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There is little or no information comparing working experience, including burnout, amongst psychiatry residents internationally. We present preliminary findings from six of the first countries to complete data collection.
Objectives and aims
To obtain data from psychiatric residents in over twenty countries regarding rates of burnout, depression and suicidality and their associations with working conditions and personality traits.
An online survey incorporating the Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey (MBI-GS), Areas of Work Life Survey (AWLS), Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), Suicide Ideation and Behaviour Questionnaire (SIBQ), Big Five Inventory - 10 (BFI-10) and questions on demographics and working circumstances was designed, and checked by national co-ordinators for suitability in each participating country, prior to agreeing the final version. This was then translated and back-translated before being sent to participants. A stratified hierarchy sample methodology was developed and used to obtain the best possible study population in each country. This allowed us to maximise participation despite major differences in ease of access to residents across the study countries. The aim of studying the whole resident population was achieved in a large number of countries. Data was then analysed by the study statistician using SPSS. No funding was received for the study.
Results and conclusions
Data from Croatia (n=106), France (n=374), Hungary (n=81), Italy (n=180), Romania (n=52) and United Kingdom (n>2000) revealed marked differences between countries in the factors studied including in working circumstances, rates of burnout and suicidality. The associations discovered may help further improve psychiatric training experience internationally.
Individual social capital has been recognized as having an important role for health and well-being. We tested the hypothesis that poor social capital increases internalized stigma and, in turn, can reduce empowerment among people with major depressive disorder (MDD).
Materials and methods:
This is a cross-sectional multisite study conducted on a sample of 516 people with MDD in 19 European countries. Structural Equation Models were developed to examine the direct and indirect effects of self-stigma and social capital on empowerment.
Social capital and self-stigma accounted for 56% of the variability in empowerment. Higher social capital was related to lower self-stigma (r = –0.72, P < 0.001) which, in turn, partially mediated the relationship between social capital and empowerment (r = 0.38, P < 0.001).
Social capital plays a key role in the appraisal of empowerment, both directly and through the indirect effect mediated by self-stigma. In order to improve empowerment of people with MDD, we identify strategies to foster individual social capital, and to overcome the negative consequences related to self-stigma for attainment of life goals.
PERDOVE study is a prospective observational cohort study, which providing follow-up at one year, aims to investigate the socio-demographic and clinical characteristics of patients in in the 23 medium-long term RFs of the St John of God Order.
(1) To describe the sociodemographic, clinical, and treatment-related characteristics of RF-patients during an index period in 2010;
(2) to identify predictors and characteristics associated with discharge at 1-year follow-up;
(3) to evaluate clinicians’ predictions about each patient's likelihood of Home Discharge (HD).
All patients staying in September 2010 with a primary psychiatric diagnosis received a set of standardized assessment instruments, including a “Patient Schedule”, BPRS, HONOS, PSP, PHI, and SLOF. Detailed socio-demographic and clinical data were also collected. Logistic regression analyses were run to identify independent discharge predictors.
The study involved 403 patients. 66,7% is male, mean age is 49 (±10). 70.7% is unmarried. The average duration of illness of these patients is 23 years. Primary diagnosis is represented by schizophrenic spectrum disorders (67.5%). At 1 year follow-up, 104 patients (25.8%) were discharged: 13.6% to home, 8.2% to other RFs, 2.2% to supported housing, and 1.5% to prison.
The main variables associated with a higher likelihood of being discharge to home were: to have an illness duration of less than 15 years and to have an available and effective social support in the last year. Lower severity of psychopathology, and higher working skills were also associated with a significantly higher likelihood to be discharged to home.
Many cross-sectional studies have explored the relationship between subjective QOL of people with schizophrenia and different socio-demographic characteristics, clinical and psychosocial factors. Only few studies tried to identify factors that influence the QOL of these patients using a longitudinal design.
Aim of the present study was to determine influence of clinical factors, socio-demographic variables, spirituality and satisfaction with services on QOL, to identify clinical predictors associated with quality of life at one year follow-up.
