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Corporate social responsibility (CSR) has emerged as a tool for public and private institutions to promote sustainable development in developing and emerging markets. This work brings together contributors from a variety of fields and international perspectives to assess and improve the effectiveness of CSR by addressing the following questions: what are the linkages between CSR and sustainable development? What does CSR mean for developing or emerging economies and in what ways does this deviate from orthodoxies and universalist approaches? What institutional factors and actors influence the effectiveness of CSR in developing and emerging economies? How can developing and emerging economies promote a flexible, diverse and reconstructed form of CSR that leads to inclusive and sustainable development? This book should be read by anyone interested in understanding what normative factors, theoretical models, policy strategies, and corporate practices best facilitate effective CSR and sustainable development.
This research offers a post-mortem on political advertising in 2018, providing important context for 2018’s “blue wave.” In a majority of US House of Representatives races, there were more pro-Democratic than pro-Republican ads, including in the most competitive contests. The one theme that united pro-Democratic advertising was health care, which was mentioned in nearly three of every five Democratic ads in the fall campaign. Contrary to the narrative that television is declining, a record number of television ads aired in the 2018 midterms, whereas digital spending still constituted a small percentage of overall advertising spending for most candidate campaigns. Finally, there was a healthy volume of outside-group spending in 2018, with “dark-money” groups increasing their involvement—especially in support of Democratic candidates.
Locally acquired hepatitis A infection is re-emerging in Australia owing to person-to-person outbreaks among men who have sex with men and imported frozen produce. This paper describes a multi-state foodborne outbreak in the first half of 2018. Enhanced human epidemiological investigation including a case–control study, as well as microbial surveillance and trace-back investigations concluded that the outbreak was caused by consumption of imported frozen pomegranate arils. A total of 30 cases of hepatitis A infection, genotype IB with identical sequences met the outbreak case definition, including 27 primary cases and three secondary cases. Twenty-five (83%) of the cases were hospitalised for their illness and there was one death. Imported frozen pomegranate arils from Egypt were strongly implicated as the source of infection through case interviews (19 of 26 primary cases) as well as from a case–control study (adjusted odds ratio 43.4, 95% confidence interval 4.2–448.8, P = 0.002). Hepatitis A virus (HAV) was subsequently detected by polymerase chain reaction in two food samples of the frozen pomegranate aril product. This outbreak was detected and responded to promptly owing to routine genetic characterisation of HAVs from all hepatitis A infections in Australia as part of a national hepatitis A enhanced surveillance project. This is now the third outbreak of hepatitis A in Australia from imported frozen fruits. A re-assessment of the risk of these types of imported foods is strongly recommended.
An internationally approved and globally used classification scheme for the diagnosis of CHD has long been sought. The International Paediatric and Congenital Cardiac Code (IPCCC), which was produced and has been maintained by the International Society for Nomenclature of Paediatric and Congenital Heart Disease (the International Nomenclature Society), is used widely, but has spawned many “short list” versions that differ in content depending on the user. Thus, efforts to have a uniform identification of patients with CHD using a single up-to-date and coordinated nomenclature system continue to be thwarted, even if a common nomenclature has been used as a basis for composing various “short lists”. In an attempt to solve this problem, the International Nomenclature Society has linked its efforts with those of the World Health Organization to obtain a globally accepted nomenclature tree for CHD within the 11th iteration of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-11). The International Nomenclature Society has submitted a hierarchical nomenclature tree for CHD to the World Health Organization that is expected to serve increasingly as the “short list” for all communities interested in coding for congenital cardiology. This article reviews the history of the International Classification of Diseases and of the IPCCC, and outlines the process used in developing the ICD-11 congenital cardiac disease diagnostic list and the definitions for each term on the list. An overview of the content of the congenital heart anomaly section of the Foundation Component of ICD-11, published herein in its entirety, is also included. Future plans for the International Nomenclature Society include linking again with the World Health Organization to tackle procedural nomenclature as it relates to cardiac malformations. By doing so, the Society will continue its role in standardising nomenclature for CHD across the globe, thereby promoting research and better outcomes for fetuses, children, and adults with congenital heart anomalies.
