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Continued range expansion of Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) is exposing new species of soft fruits and berries to potential infestation. Our understanding of cues that drive host-finding and selection in this highly polyphagous pest insect is still incomplete. Fruit firmness influences host choice behaviour by limiting suitability for oviposition and larval development. Other factors such as fruit sweetness and acidity act as cues for fruit ripening. Here we assess the role of these cues and fruit colour on host selection. We demonstrate that the use of objective and nonanthropocentric methods of quantifying colour in studies of colour preference is critical to understanding the cues evoking responses from insects. Acidity but not sweetness increased D. suzukii attraction and larval success. Differences in D. suzukii attraction were most strongly correlated with short-wavelength reflectance (blue, cyan, and green (470–560 nm)). Growers could select for fruit varieties with relatively higher reflectance values upon maturity to reduce susceptibility to D. suzukii.
The flora of Mediterranean ecosystems contains families with species having fully and under-developed embryos in their seeds. After-ripening for physiological dormancy release and smoke influence germination in many species. We investigated how after-ripening and embryo growth interact with smoke to influence the temporal dynamics of seedling emergence among fire ephemerals. Seeds were placed in the field and under standardized (50% relative humidity, 30°C) laboratory conditions to test the effects of summer conditions on physiological dormancy loss. Germination was tested with water or smoke compounds (smoke water, KAR1) at a simulated autumn/winter temperature (18/7°C). The timing and amount of seedling emergence with smoke was observed for seeds exposed to near-natural conditions. During summer, physiological dormancy was broken in all species, enabling germination at autumn/winter but not summer temperatures; no embryo growth occurred in seeds with under-developed embryos. At the start of the wet season, seedling emergence from seeds with fully developed embryos occurred earlier than from seeds with under-developed embryos. In a non-consistent manner among our study species, smoke and smoke compounds influenced the rate of embryo growth and amount of germination. Effects of smoke were noticeable in terms of number of emergents in the first emergence season. Among ecologically similar species, we have shown (1) that both thermal and embryo traits exclude germination in the summer, (2) how embryo size influences the timing of seedling emergence in autumn–winter, and (3) a reduced requirement for smoke in the second emergence season after a fire with a shift to reliance on seasonal cues for emergence.
We have analyzed FUSE, COS, GHRS, and Keck/HIRES spectra of the UV-bright star Barnard 29 in M13. Fits to the star’s optical spectrum yield Teff = 20,000 ± 100 K and log g = 3.00 ± 0.01. Using modern stellar-atmosphere models, we are able to reproduce the complex shape of the Balmer H.. feature. We derive photospheric abundances of He, C, N, O, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, Ar, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, and Ge. Barnard 29 exhibits an abundance pattern typical of the first-generation stars in M13, enhanced in oxygen and depleted in aluminum. We see no evidence of significant chemical evolution since the star left the RGB; in particular, it did not undergo third dredge-up. Previous workers found that the star’s FUV spectra yield an iron abundance about 0.5 dex lower than its optical spectrum, but the iron abundances derived from all of our spectra are consistent with one another and with the cluster value. We attribute this difference to our use of model atmospheres without microturbulence. By comparing our best-fit model with the star’s optical magnitudes, we derive a mass M*/M=0.40 − 0.49 and luminosity log L*/L⊙=3.20 − 3.29, depending on the cluster distance. Comparison with stellar-evolution models suggests that Barnard 29 evolved from a ZAHB star of mass M*/M⊙∼0.50, placing it near the boundary between the extreme and blue horizontal branches.
Lymphatic filariasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by roundworm parasites such as Brugia malayi that spread via a mosquito vector. In vitro culture of these parasites provides controlled conditions to understand parasite biology and provides a cheaper way to screen potential micro- and macrofilaricides. Published studies have used a wide array of approaches and metrics regarding in vitro cultures of B. malayi; as a result, drawing comparisons and identifying the reasons why inability to reproduce outcomes are difficult. This study sought to determine conditions that ensure reproducible outcomes and used evaluation metrics that are easily measured and can be automated to ensure objectivity. We found culturing B. malayi third-stage larvae (L3) in endothelial basal media supplemented with 20% fetal bovine serum and 75 µm ascorbic acid in a temperature- and humidity-controlled incubator produced better survival and molting rates as well as longer and more motile parasites than previously reported. The benefit of ascorbic acid seemed to be unique to L3 parasites, as the addition of ascorbic acid to adult parasites had no significant impact on survival or motility. The methods reported in this study will help in designing experiments for both parasite behaviour studies and drug screening applications for disease eradication.