Material and methods
Measures at baseline included: demographics, BPRS, PHI, RBANS, FPS, HoNOS, SWBS, VSSS, and the Italian version of the WHOQoL-Brief. Measures at follow up included: HONOS, BPRS, FPS, WHOQoL-Brief. Logistic regression models were adopted to evaluate the association between WHOQoL-Brief scores and patient's sociodemographics, clinical characteristics, spirituality and services’ satisfaction.
The study included 171 patients: 64% males; mean age 48.7 (sd=8.9) with primary diagnosis of schizophrenia. Different domains of QOL were predicted by different indicators at baseline. Younger age, more time spending doing nothing, lower BPRS, lower satisfaction with services were explanatory variables for low quality of life in psychological facet. Spirituality and religiousness were associated with Environmental domain and VSSS was associated to all QOL domains.
Rehabilitation plans for people with schizophrenia living in RFs should pay attention to mediators of change in subjective QOL such as level of activities, social support, spirituality and satisfaction with mental health services. In particular, anxiety and depressive symptoms remain as long-term outcomes of QOL at one year follow up.
Primary care is one of the most typical and relevant settings of action of consultation-liaison psychiatry: psychiatric morbidity and medical-psychiatric comorbidity, as well as the phenomenon of medically unexplained symptoms are extremely frequent in this setting; a number of complex issues referring to the patient-doctor relationship are involved; prescription of antidepressants by primary care physicians is very frequent and still increasing; the primary care physician is very often alone in the clinic, and faces an everyday struggle with anguished, suffering and very demanding patients and their worried or even angry relatives.
A ten-year experience of attendance, twice a week, at a primary care clinic in the Modena province by a consultant psychiatrist is described, providing clinical vignettes and epidemiological data on high-frequency attendance at the clinic. The experience of an integration project between mental health care and primary care is also described.
Frequent primary care attenders, who more typically are female, older and lesser educated, show high levels of psychiatric and psychosomatic distress: the psychosomatic diagnoses of “functional somatic symptoms secondary to a psychiatric disorder”, “type A behaviour”, “irritable mood”, and “demoralization” significantly predict the status of frequent attenders and also relate to poorer quality of life.
For a psychiatrist, to live the routine of a primary care clinic not as an occasional consultant but from a day-to-day, inside perspective is a stimulating and challenging experience, rich of implications for training and suggestions for research activities.
Anxiety disorders and Cardiovascular (CV) diseases, among the most common disorders in Western World, are often comorbid. A chronic systemic inflammatory state might be a shared underlining pathophysiological mechanism.
To investigate the association between anxiety symptoms, CV risks factors and inflammatory markers in an outpatient sample.
Cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: outpatients aged ≥40 years, attending colonoscopy after positive faecal occult blood test, negative medical history for cancer. Collected data: blood pressure, glycaemia, lipid profile, waist circumference, BMI, PCR (C Reactive Protein), LPS (bacterial Lipopolysaccharide). Psychometric tests: HADS, TCI, IMSA, SF36. Statistical analysis performed with STATA13.
Fifty four patients enrolled (27 males, 27 females). Sixteen patients (30.19%) were positive for anxiety symptoms. Thirty-three patients (61.11%) had hypertension, 14 (25.93%) hyperglycaemia and 64.81% were overweight, with frank obesity (BMI≥ 30) in 11 subjects (20.37%). Anxiety symptoms were associated with low hematic HDL values (OR = 0.01; P = 0.01) and high concentration of triglycerides (OR = 0.023; P = 0.02) at the multiple regression model. At the univariate logistic analysis, anxiety was associated with LPS (OR = 1.06; P = 0.04).
Further evidence over the epidemiological link between common mental disorders and CV diseases was collected, with possible hints on pathophysiology and causative mechanisms related to inflammation. The importance of screening for anxiety and depression in medical populations is confirmed. Suggestions on future availability of screening tools based on inflammatory-related indicators should be the focus of future research.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
While there is suggestion that early onset of psychosis is a determinant of outcome; knowledge regarding correlates of later onset age is more limited. This study explores the characteristics of patients developing psychosis after age 26, towards the end of the usual age range of early intervention programs, in order to identify potential specific needs of such patients.