During May 2015, an increase in Salmonella Agona cases was reported from western Sydney, Australia. We examine the public health actions used to investigate and control this increase. A descriptive case-series investigation was conducted. Six outbreak cases were identified; all had consumed cooked tuna sushi rolls purchased within a western Sydney shopping complex. Onset of illness for outbreak cases occurred between 7 April and 24 May 2015. Salmonella was isolated from food samples collected from the implicated premise and a prohibition order issued. No further cases were identified following this action. Whole genome sequence (WGS) analysis was performed on isolates recovered during this investigation, with additional S. Agona isolates from sporadic-clinical cases and routine food sampling in New South Wales, January to July 2015. Clinical isolates of outbreak cases were indistinguishable from food isolates collected from the implicated sushi outlet. Five additional clinical isolates not originally considered to be linked to the outbreak were genomically similar to outbreak isolates, indicating the point-source contamination may have started before routine surveillance identified an increase. This investigation demonstrated the value of genomics-guided public health action, where near real-time WGS enhanced the resolution of the epidemiological investigation.
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are usefully separated into type A reactions (predictable from known pharmacologic properties and largely dose related) and type B reactions (unpredictable and restricted to a vulnerable subpopulation). Type B reactions comprise 10% to 15% of all ADRs and include immunologic drug reactions, drug intolerance (e.g., tinnitus after single aspirin tablet), and idiosyncratic reactions, some of which are pseudoallergic (e.g., aspirin-induced reactions).
Immune mechanisms are thought to be involved in 6% to 10% of all ADRs. Allergenic drugs can induce the entire spectrum of immunopathologic reactions, which are clinically indistinguishable from reactions elicited by foreign macromolecules (Table 210.1). Gell and Coombs’ type I reactions are caused by drug/antigen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) that binds to high-affinity Fc-IgE receptors on mast cells and basophils. Cross-linking of these receptors leads to the release of vasoactive mediators such as histamine and cysteinyl leukotrienes. Typical syndromes include urticaria, anaphylaxis, rhinitis, and bronchoconstriction, which can occur immediately in a previously sensitized individual. Type II cytolytic reactions are generally confined to rapidly haptenating drugs such as penicillins and are based on immunoglobulin G (IgG)-mediated cytotoxic mechanisms, resulting mainly in blood cell cytopenias. Type III reactions are immune complex mediated and may involve complement activation and stimulation of Fc-α receptor-activated inflammatory cells. Drug-specific immune complexes result from high-dose, prolonged therapy and may produce drug fever, a classic serum sickness syndrome, and various forms of cutaneous vasculitis. Type IV reactions are mediated by T lymphocytes and cause “delayed hypersensitivity reactions,” the most typical examples being delayed maculopapular exanthem and contact dermatitis from topically applied drugs. Many drug-induced hypersensitivity reactions such as bullous, pustular, and some morbilliform skin eruptions that are presumed to have an immune etiology did not seem to fit into the older Gell and Coombs classification. Recent studies of T-cell subsets and functions in the pathogenesis of delayed-onset immune reactions have suggested subcategories of type IV reactions as shown in Table 210.1.
We extend our work on difference randomness. Each component of a difference test is a Boolean combination of two r.e. open sets; here we consider tests in which the kth component is a Boolean combination of g(k) r.e. open sets for a given recursive function g. We use this method to produce an alternate characterization of weak Demuth randomness in terms of these tests and further show that a real is weakly Demuth random if and only if it is Martin-Löf random and cannot compute a strongly prompt r.e. set. We conclude with a study of related lowness notions and obtain as a corollary that lowness for balanced randomness is equivalent to being recursive.
Here we report two new records of a naticid and strombid species from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. In addition, we also provide an updated checklist of Naticidae and Strombidae species that are known from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands based on available literature and holdings at National Zoological Collections of the Zoological Survey of India.