Introduction: Data regarding adverse events (AEs) (unintended harm to the patient from health care provided) among children seen in the emergency department (ED) are scarce despite the high risk setting and population. The objective of our study was to estimate the risk and type of AEs, and their preventability and severity, among children treated in pediatric EDs. Methods: Our prospective cohort study enrolled children <18 years of age presenting for care during 21 randomized 8 hr-shifts at 9 pediatric EDs from Nov 2014 to October 2015. Exclusion criteria included unavailability for follow-up or insurmountable language barrier. RAs collected demographic, medical history, ED course, and systems level data. At day 7, 14, and 21 a RA administered a structured telephone interview to all patients to identify flagged outcomes (e.g. repeat ED visits, worsening/new symptoms, etc). A validated trigger tool was used to screen admitted patients’ health records. For any patients with a flagged outcome or trigger, 3 ED physicians independently determined if an AE occurred. Primary outcome was the proportion of patients with an AE related to ED care within 3 weeks of their ED visit. Results: We enrolled 6377 (72.0%) of 8855 eligible patients; 545 (8.5%) were lost to follow-up. Median age was 4.4 years (range 3 months to 17.9 yrs). Eight hundred and seventy seven (13.8%) were triaged as CTAS 1 or 2, 2638 (41.4%) as CTAS 3, and 2839 (44.7%) as CTAS 4 or 5. Top entrance complaints were fever (11.2%) and cough (8.8%). Flagged outcomes/triggers were identified for 2047 (32.1%) patients. While 252 (4.0%) patients suffered at least one AE within 3 weeks of ED visit, 163 (2.6%) suffered an AE related to ED care. In total, patients suffered 286 AEs, most (67.9%) being preventable. The most common AE types were management issues (32.5%) and procedural complications (21.9%). The need for a medical intervention (33.9%) and another ED visit (33.9%) were the most frequent clinical consequences. In univariate analysis, older age, chronic conditions, hospital admission, initial location in high acuity area of the ED, having >1 ED MD or a consultant involved in care, (all p<0.001) and longer length of stay (p<0.01) were associated with AEs. Conclusion: While our multicentre study found a lower risk of AEs among pediatric ED patients than reported among pediatric inpatients and adult ED patients, a high proportion of these AEs were preventable.
Effects of a marine oil-based n-3 LCPUFA supplement (mLCPUFA) fed from weaning until the end of the next lactation to sows with a predicted low litter birth weight (LBW) phenotype on growth performance and carcass quality of litters born to these sows were studied, based on the hypothesis that LBW litters would benefit most from mLCPUFA supplementation. Sows were allocated to be fed either standard corn/soybean meal-based gestation and lactation diets (CON), or the same diets enriched with 0.5% of the mLCPUFA supplement at the expense of corn. The growth performance from birth until slaughter of the litters with the lowest average birth weight in each treatment (n=24 per treatment) is reported in this paper. At weaning, each litter was split between two nursery pens with three to six pigs per pen. At the end of the 5-week nursery period, two barrows and two gilts from each litter that had individual birth weights closest to their litter average birth weight, were moved to experimental grow–finish pens (barn A), where they were housed as two pigs per pen, sorted by sex within litter. Remaining pigs in each litter were moved to another grow–finish barn (barn B) and kept in mixed-sex pens of up to 10 littermates. After 8 weeks, one of the two pigs in each pen in barn A was relocated to the pens holding their respective littermates in barn B. The remaining barrows and gilts were individually housed in the pens in barn A until slaughter. Maternal mLCPUFA supplementation increased docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) concentration in the brain, liver and Semitendinosus muscle of stillborn pigs (P<0.01), did not affect eicosapentaenoic acid and DHA concentrations in sow serum at the end of lactation, and did not affect average daily gain, average daily feed intake or feed utilization efficiency of the offspring. BW was higher (P<0.01) in the second half of the grow–finish phase in pigs from mLCPUFA sows compared with controls in barn A, where space and competition for feed was minimal, but not barn B. Carcass quality was not affected by treatment for pigs from barn A, but maternal mLCPUFA supplementation negatively affected carcass quality in pigs from barn B. Collectively, these results suggest that nutritional supplementation of sows can have lasting effects on litter development, but that feeding mLCPUFA to sows during gestation and lactation was not effective in improving growth rates or carcass quality of LBW litters.