Two hundred and fifty-six early psychosis patients aged 18–35 were followed-up prospectively over 36 months. Patients with onset after 26 (“later onset”, LO) were compared to the rest of the sample.
LO patients (32% of the sample) had shorter DUP, were less likely to be male, had better premorbid functioning and were more likely to have been exposed to trauma. They had greater insight at presentation and less negative symptoms overall. The trajectories for positive and depressive symptoms were similar in both groups. Evolution of functional level was similar in both groups, but while LO patients recovered faster, they were significantly less likely to return to premorbid functional level.
Later psychosis onset correlates with better premorbid functioning and higher rate of trauma exposure; the latter should therefore be a treatment focus in such patients. LO patients were less likely to return to premorbid functional level, which suggests that current treatment strategies may not be efficient to help patients maintain employment. The possibility of distinct illness mechanisms according to onset age and the more central role for trauma in patients with onset after age 26 needs to be further explored.
Multimorbidity and polipharmacotherapy are crucial features influencing the psychiatrist's prescription in the consultation-liaison psychiatry (CLP) setting.
to provide an example of computer-assisted decision-making in psychotropic prescriptions and to provide hints for developing pharmacological treatment strategies in the CLP setting.
Case report. A clinical vignette is presented, followed by a review of available online computer-assisted prescription software.
A woman in her seventies was repeatedly referred for psychiatric consultation. Eleven different medications were administered daily, because of multimorbidity. A diagnosis of distymia was established, with comorbid mixed pain (partly fulfilling the criteria of somatic symptom disorder) and substance use disorder (opioids). After the first assessment, six follow-up visits were needed during hospitalization. Mirtazapine and benzodiazepines were introduced. Beside the pharmacological intervention, conflict mediation was performed in the relationship with the patient, her relatives, the ward personnel and the GP, to develop a long-term rehabilitation project. Pros and cons of online computer-assisted prescription software were discussed together with the ward personnel, as well.
Computer-assisted decision-making in psychotropic prescription is becoming more common and feasible. The use of available software may contribute to safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of clinical decision-making. Risks are also possible: depending for example from regional differences in prescription indications, different guidelines, pharmacogenomics, frequency with which databases are updated, sponsorships, possible conflicts of interest, and real clinical significance of highlighted interactions – all issues the clinician willing to benefit from this modern tools should pay attention to.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Growing evidence has been collected over the complex, intertwined pathophysiological connection among subclinical cardiovascular (CV) disease, i.e. atherosclerosis, systemic low pro-inflammatory states and psychiatric disorders/symptomatology (anxiety, depression), with controversial results.
Aim of this study was to investigate the possible link between subclinical CV risk factors (atherosclerosis), depressive symptoms, and inflammation.
Cross-sectional study. Inclusion criteria: outpatients aged ≥40 years, attending colonoscopy after positive faecal occult blood test, negative medical history for cancer. Collected data: blood pressure, glycaemia, lipid profile, waist circumference, BMI, PCR (C reactive protein), LPS (bacterial lipopolysaccharide), ultrasound carotid intima-media thickness (c-IMT). Psychometric tests: HADS, TCI, IMSA, SF36. Statistical analysis performed with STATA13.
The 54 patients enrolled were equally distributed by gender. CV risk factors were common in the study population, with 33 patients (61.11%) with hypertension, 14 (25.93%) with hyperglycaemia, 20 (37.4%) with hypertriglyceridemia, 19 (35.19%) with low HDL and 64.81% with overweight. High levels of PCR were found in 24 subjects (44.44%). Right c-IMT was increased in 26.41% of the sample, and 11.32% had an atheromatous plaque. Left c-IMT was increased in 24.53% of patients, with a plaque in 7.55% of them. Clinically relevant depressive symptoms were found in the 18.87% of the sample and were statistically significantly associated with PCR (OR = 28.63; P = 0.01).
Evidence contributing to the so-called “inflammation theory” of depression and supporting the association between mood and CV disorders was here collected, supporting the need for a multidisciplinary approach to the diagnosis and treatment of such conditions, assuming a clinically-translated PNEI (psycho-neuro-endocrino-immunological) perspective.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Postgraduate medical trainees experience high rates of burnout, but evidence regarding psychiatric trainees is missing. We aim to determine burnout rates among psychiatric trainees, and identify individual, educational and work-related factors associated with severe burnout.
