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In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
The COllaborative project of Development of Anthropometrical measures in Twins (CODATwins) project is a large international collaborative effort to analyze individual-level phenotype data from twins in multiple cohorts from different environments. The main objective is to study factors that modify genetic and environmental variation of height, body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) and size at birth, and additionally to address other research questions such as long-term consequences of birth size. The project started in 2013 and is open to all twin projects in the world having height and weight measures on twins with information on zygosity. Thus far, 54 twin projects from 24 countries have provided individual-level data. The CODATwins database includes 489,981 twin individuals (228,635 complete twin pairs). Since many twin cohorts have collected longitudinal data, there is a total of 1,049,785 height and weight observations. For many cohorts, we also have information on birth weight and length, own smoking behavior and own or parental education. We found that the heritability estimates of height and BMI systematically changed from infancy to old age. Remarkably, only minor differences in the heritability estimates were found across cultural–geographic regions, measurement time and birth cohort for height and BMI. In addition to genetic epidemiological studies, we looked at associations of height and BMI with education, birth weight and smoking status. Within-family analyses examined differences within same-sex and opposite-sex dizygotic twins in birth size and later development. The CODATwins project demonstrates the feasibility and value of international collaboration to address gene-by-exposure interactions that require large sample sizes and address the effects of different exposures across time, geographical regions and socioeconomic status.
This chapter examines the Shareholder Primacy Norm (SPN) as a widely acknowledged impediment to corporate social responsibility (CSR), including how this relates to Stakeholder Theory. We start by explaining the SPN and then review its status under US and UK law and show that it is not a legal requirement, at least under the guise of shareholder value maximization. This is in contrast to the common assertion that managers are legally constrained from addressing CSR issues if doing so would be inconsistent with the economic interests of shareholders. Nonetheless, while the SPN might be muted as a legal norm, we show that it is certainly evident as a powerful social norm among managers and in business schools— reflective, in part, of the sole voting rights of shareholders on corporate boards and of the dominance of Shareholder Theory. We argue that this view of CSR is misguided, not least when associated with claims of a purported legally enforceable requirement to maximize shareholder value. We propose two ways by which the influence of the SPN among managers might be attenuated: extending voting rights to non-shareholder stakeholders or extending fiduciary duties of executives to non-shareholder stakeholders.
The profound influence of Thomas Donaldson and Thomas Dunfee’s integrative social contracts theory (ISCT) on the field of business ethics has been challenged by Andreas Scherer and Guido Palazzo’s Habermasian approach, which has achieved prominence of late with articles that expressly question the defensibility of ISCT’s hypernorms. This article builds on recent efforts by Donaldson and Scherer to bridge their accounts by providing discursive foundations to the hypernorms at the heart of the ISCT framework. Extending prior literature, we propose an ISCT* framework designed to retain ISCT’s practical virtue of managerial guidance while answering the demands of Scherer and Palazzo’s discursive account. By subscribing to a suitable portfolio of discursively justified hypernorms, we argue, companies unlock the valuable moral guidance of ISCT*, which says to treat these hypernorms as unequivocal outer bounds to the pursuit of business and as a starting point to tailor local norms through discursive stakeholder engagement.
There is little doubt that Indigenous, collaborative, and community-based archaeologies offer productive means of reshaping the ways in which archaeologists conduct research in North America. Scholarly reporting, however, typically places less emphasis on the ways in which Indigenous and collaborative versions of archaeology influence our interpretations of the past and penetrate archaeology at the level of theory. In this article, we begin to fill this void, critically considering archaeological research and teaching at Mohegan in terms of the deeper impacts that Indigenous knowledge, interests, and sensitivities make via collaborative projects. We frame the collaboration as greater than the sum of its heterogeneous components, including its diverse human participants. From this perspective, the project produces new and valuable orientations toward current theoretical debates in archaeology. We address these themes as they relate to ongoing research and teaching at several eighteenth- and nineteenth-century sites on the Mohegan Reservation in Uncasville, Connecticut.
The calving of icebergs accounts for a significant fraction of the mass loss from both the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets. Iceberg melting affects the water properties impacting sea ice formation, local circulation and biological activity. Laboratory experiments have investigated the effects of the Earth’s rotation on iceberg melting and the possible formation of Taylor columns (TCs) underneath icebergs. It is found that at high Rossby number,
, when rotation is weak compared to advection, iceberg melting is unaffected by the background rotation. As
decreases, the melt rate shows an increasing trend, which is expected to reverse for very low
. This behaviour is explained by considering the integrated horizontal velocity at the base of the iceberg. For moderate
, a partial TC is formed and its effective blocking accelerates the flow under the remainder of the iceberg, which increases the melt rate since the melting is proportional to the flow velocity. It is expected that for very low
the melt rate decreases because, with the expansion of the TC, the region of flow acceleration occurs away from the base of the iceberg. For low free stream velocity the freshwater produced by the ice melting introduces another dynamical effect. It is observed that there is a threshold free stream velocity below which the melt rate is constant. This is explained with the formation of a gravity current at the base of the iceberg that insulates it from the free flow and controls its melting.