The effects of a marine oil-based n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (mLCPUFA) supplement fed to the sow from weaning, through the rebreeding period, during gestation and until end of lactation on litter characteristics from birth until weaning were studied in sows with known litter birth weight phenotypes. It was hypothesized that low birth weight (LBW) litters would benefit more from mLCPUFA supplementation than high birth weight litters. A total of 163 sows (mean parity=4.9±0.9) were rebred after weaning. Sows were pair-matched by parity and litter average birth weight of the previous three litters. Within pairs, sows were allocated to be fed either standard corn/soyabean meal-based gestation and lactation diets (CON), or the same diets enriched with 0.5% of the mLCPUFA supplement at the expense of corn. Each litter between 9 and 16 total pigs born was classified as LBW or medium/high average birth weight (MHBW) litter and there was a significant correlation (P<0.001) between litter average birth weight of the current and previous litters within sows (r=0.49). Sow serum was harvested at day 113 of gestation for determination of immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentrations. The number of pigs born total and alive were lower (P=0.01) in mLCPUFA than CON sows, whereas the number of stillborn and mummified pigs were similar between treatments. Number of stillborns (trend) and mummies (P<0.01) were higher in LBW than MHBW litters. Tissue weights and brain : tissue weight ratios were similar between treatments, but LBW litters had decreased tissue weights and increased brain : tissue weight ratios compared with MHBW litters. Placental weight was lower (P=0.01) in LBW than MHBW litters, but was not different between treatments. Average and total litter weight at day 1 was similar between treatments. mLCPUFA increased weaning weight (P=0.08) and average daily gain (P<0.05) in MHBW litters, but not in LBW litters. Pre-weaning mortality was similar between treatments, but was higher (P<0.01) in LBW than MHBW litters. IgG concentration in sow serum was similar between treatments and litter birth weight categories. In conclusion, litter birth weight phenotype was repeatable within sows and LBW litters showed the benchmarks of intra-uterine growth retardation (lower placental weight and brain sparing effects). As maternal mLCPUFA supplementation decreased litter size overall, only improved litter growth rate until weaning in MHBW litters, and did not affect pre-weaning mortality, maternal mLCPUFA supplementation was not an effective strategy in our study for mitigating negative effects of a LBW litter phenotype.
Children in care often have poor outcomes. There is a lack of evaluative
research into intervention options.
To examine the efficacy of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care for
Adolescents (MTFC-A) compared with usual care for young people at risk in
foster care in England.
A two-arm single (assessor) blinded randomised controlled trial (RCT)
embedded within an observational quasi-experimental case–control study
involving 219 young people aged 11–16 years (trial registration: ISRCTN
68038570). The primary outcome was the Child Global Assessment Scale
(CGAS). Secondary outcomes were ratings of educational attendance,
achievement and rate of offending.
The MTFC-A group showed a non-significant improvement in CGAS outcome in
both the randomised cohort (n = 34, adjusted mean
difference 1.3, 95% CI −7.1 to 9.7, P = 0.75) and in the
trimmed observational cohort (n = 185, adjusted mean
difference 0.95, 95% CI −2.38 to 4.29, P = 0.57). No
significant effects were seen in secondary outcomes. There was a possible
differential effect of the intervention according to antisocial
There was no evidence that the use of MTFC-A resulted in better outcomes
than usual care. The intervention may be more beneficial for young people
with antisocial behaviour but less beneficial than usual treatment for
Feeding n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) to gilts or sows has shown different responses to litter growth, pre-weaning mortality and subsequent reproductive performance of the sow. Two hypotheses were tested: (1) that feeding a marine oil-based supplement rich in protected n-3 LCPUFAs to gilts in established gestation would improve the growth performance of their litters; and (2) that continued feeding of the supplement during lactation and after weaning would offset the negative effects of lactational catabolism induced, using an established experimental model involving feed restriction of lactating primiparous sows. A total of 117 primiparous sows were pair-matched at day 60 of gestation by weight, and when possible, litter of origin, and were allocated to be either control sows (CON) fed standard gestation and lactation diets, or treated sows (LCPUFA) fed the standard diets supplemented with 84 g/day of a n-3 LCPUFA rich supplement, from day 60 of first gestation, through a 21-day lactation, and until euthanasia at day 30 of their second gestation. All sows were feed restricted during the last 7 days of lactation to induce catabolism, providing a background challenge against which to determine beneficial effects of n-3 LCPUFA supplementation on subsequent reproduction. In the absence of an effect on litter size or birth weight, n-3 LCPUFA tended to improve piglet BW gain from birth until 34 days after weaning (P = 0.06), while increasing pre-weaning mortality (P = 0.05). It did not affect energy utilization by the sow during lactation, thus not improving the catabolic state of the sows. Supplementation from weaning until day 30 of second gestation did not have an effect on embryonic weight, ovulation rate or early embryonic survival, but did increase corpora lutea (CL) weight (P = 0.001). Eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) levels were increased in sow serum and CL (P < 0.001), whereas only DHA levels increased in embryos (P < 0.01). In conclusion, feeding n-3 LCPUFA to gilts tended to improve litter growth, but did not have an effect on overall subsequent reproductive performance.