In an online survey psychiatric trainees from 22 countries were asked to complete the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI-GS) and provide information on individual, educational and work-related parameters. Linear mixed models were used to predict the MBI-GS scores, and a generalized linear mixed model to predict severe burnout.
This is the largest study on burnout and training conditions among psychiatric trainees to date. Complete data were obtained from 1980 out of 7625 approached trainees (26%; range 17.8–65.6%). Participants were 31.9 (SD 5.3) years old with 2.8 (SD 1.9) years of training. Severe burnout was found in 726 (36.7%) trainees. The risk was higher for trainees who were younger (P < 0.001), without children (P = 0.010), and had not opted for psychiatry as a first career choice (P = 0.043). After adjustment for socio-demographic characteristics, years in training and country differences in burnout, severe burnout remained associated with long working hours (P < 0.001), lack of supervision (P < 0.001), and not having regular time to rest (P = 0.001). Main findings were replicated in a sensitivity analysis with countries with response rate above 50%.
Besides previously described risk factors such as working hours and younger age, this is the first evidence of negative influence of lack of supervision and not opting for psychiatry as a first career choice on trainees’ burnout.
Inflammatory state of the large bowel is a key factor for the development of colorectal cancer (CRC). It has multifactorial aetiology, including psychological determinants. Physical activity may have a protective function against CRC via anti-inflammatory properties; on the contrary, personality traits correlate with an unhealthy and dangerous lifestyle.
To measure the association between personality traits, lifestyle and colonoscopy outcome.
Cross sectional study. Patients undergoing colonoscopy aged 40 or more, with a negative history for cancer or inflammatory bowel disease, were enrolled. Data collected: colonoscopy outcome, smoke, alcohol, physical activity, presence/absence of Metabolic Syndrome, personality traits assessed by the Temperament & Character Inventory (TCI).
In a sample of 53 subjects (females = 24, 45.3%), the mean age was 60.66 ± 9.08. At least one adenoma was found to 23 patients (43.3%). Twenty patients were smokers (37.74%), 36 (67.92%) drank alcohol at least weekly; approximately 60% reported regular physical activity. At the multivariate regression, the outcome was associated to: TCI Self Transcendence domain (ST) (OR = 1.36, P = 0.04) and physical activity (OR = 0.14, P = 0.03).
People with ST's characteristic personality traits and sedentary life style are more likely to have precancerous colorectal lesions. This confirms the protective role of physical activity, and suggests to further explore the role of personality in cancerogenesis.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Intake in sugar-rich diets can be limited either via rumen fill or excessive rumen fermentation and source of non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC) in the diet can affect both factors. The aim of the current study was to quantify the effect of partially replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels in sugarcane-based diets on digestibility, rumen ecosystem and metabolism of Nellore steers. Six rumen-cannulated steers were assigned to a 6 × 6 Latin square, replicated in time, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments with two levels of concentrate (600 or 800 g concentrate/kg dry matter [DM]) and three NFC sources. Each steer within a period was considered an experimental unit. Feeding more concentrate increased total tract digestibility of organic matter and decreased fibre intake and passage rate. It also reduced rumen populations of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Streptococcus bovis and increased Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Substituting PCP for GM increased rumen pH, acetic acid and organic matter digestibility. Feeding PCP also reduced R. flavefaciens and R. amylophilus rumen populations. Substituting SRM for GM increased starch digestibility and rumen propionic acid, but decreased rumen ammonia concentration. Feeding SRM increased rumen populations of Megasphaera elsdenii with the high-concentrate diet but reduced Ruminococcus albus populations at both concentrate levels. In conclusion, partial replacement of GM by PCP decreased intake in sugar-rich diets, while increasing total tract neutral detergent fibre digestibility. Replacement of GM with SRM increases rumen fermentation and total tract digestibility of starch.