Gary P. Baker, Research Associate at the University of East Anglia, and a Researcher at the University of Groningen in the Netherlands.,
Craig L. Lambert, Lecturer in Maritime History at the University of Southampton.,
David Simpkin, Teacher of History at Birkenhead Sixth-Form College.,
J. J. N. Palmer
Given the contribution Andrew Ayton has made to the study of late medieval military history we hope he is not surprised by the production of a Festschrift in his honour. All the editors of this volume were supervised by Andrew for their doctoral studies, and all no doubt thrashed out the general outlines to their theses in one of the infamous ‘Ayton’ meetings that regularly ran into the late evening. Andrew's enthusiasm for his subject was infectious and it is to his credit that many of his former students have gone on to publish contributions on late medieval military and naval history. The papers featured in the present volume highlight the important international impact Andrew's work has had on his students and academic colleagues.
Andrew, a native of Dorset, is in his own words ‘a country dweller at heart’ but has spent much of his working life in the big city. He studied as an undergraduate at the University of Hull in the early 1980s, during which time he undertook several modules taught by Professor John Palmer. John's module on the Hundred Years’ War in particular seems to have kindled Andrew's interest in medieval military history and military communities; it certainly began a fruitful association between two like-minded scholars which was to span some three decades until John's retirement in 2002. Andrew often visited John's home to discuss their latest research and he will be pleased to know he is remembered with some affection by John's children.
After graduating, Andrew spent a brief spell in a ‘real’ job, before returning to Hull to study for his Ph.D. under John Palmer – ‘The Warhorse and Military Service under Edward III’ – and from 1985 to 1987 Andrew was employed, alongside Virginia Davis, on John's Domesday Project. This was a role for which Andrew was particularly well equipped. He had taken John Palmer's special subject on the Domesday Book as an undergraduate, which had provided him with the essential background plus the basic computing skills – in particular related to databases – needed for the research: rare qualifications in the mid-1980s. This period, of course, included the 900th anniversary of Domesday Book, which for Andrew and Virginia entailed a frenetic year, giving lectures and demonstrations around the UK while trying to keep to a research schedule and do some work on their own account.
This essay differentiates between various branches of post-human scholarship as they relate to issues of colonial inequality, social action and politics. Through their critique of human exceptionalism, through their recognition of the vibrancy of matter, and in their potential connections with politically engaged scholarship, certain lines of post-humanist thought stand to make important contributions to archaeologies of long-term and colonial Indigenous history. I argue that these qualities offer nuanced perspectives on the plural colonial past and present of New England (north-eastern North America). I explore the prospects for a selectively post-human and pragmatic archaeology in connection with recent debates over stone landscapes. This approach makes room for various stakeholder narratives, finding possible common ground in a shared human condition between stakeholders, i.e. subject to ‘earth flows and lively stone’.
As chemical management options for weeds become increasingly limited due to selection for herbicide resistance, investigation of additional nonchemical tools becomes necessary. Harvest weed seed control (HWSC) is a methodology of weed management that targets and destroys weed seeds that are otherwise dispersed by harvesters following threshing. It is not known whether problem weeds in western Canada retain their seeds in sufficient quantities until harvest at a height suitable for collection. A study was conducted at three sites over 2 yr to determine whether retention and height criteria were met by wild oat, false cleavers, and volunteer canola. Wild oat consistently shed seeds early, but seed retention was variable, averaging 56% at the time of wheat swathing, with continued losses until direct harvest of wheat and fababean. The majority of retained seeds were >45 cm above ground level, suitable for collection. Cleavers seed retention was highly variable by site-year, but generally greater than wild oat. The majority of seed was retained >15 cm above ground level and would be considered collectable. Canola seed typically had >95% retention, with the majority of seed retained >15 cm above ground level. The suitability ranking of the species for management with HWSC was canola>cleavers>wild oat. Efficacy of HWSC systems in western Canada will depend on the target species and site- and year-specific environmental conditions.