Among US racial/ethnic minority women, we examined associations between maternal experiences of racial discrimination and child growth in the first 3 years of life. We analyzed data from Project Viva, a pre-birth cohort study. We restricted analyses to 539 mother–infant pairs; 294 were Black, 127 Hispanic, 110 Asian and 8 from additional racial/ethnic groups. During pregnancy, mothers completed the Experiences of Discrimination survey that measured lifetime experiences of racial discrimination in diverse domains. We categorized responses as 0, 1–2 or ⩾3 domains. Main outcomes were birth weight for gestational age z-score; weight for age (WFA) z-score at 6 months of age; and at 3 years of age, body mass index (BMI) z-score. In multivariable analyses, we adjusted for maternal race/ethnicity, nativity, education, age, pre-pregnancy BMI, household income and child sex and age. Among this cohort of mostly (58.2%) US-born and economically non-impoverished mothers, 33% reported 0 domains of discrimination, 33% reported discrimination in 1–2 domains and 35% reported discrimination in ⩾3 domains. Compared with children whose mothers reported no discrimination, those whose mothers reported ⩾3 domains had lower birth weight for gestational age z-score (β −0.25; 95% CI: −0.45, −0.04), lower 6 month WFA z-score (β −0.34; 95% CI: −0.65, −0.03) and lower 3-year BMI z-score (β −0.33; 95% CI: −0.66, 0.00). In conclusion, we found that among this cohort of US racial/ethnic minority women, mothers’ report of experiencing lifetime discrimination in ⩾ 3 domains was associated with lower fetal growth, weight at 6 months and 3-year BMI among their offspring.
Many of the Loch Tay crannogs were built in the Early Iron Age and so calibration of the radiocarbon ages produces very broad calendar age ranges due to the well-documented Hallstatt plateau in the calibration curve. However, the large oak timbers that were used in the construction of some of the crannogs potentially provide a means of improving the precision of the dating through subdividing them into decadal or subdecadal increments, dating them to high precision and wiggle-matching the resulting data to the master 14C calibration curve. We obtained a sample from 1 oak timber from Oakbank Crannog comprising 70 rings (Sample OB06 WMS 1, T103) including sapwood that was complete to the bark edge. The timber is situated on the northeast edge of the main living area of the crannog and as a large and strong oak pile would have been a useful support in more than 1 phase of occupation and may be related to the earliest construction phase of the site. This was sectioned into 5-yr increments and dated to a precision of approximately ±8–16 14C yr (1 σ). The wiggle-match predicts that the last ring dated was formed around 500 BC (maximum range of 520–465 BC) and should be taken as indicative of the likely time of construction of Oakbank Crannog. This is a considerable improvement on the estimates based on single 14C ages made on oak samples, which typically encompassed the period from around 800–400 BC.
Previous European guidance for environmental risk assessment of genetically
modified plants emphasized the concepts of statistical power but provided no
explicit requirements for the provision of statistical power analyses.
Similarly, whilst the need for good experimental designs was stressed, no
minimum guidelines were set for replication or sample sizes. Furthermore,
although substantial equivalence was stressed as central to risk assessment,
no means of quantification of this concept was given. This paper suggests
several ways in which existing guidance might be revised to address these
problems. One approach explored is the `bioequivalence' test, which has the
advantage that the error of most concern to the consumer may be set
relatively easily. Also, since the burden of proof is placed on the
experimenter, the test promotes high-quality, well-replicated experiments
with sufficient statistical power.