Replacing ground maize (GM) with steam-rolled maize typically increases feed efficiency in maize-silage-based diets. However, little is known about optimal carbohydrate supplementation in sugarcane silage-based diets. The objective was to quantify the effect of partially replacing GM with steam-rolled maize (SRM) or pelleted citrus pulp (PCP) at two concentrate levels (600 or 800 g/kg DM) in sugarcane-based diets on feeding behaviour, performance and blood parameters of finishing Nellore bulls. One hundred and eight young bulls were allocated to 36 pens in a randomized block design and fed for 84 d. Feeding 800 g/kg concentrate decreased time spending eating and ruminating, but improved G:F ratio, hot carcass weight and carcass dressing, compared to 600 g/kg concentrate. Bulls fed SRM and PCP diets with 600 g/kg concentrate had lower intake compared to GM. Both final weight and average daily gain decreased when bulls were fed PCP and SRM with 600 g/kg concentrate compared to GM diets, and when fed with PCP and 800 g/kg concentrate. Substituting PCP for GM decreased gain efficiency, carcass weight, rumination time and intake efficiency, indicating that the bulls consumed less feed per hour spent eating. Substituting SRM for GM increased backfat thickness and blood urea concentration. In conclusion, the replacement of GM with PCP reduces intake and enhances selection against large particles, decreasing rumination, performance and final carcass weight and dressing. Replacement of GM with SRM increases blood urea and fat deposition, with no impact on performance.
L. J. Spilker, NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory Pasadena, California, USA,
C. Ferrari, Université Paris-Diderot Paris, FRANCE,
N. Altobelli, European Space Agency Madrid, SPAIN,
S. Pilorz, SETI Institute Mountain View, California, USA,
R. Morishima, University of California, Los Angeles Los Angeles, California, USA
Our view of planetary ring particles and the characteristics of their thermal emission has undergone a major paradigm shift since the arrival of Cassini at Saturn. Our understanding of the microstructure and microphysics of the rings has evolved from rings randomly filled with individual particles to Saturn's A and B rings containing particles that tend to clump into transient structures of characteristic sizes and orientations. The dynamics and evolution of rings strongly depend on the outcome of interparticle collisions and on the self-gravity of the rings. Energy loss, mass transfer, and sticking probability for relevant impact velocities will favor either aggregation or disruption and erosion of particles, modifying the size distribution and velocity dispersion, and thus the dynamics and structure of the rings.
The thermal response of a ring is determined by absorbed and emitted radiation or conducted heat within the particles. The radiation source functions depend upon the ring structure. Energy sources include direct, reflected and scattered solar light, mutual heating by neighboring ring particles, and thermal and visible radiation from Saturn. Because of mutual shading and heating between particles, the thermal emission is determined not only by the physical properties of the ring particles, but also by the structural and dynamical properties of the ring disk itself. Friction in mutual dissipative collisions between particles, due to their irregular surfaces, transforms orbital kinetic energy into spin. The particle surface temperature and its thermal emission are expected to vary on the surface along the rotation axis and azimuthally. Ring particles, as they collide into one another, are tumbling around the ring mid-plane with a vertical excursion governed by the local ring dynamics. The thermal history of a particle along its orbit is then an indicator of vertical dynamics. The particle is conditioned by the time it spends in sunlight and in the planetary shadow. At the exit of the shadow, its ability to warm up is a function of the thermal inertia. Any difference in the heating curves between the lit and unlit sides should reveal the time each particle spends on each side.
Exercise during pregnancy has beneficial effects on maternal and offspring’s health in humans and mice. The underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This comparative study aimed to determine the long-term effects of an exercise program on metabolism, weight gain, body composition and changes in hormones [insulin, leptin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)]. Pregnant women (n=34) and mouse dams (n=44) were subjected to an exercise program compared with matched controls (period I). Follow-up in the offspring was performed over 6 months in humans, corresponding to postnatal day (P) 21 in mice (period II). Half of the mouse offspring was challenged with a high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks between P70 and P112 (period III). In period I, exercise during pregnancy led to 6% lower fat content, 40% lower leptin levels and an increase of 50% BDNF levels in humans compared with controls, which was not observed in mice. After period II in humans and mice, offspring body weight did not differ from that of the controls. Further differences were observed in period III. Offspring of exercising mouse dams had significantly lower fat mass and leptin levels compared with controls. In addition, at P112, BDNF levels in offspring were significantly higher from exercising mothers while this effect was completely blunted by HFD feeding. In this study, we found comparable effects on maternal and offspring’s weight gain in humans and mice but different effects in insulin, leptin and BDNF. The long-term potential protective effects of exercise on biomarkers should be examined in human studies.