Comparison of numerically computed solutions to exact (analytical) time-dependent solutions, when possible, is superior to intercomparison as a technique for verification of numerical models. At least two sources of such exact solutions exist for the isothermal shallow ice-sheet equation: similarity solutions and solutions with ‘compensatory accumulation’. In this paper, we derive new similarity solutions with non-zero accumulation. We also derive exact solutions with (i) sinusoidal-in-time accumulation and (ii) basal sliding. A specific test suite based on these solutions is proposed and used to verify a standard explicit finite-difference method. This numerical scheme is shown to reliably track the position of a moving margin while being characterized by relatively large thickness errors near the margin. The difficulty of approximating the margin essentially explains the rate of global convergence of the numerical method. A transformed version of the ice-sheet equation eliminates the singularity of the margin shape and greatly accelerates the convergence. We also use an exact solution to verify an often-used numerical approximation for basal sliding and we discuss improvements of existing benchmarks.
Radar altimeter data from Seasal (1978), Geosat (1985-88) and ERS-1 (1991—93) are employed to estimate multi-year mean changes of the surface height throughout a region on the East Antarctic ice sheet (EAIS) extending to 72.1° S, the southernmost limit of coverage for Seasat and Geosat altimetry, and above 1500 m elevation, using orbit crossover analysis. The changes are estimated on a same-season (austral late-winter (ALW) toALW) basis, where ALW is the 10 July 9 October time-frame of the Seasat altimetry. Altimeter data corrected for slope-induced errors are used. Altimeter data not corrected for slope-induced errors are also used, for comparison. Intersatellite orbit bias, combined with the effect of other radial errors such as instrumental bias, is estimated using crossover differences on the offshore ALW sea ice, which is employed as a geoid-parallcl reference surface. If similar intersatellite radial biases are characteristic of the continental Antarctic ice-sheet altimetry to 72.1° S, the results of all crossover analyses adjusted for this intersatellite bias — suggest that the mean rate-of-change of the surface height between Seasat and Geosat for ALWs 1978 to 1986-88 was with in the range +11 to -11 mm a−1. The bias-adjusted results of all crossover analyses between Seasat and ERS-1 suggest that the mean rate-of-change of the surface height between ALWs 1978 and 1991-93 was with in the range-17 to-55mma−1 (maximum intersatellitc bias estimate) or 0 to -40 mm a−1 (minimum bias estimate), suggesting that the surface may have lowered slightly during this time interval. The inconsistency of the adjusted Seasat to Geosat vs Seasat to ERS-1 results, however, may be an indication that orbits more accurate than JGM-2 are needed for estimation of regional multi-year mean changes of elevation on the EAIS. Alternatively, it may be a reflection of the differing orbit inclinations of Seasal and ERS-1.
An approximation common to vertically integrated and three-dimensional models used to simulate growth and retreat of ice sheets in response to changes in climate and sea level is that the component of the mean column velocity attributable to longitudinal strain rates is small relative to the component attributable to shear strain rates parallel to the gcoid, and can be neglected. We investigate the internal consistency of this sliallow-ice approximation by using a three-dimensional model of the Antarctic ice sheet to calculate the ratio of the horizontal shear strain rates, averaged through the lowest 10% of the ice depth, to the horizontal longitudinal strain rates, averaged through the total ice depth. This ratio is plotted for the regions of the ice sheet characterized by “inland ice-sheet flow”, i.e. where the surface elevations are above 1500 m in East Antarctica, and above 950 m in West Antarctica. These areas are generally inland of the ice streams. The areas where this ratio exceeds 10, 50 and 100 are delineated for the cases of (i) no basal motion, and (ii) “moderate” basal motion. The results generally support the validity of the shallow-ice approximation throughout most areas of the inland Antarctic ice sheet, although it breaks down, as expected, near flow divides and mountain ranges. The model is also employed to simulate the response of the ice sheet to linearly increasing accumula-tion rates, such that the present accumulation is doubled after 100 years and then held constant, using the surface kinematic equation. The results suggest that the accumulation increase in East Antarctica during recen t decades observed in widely spaced ice cores may be sufficient to account for a positive change in the time rate-of-change of the surface heights of up to 0.1 m a−1 during this time period, throughout the areas north of 72° S, if the accumulation increase has been widespread.
Echocardiographic screening for rheumatic heart disease in asymptomatic children may result in early diagnosis and prevent progression. Physician-led screening is not feasible in Malawi. Task shifting to mid-level providers such as clinical officers may enable more widespread screening.
With short-course training, clinical officers can accurately screen for rheumatic heart disease using focussed echocardiography.
A total of eight clinical officers completed three half-days of didactics and 2 days of hands-on echocardiography training. Clinical officers were evaluated by performing screening echocardiograms on 20 children with known rheumatic heart disease status. They indicated whether children should be referred for follow-up. Referral was indicated if mitral regurgitation measured more than 1.5 cm or there was any measurable aortic regurgitation. The κ statistic was calculated to measure referral agreement with a paediatric cardiologist. Sensitivity and specificity were estimated using a generalised linear mixed model, and were calculated on the basis of World Heart Federation diagnostic criteria.