This work shows that there is no such thing as a formulation of the Bohm criterion for the case of a collisional plasma. It examines critically the work of several authors who have sought to promote their own version of what has come to be called a collisionally modified Bohm criterion.
In contrast with the notion of complexity, a set A is called anti-complex if the Kolmogorov complexity of the initial segments of A chosen by a recursive function is always bounded by the identity function. We show that, as for complexity, the natural arena for examining anti-complexity is the weak-truth table degrees. In this context, we show the equivalence of anti-complexity and other lowness notions such as r.e. traceability or being weak truth-table reducible to a Schnorr trivial set. A set A is anti-complex if and only if it is reducible to another set B with tiny use, whereby we mean that the use function for reducing A to B can be made to grow arbitrarily slowly, as gauged by unbounded nondecreasing recursive functions. This notion of reducibility is then studied in its own right, and we also investigate its range and the range of its uniform counterpart.
Ionoluminescence (IL) is the emission of light from a material due to excitation by an ion beam. In this work, a helium ion microscope (HIM) has been used in conjunction with a luminescence detection system to characterize IL from materials in an analogous way to how cathodoluminescence (CL) is characterized in a scanning electron microscope (SEM). A survey of the helium ion beam induced IL characteristics, including images and spectra, of a variety of materials known to exhibit CL in an SEM is presented. Direct band-gap semiconductors that luminesce strongly in the SEM are found not do so in the HIM, possibly due to defect-related nonradiative pathways created by the ion beam. Other materials do, however, exhibit IL, including a cerium-doped garnet sample, quantum dots, and rare-earth doped LaPO4 nanocrystals. These emissions are a result of transitions between f electron states or transitions across size dependent band gaps. In all these samples, IL is found to decay with exposure to the beam, fitting well to double exponential functions. In an exploration of the potential of this technique for biological tagging applications, imaging with the IL emitted by rare-earth doped LaPO4 nanocrystals, simultaneously with secondary electron imaging, is demonstrated at a range of magnifications.
The concepts of ‘plasma edge’ and ‘collisionally modified Bohm criterion’ have occupied attention for many years since the publication of work by Bohm that gave rise to the Bohm criterion. He acknowledged that his description of the plasma-sheath transition was incomplete. We summarize work that shows that neither concept has precision, at the same time giving a critique.
This paper is concerned to give a definitive account of a physical situation of current practical interest by examining the plasma solution for a plasma in coaxial geometry with an applied axial magnetic field. It builds on earlier work concerned with plasma diamagnetism and concentrates on the parameters involved at low pressures and low collisionalities but can be extended to situations where the ions are magnetized.
We report observations of contrasting surface modification behavior of the Au(111) surface in the presence of an electric field and field-emission currents using interfacial force microscopy (IFM) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). Our experiments consist of surface modification procedures which allow for large tip-sample gaps, in contrast to fast voltage pulses (applied at tunneling distances) employed by previous STM investigations. Dramatic surface distortions are observed when a 200 nm-radius tip, biased at -100 V, is brought toward the Au surface at a field emission current level of 400 nA and then retracted. In other experiments, we raise the sample voltage to field-emission levels while maintaining a constant current. STM images, measured in a time-resolved manner after each such procedure, show that the presence of a higher electric field (˜0.07 V/Å) results in step retraction and the disappearance of small islands on the Au(111) surface followed by the formation of vacancy islands in the area directly beneath the apex of the tip where the field is highest. We discuss the implications of these contrasting surface modifications in terms of the various key parameters and in relation to previous studies using voltage pulses in the STM.
We give several characterizations of Schnorr trivial sets, including a new lowness notion for Schnorr triviality based on truth-table reducibility. These characterizations allow us to see not only that some natural classes of sets, including maximal sets, are composed entirely of Schnorr trivials, but also that the Schnorr trivial sets form an ideal in the truth-table degrees but not the weak truth-table degrees. This answers a question of Downey. Griffiths and LaForte.