The complex life cycle of taeniids represents an ideal model of a multi-host system. The complexity of these parasites can therefore cover the epidemiological issues of the interface between wild and domestic animals, especially once spatial overlap between wild and domestic definitive and intermediate hosts occurs. Here we use the occurrence of Taenia ovis krabbei in two model areas as an example of this epidemiological complexity. In two contiguous areas in the Italian northern Apennines, two hunted roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) showed numerous cysticerci in the muscles of their whole body and an adult tapeworm was recorded in a semi-stray dog (Canis lupus familiaris). Through molecular typing of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (cox1) gene, cysticerci and the adult tapeworm of T. krabbei were identified. Taenia krabbei cysticercosis was recorded for the first time in Italy. Although the role of dogs in the parasite's life cycle emerges, the overlap between wild and domestic definitive hosts and the increase of wild population densities raise concerns about the temporal (old or new) introduction and the spread of this parasite by one of these canid species (wolf (Canis lupus) or dog). Although T. krabbei is not a public health issue, economic concerns emerged for hunters and meat producers, related to the damage of carcasses by cysticerci. Therefore, there is a need to evaluate the spread of T. krabbei in the intermediate and definitive host populations, and to ensure the relevant sanitary education for hunters in order to avoid practices that could favour the spread and maintenance of its life cycle.
The Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU) is a proposed radio continuum survey
of the Southern Hemisphere up to declination + 30°, with the Australian
Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP). EMU will use an automated source
identification and measurement approach that is demonstrably optimal, to
maximise the reliability and robustness of the resulting radio source
catalogues. As a step toward this goal we conducted a “Data
Challenge” to test a variety of source finders on simulated images. The
aim is to quantify the accuracy and limitations of existing automated source
finding and measurement approaches. The Challenge initiators also tested the
current ASKAPsoft source-finding tool to establish how it could benefit from
incorporating successful features of the other tools. As expected, most finders
show completeness around 100% at ≈ 10σ dropping to about 10% by
≈ 5σ. Reliability is typically close to 100% at ≈
10σ, with performance to lower sensitivities varying between finders. All
finders show the expected trade-off, where a high completeness at low
signal-to-noise gives a corresponding reduction in reliability, and vice versa.
We conclude with a series of recommendations for improving the performance of
the ASKAPsoft source-finding tool.
Carbon films deposited by filtered cathodic vacuum arc have been used to form high quality Schottky diodes on p-Si. Energetic deposition with an applied substrate bias of -1 kV and with a substrate temperature of 100 °C has produced carbon diodes with rectification ratios of ∼ 3 × 106, saturation currents of ∼0.02 nA and ideality factors close to unity (n = 1.05). Simulations were used to estimate the effective work function and the thickness of an interfacial mixed (C/SiO2) layer from the current/voltage characteristics of the diodes.
Controlled amounts of colloidal Au nanoparticles (NPs), electrochemically pre-synthesized, were directly deposited on MWCNTs sensor devices by electrophoresis. Pristine and Au-functionalized MWCNT networked films were tested as active layers in resistive gas sensors for detection of pollutant gases. Au-modified CNT-chemiresistor demonstrated higher sensitivity to NO2 detecting up to sub-ppm level compared to pristine one. The investigation of the cross-sensitivity towards other pollutant gases revealed the decrease of the sensitivity to NO2 with the increase of Au content, and, on the other side, the increase of that to H2S; therefore the fine tune of the metal loading on CNTs has allowed to control not only the gas sensitivity but also the selectivity towards a specific gaseous analyte. Finally, the sensing properties of Au-decorated CNT sensor seem to be promising in environmental and automotive gas sensing applications, based on low power consumption and moderate operating temperature.