says for months he has been feeling watched, persecuted and expresed someone wants to kill him. He says hears voices and that they communicate with him through bodily sensations.
Childhood trauma, immigration and cannabis use are significantly associated with an increased risk of functional psychosis. A neurotic personality also independently contributes to this risk. The accumulation of these factors increases vulnerability to mental disorders and leads to a worse prognosis and evolution of these pathologies. These findings could help to improve the prevention of psychosis and the development of specific treatment strategies in this particular population.
Animal and human data demonstrate independent relationships between fetal growth, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function (HPA-A) and adult cardiometabolic outcomes. While the association between fetal growth and adult cardiometabolic outcomes is well-established, the role of the HPA-A in these relationships is unclear. This study aims to determine whether HPA-A function mediates or moderates this relationship. Approximately 2900 pregnant women were recruited between 1989-1991 in the Raine Study. Detailed anthropometric data was collected at birth (per cent optimal birthweight [POBW]). The Trier Social Stress Test was administered to the offspring (Generation 2; Gen2) at 18 years; HPA-A responses were determined (reactive responders [RR], anticipatory responders [AR] and non-responders [NR]). Cardiometabolic parameters (BMI, systolic BP [sBP] and LDL cholesterol) were measured at 20 years. Regression modelling demonstrated linear associations between POBW and BMI and sBP; quadratic associations were observed for LDL cholesterol. For every 10% increase in POBW, there was a 0.54 unit increase in BMI (standard error [SE] 0.15) and a 0.65 unit decrease in sBP (SE 0.34). The interaction between participant’s fetal growth and HPA-A phenotype was strongest for sBP in young adulthood. Interactions for BMI and LDL-C were non-significant. Decomposition of the total effect revealed no causal evidence of mediation or moderation.
Spectral-broadening of the APOLLON PW-class laser pulses using a thin-film compression technique within the long-focal-area interaction chamber of the APOLLON laser facility is reported, demonstrating the delivery of the full energy pulse to the target interaction area. The laser pulse at 7 J passing through large aperture, thin glass wafers is spectrally broadened to a bandwidth that is compatible with a 15-fs pulse, indicating also the possibility to achieve sub-10-fs pulses using 14 J. Placing the post-compressor near the interaction makes for an economical method to produce the shortest pulses by limiting the need for high damage, broadband optics close to the final target rather than throughout the entire laser transport system.
Substantial progress has been made in the standardization of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care. In 1936, Maude Abbott published her Atlas of Congenital Cardiac Disease, which was the first formal attempt to classify congenital heart disease. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC) is now utilized worldwide and has most recently become the paediatric and congenital cardiac component of the Eleventh Revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The most recent publication of the IPCCC was in 2017. This manuscript provides an updated 2021 version of the IPCCC.
The International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (ISNPCHD), in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO), developed the paediatric and congenital cardiac nomenclature that is now within the eleventh version of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). This unification of IPCCC and ICD-11 is the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature and is the first time that the clinical nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care and the administrative nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care are harmonized. The resultant congenital cardiac component of ICD-11 was increased from 29 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-9 and 73 congenital cardiac codes in ICD-10 to 318 codes submitted by ISNPCHD through 2018 for incorporation into ICD-11. After these 318 terms were incorporated into ICD-11 in 2018, the WHO ICD-11 team added an additional 49 terms, some of which are acceptable legacy terms from ICD-10, while others provide greater granularity than the ISNPCHD thought was originally acceptable. Thus, the total number of paediatric and congenital cardiac terms in ICD-11 is 367. In this manuscript, we describe and review the terminology, hierarchy, and definitions of the IPCCC ICD-11 Nomenclature. This article, therefore, presents a global system of nomenclature for paediatric and congenital cardiac care that unifies clinical and administrative nomenclature.
The members of ISNPCHD realize that the nomenclature published in this manuscript will continue to evolve. The version of the IPCCC that was published in 2017 has evolved and changed, and it is now replaced by this 2021 version. In the future, ISNPCHD will again publish updated versions of IPCCC, as IPCCC continues to evolve.
The first demonstration of laser action in ruby was made in 1960 by T. H. Maiman of Hughes Research Laboratories, USA. Many laboratories worldwide began the search for lasers using different materials, operating at different wavelengths. In the UK, academia, industry and the central laboratories took up the challenge from the earliest days to develop these systems for a broad range of applications. This historical review looks at the contribution the UK has made to the advancement of the technology, the development of systems and components and their exploitation over the last 60 years.
Mucositis is an inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa resulting from high doses of radio/chemotherapy treatment and may lead to interruption of antineoplasic therapy. Soluble fibres, like pectin, increase SCFA production, which play a role in gut homoeostasis and inflammation suppression. Due to the properties of pectin, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of a high-fibre (HF) diet on chemotherapy-induced mucositis in a murine model. C57/BL6 mice received control (AIN93M), HF, low/zero fibre (LF) diets for 10 d prior to mucositis challenging with irinotecan (75 mg/kg), or they were treated with acetate added to drinking water 5 d prior to and during the mucositis induction. Mice that received the HF diet showed decreased immune cells influx and improved histopathological parameters in the intestine, compared with mice that received the normal diet. Furthermore, the HF diet decreased intestinal permeability induced in the mucositis model when compared with the control group. This effect was not observed for acetate alone, which did not improve gut permeability. For instance, mice that received the LF diet had worsened gut permeability, compared with mice that received the normal diet and mucositis. The effects of the HF and LF diets were shown to modulate the intestinal microbiota, in which the LF diet increased the levels of Enterobacteriaceae, a group associated with gut inflammation, whereas the HF diet decreased this group and increased Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium (SCFA producers) levels. In conclusion, the results demonstrated the importance of dietary fibre intake in the modulation of gut microbiota composition and homoeostasis maintenance during mucositis in this model.