Other recommendations cover the specification of effect sizes, the choice of
appropriate comparators, the use of positive controls, meta-analyses,
multivariate analysis and diversity indices. Specific guidance is suggested
for experimental designs of field trials and their statistical analyses. A
checklist for experimental design is proposed to accompany all environmental
Crannogs are ancient artificial islands found in Scotland and Ireland, which typically had some sort of dwelling place constructed on them that served variously as farmers' homesteads, status symbols, refuges in times of trouble, hunting and fishing stations, etc. Substantial research has been carried out for similar sites in mainland Europe, which has demonstrated that they were lakeside settlements, mostly dating to the Neolithic period and not built over open water. In contrast, the Scottish and Irish sites were built in open water, clearly separate from the shore. In Perthshire, some prehistoric crannogs were originally timber-built roundhouses supported on piles or stilts driven into the loch bed. Today, these crannogs appear as tree-covered islands or remain hidden as submerged stony mounds. Until recently, there were few radiocarbon dates for these structures and so the sites appeared as a homogeneous group. Not only did this make it impossible to examine them in sub-groupings but it also inhibited research, as they did not fit into known periods or architecturally distinct sub-groups, except that they were surrounded by water. Recent work in Loch Tay has resulted in 14C dating of the timber piles from 13 of the 18 crannogs in the loch, allowing them to be fitted into different classes. A major group was constructed in the Early Iron Age around 400–800 BC, with smaller groups constructed around 200–300 BC and 0 BC/AD. There is also evidence of repair/reoccupation of some of these crannogs in the 6th–9th centuries AD. A number of the sites were also known to be inhabited into the recent past, with one, Priory Island, occupied until the 17th century. The dates of construction also raise important issues relating to the loch-level changes that have taken place. The 14C results will be discussed in relation to the periods of origin and habitation of the crannogs.
An updated compilation of published and new data of major-ion (Ca, Cl, K, Mg, Na, NO3, SO4) and methylsulfonate (MS) concentrations in snow from 520 Antarctic sites is provided by the national ITASE (International Trans-Antarctic Scientific Expedition) programmes of Australia, Brazil, China, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, New Zealand, Norway, the United Kingdom, the United States and the national Antarctic programme of Finland. The comparison shows that snow chemistry concentrations vary by up to four orders of magnitude across Antarctica and exhibit distinct geographical patterns. The Antarctic-wide comparison of glaciochemical records provides a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the fundamental factors that ultimately control the chemistry of snow or ice samples. This paper aims to initiate data compilation and administration in order to provide a framework for facilitation of Antarctic-wide snow chemistry discussions across all ITASE nations and other contributing groups. The data are made available through the ITASE web page (http://www2.umaine.edu/itase/content/syngroups/snowchem.html) and will be updated with new data as they are provided. In addition, recommendations for future research efforts are summarized.
Sporadic outbreaks of cyclosporiasis, a common cause of protracted diarrhoea in underdeveloped countries, are often undetected and undiagnosed in industrial countries. In May 2001, an outbreak of Cyclospora cayetanensis gastroenteritis was identified in British Columbia, Canada, with 17 reported cases. We conducted a case-control study involving 12 out of the 17 reported and confirmed case patients. Eleven (92%) of the patients had consumed Thai basil, an essential ingredient in Vietnamese cuisine, compared to 3 out of 16 (19%) of the control patients (P=0·003). Trace-back investigations implicated Thai basil imported via the United States as the vehicle for this outbreak. This is the first documented sporadic outbreak of cyclosporiasis linked to Thai basil in Canada, and the first outbreak of cyclosporiasis identified in an ethnic immigrant population. This outbreak provides the opportunity to increase our understanding of this emerging pathogen and improve on our prevention and control for future outbreaks.
It is standard practice to write to a patient’s general practitioner (GP) following an out-patients consultation. This study set out to assess whether sending a copy of this letter to the patient improves their satisfaction with the consultation. Two hundred patients were randomly assigned to receive or not to receive a copy of their GP letter. Their satisfaction was then assessed by means of a postal questionnaire. The two groups were compared to ensure that there was no significant difference between them with regard to any other aspect of their consultation. Those who did not receive a copy letter had a median overall satisfaction score of 7.75 whilst those who did had a median score of 9.0 (p = 0.014). The only other factors predictive of overall satisfaction were receiving an explanation of the problem and spending sufficient time with the doctor. Sending patients a copy of correspondence to their GP is one means of aiding communication and improving overall satisfaction.