To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A comparison of data from aircraft altimetry, Landsat imagery, and radia echo-sounding has shown characteristic surface topographies associated with sheet and stream flow. The transition between the two is abrupt and occurs at a step in the subglacial topography. This marks the onset of basal sliding and high velocities caused by subglacial water; it results in crevassed amphitheatre-like basins round the head of outlet glaciers. It is also the zone of maximum driving stress beyond which values decline rapidly as velocities increase. This abrupt transition appears to be topographically controlled since basal temperatures are at the pressure-melting point well inland of the change in regime. The Marie Byrd Land ice streams exhibit qualitative differences from other ice-sheet outlets, however; the change to lower driving stresses is much more gradual and occurs several hundred kilometres inland. Such ice streams have particularly low surface slopes and appear in form and flow regime to resemble confined ice shelves rather than grounded ice. The repeated association of the transition to rapid sliding with a distinct subglacial feature implies a stabilizing effect on discharge through outlet glaciers. Acceleration of the ice is pinned to a subglacial step and propagation of high velocities inland of this feature seems improbable. Rapid ice flow through subglacial trenches may also ensure a relatively permanent trough through accentuation of the feature by erosion. This is concentrated towards the heads of outlet glaciers up-stream of the region where significant basal decoupling occurs. This may be a mechanism for the overdeepening of fjords at their inland ends and the development of very steep fjord headwalls.
Re-definition of the interior drainage basin Lambert Glacier, using the most recent sources of ice-surface elevations, has shown its area to be 902000 km2, that is, 17% less than previous estimates. Landsat imagery of the steepest sloping part of the basin shows there is bare ice over an area of 56000 km2. Other evidence also indicates exceptionally low mass inputs and the distribution of accumulation rates has been up-dated. The result is a positive mass balance for the interior basin (+2 Gt a–1 ) and error limits which fall below zero. This is 47% less than the most recent calculation and illustrates the difficulty in deriving mass budgets in regions where data are scarce.
The Parkes pulsar data archive currently provides access to 144044 data files obtained from observations carried out at the Parkes observatory since the year 1991. Around 105 files are from surveys of the sky, the remainder are observations of 775 individual pulsars and their corresponding calibration signals. Survey observations are included from the Parkes 70 cm and the Swinburne Intermediate Latitude surveys. Individual pulsar observations are included from young pulsar timing projects, the Parkes Pulsar Timing Array and from the PULSE@Parkes outreach program. The data files and access methods are compatible with Virtual Observatory protocols. This paper describes the data currently stored in the archive and presents ways in which these data can be searched and downloaded.
Polarization fatigue with repeated electric cycles in ferroelectric thin films is a major degradation problem in ferroelectric nonvolatile memories. However, the origin of this phenomenon is still not properly understood. The fatigue mechanism of a ferroelectric perovskite in a multilayer ferroelectric PbTiO3 thin film material has been investigated here using scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). Z-contrast images of the interfaces show that the ferroelectric PbTiO3 layer has partly decomposed into a single crystal PbTiO3 layer and an amorphous layer. Nanometer-sized precipitates are present near the Pt electrode. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS) analysis reveals that the amorphous layer is a Ti-rich phase between TiO2 and PbTiO3. The precipitates are determined to be a Pt-Pb rich crystalline phase. It is suggested that the formation of the structure-distorted intermediate layer and precipitates may be associated with the ferroelectric degradation process by acting as a passive layer in a ferroelectric capacitor. In addition, the formation of the Pt-Pb rich precipitates may cause an interruption of the consistent Pt electrode, which may result in failure of the device.
Chemoradiotherapy followed by monthly temozolomide (TMZ) is the standard of care for patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Case reports have identified GBM patients who experienced transient radiological deterioration after concurrent chemoradiotherapy which stabilized or resolved after additional cycles of adjuvant TMZ, a phenomenon known as radiographic pseudoprogression. Little is known about the natural history of radiographic pseudoprogression.
We retrospectively evaluated the incidence of radiographic pseudoprogression in a population-based cohort of GBM patients and determined its relationship with outcome and MGMT promoter methylation status.
Out of 43 evaluable patients, 25 (58%) exhibited radiographic progression on the first MRI after concurrent treatment. Twenty of these went on to receive adjuvant TMZ, and subsequent investigation demonstrated radiographic pseudoprogression in 10 cases (50%). Median survival (MS) was better in patients with pseudoprogression (MS 14.5 months) compared to those with true radiologic progression (MS 9.1 months, p=0.025). The MS of patients with pseudoprogression was similar to those who stabilized/responded during concurrent treatment (p=0.31). Neither the extent of the initial resection nor dexamethasone dosing was associated with pseudoprogression.
These data suggest that physicians should continue adjuvant TMZ in GBM patients when early MRI scans show evidence of progression following concurrent chemoradiotherapy, as up to 50% of these patients will experience radiologic stability or improvement in subsequent treatment cycles.