The Rapid ASKAP Continuum Survey (RACS) is the first large-area survey to be conducted with the full 36-antenna Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. RACS will provide a shallow model of the ASKAP sky that will aid the calibration of future deep ASKAP surveys. RACS will cover the whole sky visible from the ASKAP site in Western Australia and will cover the full ASKAP band of 700–1800 MHz. The RACS images are generally deeper than the existing NRAO VLA Sky Survey and Sydney University Molonglo Sky Survey radio surveys and have better spatial resolution. All RACS survey products will be public, including radio images (with
15 arcsec resolution) and catalogues of about three million source components with spectral index and polarisation information. In this paper, we present a description of the RACS survey and the first data release of 903 images covering the sky south of declination
made over a 288-MHz band centred at 887.5 MHz.
Previous genetic studies on hair morphology focused on the overall morphology of the hair using data collected by self-report or researcher observation. Here, we present the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) of a micro-level quantitative measure of hair curvature. We compare these results to GWAS results obtained using a macro-level classification of observable hair curvature performed in the same sample of twins and siblings of European descent. Observational data were collected by trained observers, while quantitative data were acquired using an Optical Fibre Diameter Analyser (OFDA). The GWAS for both the observational and quantitative measures of hair curvature resulted in genome-wide significant signals at chromosome 1q21.3 close to the trichohyalin (TCHH) gene, previously shown to harbor variants associated with straight hair morphology in Europeans. All genetic variants reaching genome-wide significance for both GWAS (quantitative measure lead single-nucleotide polymorphism [SNP] rs12130862, p = 9.5 × 10–09; observational measure lead SNP rs11803731, p = 2.1 × 10–17) were in moderate to very high linkage disequilibrium (LD) with each other (minimum r2 = .45), indicating they represent the same genetic locus. Conditional analyses confirmed the presence of only one signal associated with each measure at this locus. Results from the quantitative measures reconfirmed the accuracy of observational measures.
Compulsory admission procedures of patients with mental disorders vary between countries in Europe. The Ethics Committee of the European Psychiatric Association (EPA) launched a survey on involuntary admission procedures of patients with mental disorders in 40 countries to gather information from all National Psychiatric Associations that are members of the EPA to develop recommendations for improving involuntary admission processes and promote voluntary care.
The survey focused on legislation of involuntary admissions and key actors involved in the admission procedure as well as most common reasons for involuntary admissions.
We analyzed the survey categorical data in themes, which highlight that both medical and legal actors are involved in involuntary admission procedures.
We conclude that legal reasons for compulsory admission should be reworded in order to remove stigmatization of the patient, that raising awareness about involuntary admission procedures and patient rights with both patients and family advocacy groups is paramount, that communication about procedures should be widely available in lay-language for the general population, and that training sessions and guidance should be available for legal and medical practitioners. Finally, people working in the field need to be constantly aware about the ethical challenges surrounding compulsory admissions.
Radiocarbon (14C) ages cannot provide absolutely dated chronologies for archaeological or paleoenvironmental studies directly but must be converted to calendar age equivalents using a calibration curve compensating for fluctuations in atmospheric 14C concentration. Although calibration curves are constructed from independently dated archives, they invariably require revision as new data become available and our understanding of the Earth system improves. In this volume the international 14C calibration curves for both the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, as well as for the ocean surface layer, have been updated to include a wealth of new data and extended to 55,000 cal BP. Based on tree rings, IntCal20 now extends as a fully atmospheric record to ca. 13,900 cal BP. For the older part of the timescale, IntCal20 comprises statistically integrated evidence from floating tree-ring chronologies, lacustrine and marine sediments, speleothems, and corals. We utilized improved evaluation of the timescales and location variable 14C offsets from the atmosphere (reservoir age, dead carbon fraction) for each dataset. New statistical methods have refined the structure of the calibration curves while maintaining a robust treatment of uncertainties in the 14C ages, the calendar ages and other corrections. The inclusion of modeled marine reservoir ages derived from a three-dimensional ocean circulation model has allowed us to apply more appropriate reservoir corrections to the marine 14C data rather than the previous use of constant regional offsets from the atmosphere. Here we provide an overview of the new and revised datasets and the associated methods used for the construction of the IntCal20 curve and explore potential regional offsets for tree-ring data. We discuss the main differences with respect to the previous calibration curve, IntCal13, and some of the implications for archaeology and geosciences ranging from the recent past to the time of the extinction of the Neanderthals.
Prototyping is an essential activity in product development, but novice designers lack awareness and purpose when they prototype. To foster prototyping mindsets in novice designers, we introduce a prototyping support tool that structures prototyping activities. This paper outlines the Prototyping Planner's development, evolution, and evaluation by 125 novice designers. The majority of novice designers’ experienced that the Prototyping Planner helped them create purposeful prototypes and evaluate results from prototyping.