The mean κ statistic comparing clinical officer referrals with the paediatric cardiologist was 0.72 (95% confidence interval: 0.62, 0.82). The κ value ranged from a minimum of 0.57 to a maximum of 0.90. For rheumatic heart disease diagnosis, sensitivity was 0.91 (95% confidence interval: 0.86, 0.95) and specificity was 0.65 (95% confidence interval: 0.57, 0.72).
There was substantial agreement between clinical officers and paediatric cardiologists on whether to refer. Clinical officers had a high sensitivity in detecting rheumatic heart disease. With short-course training, clinical officer-led echo screening for rheumatic heart disease is a viable alternative to physician-led screening in resource-limited settings.
EUVE J2056-17.1 is one of the brightest sources in the First EUVE Source Catalog with 0.24 counts s−1 in the Deep Survey Lexan/B band. We present optical and EUV results that show this source is one of the most active late-type dwarfs. EUVE observed a large flare with energy in excess of 1035 ergs in its Lexan/B band. The quiescent optical spectrum of the source reveals strong hydrogen Balmer and Ca II H and K emission. A strong Li I 6707 Å line is also present in the spectrum. We have estimated a Li abundance of log N(Li) = 2.5±0.4. The high Li abundance and the high flare activity favors an interpretation where the enhanced Li is sustained by spallation reactions.
We present optical identifications of nine previously unidentified extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources discovered during the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) satellite surveys. The all-sky survey detected four of the sources and the more sensitive deep survey detected the other five sources. Three of the four all-sky survey sources, EUVE_J1918+59.9, EUVE_J2249+58.5, and EUVE_J2329+41.4, are listed in present catalogs as having possible associations with optical counterparts but without spectral class. The first two of these sources are hot DA white dwarfs showing an optical spectrum with broad Balmer lines. The source EUVE_J2329+41.4 is listed as having a possible association with an unclassified M star. We show that a pair of dMe stars are actually optical counterparts located within the error circle of the EUVE source position. The EUVE_J2114+503 remains unidentified even though all the possible candidates have been studied. Based on the count rates we predict a fainter white dwarf or a cataclysmic variable counterpart for this candidate. All five sources discovered with the EUVE deep survey, EUVE_J0318+184, EUVE_J0419+217, EUVE_J2053−175, EUVE_J2056−171 and EUVE_J2233−096, have been identified as late-type stars. The spectral classes, distances, visual magnitudes, and estimated hydrogen column densities for these EUVE sources are presented.
A statistical study of the correlation of Galactic supernova remnants with spiral arms and the disk is presented. SNR apparently have a larger radial scale length than disk stars. We estimate that only about 10 percent of the Galactic SNR have been detected.
The new Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE) Public Right Angle Program (RAP) offers the opportunity for researchers to obtain observations with the EUVE imaging telescopes, oriented at right angles to the EUVE spectrometer used for the NASA Guest Observer Program. Scientists may submit proposals electronically through the World Wide Web or e-mail using a template form to list specific targets and present the scientific motivation for the work. The RAP electronic proposal process is streamlined from proposal submission through data delivery and is a prototype for a system to be used for all guest observers during the EUVE extended mission starting in February, 1996.
Although central to stakeholder theory, stakeholder value is surprisingly neglected in the literature. We draw upon prospect theory to show how stakeholder judgments of value depend crucially on the reference state, how there are several alternative reference states that may be operative when stakeholders judge value, how the choice of reference state for stakeholders’ value judgments can occur intuitively or deliberately, and how the level of the operant reference state may change with time and may also be incorrectly perceived by stakeholders or managers. Our theorizing results in a fundamentally different way of perceiving the value of corporate actions to stakeholders and shifts understanding of the avenues available for companies and others to influence stakeholder judgments of value. This novel perspective has implications both for theory and management practice, and not least for normative business ethics, if business is about stakeholder value creation.
This essay is about the drivers and consequences of changes in the voluntary consensus standard-setting (VCSS) system, the part of the contemporary global governance system that most of us encounter the most frequently, but that we rarely even notice. The VCSS system is made up of thousands of “technical committees” in which hundreds of thousands of experts (most of them engineers) create standards that constantly affect our lives—from the unique number that identifies this journal, to the electronic codes that translated my keystrokes into the words you are reading at the moment, to the rules governing the supply chain for the “fair trade” coffee you may have in a mug by your side. Historian Mark Mazower calls the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the organization that stands at the apex of the largest network of groups that sponsor these technical committees, “perhaps the most influential private organization in the contemporary world, with a vast and largely invisible influence over most aspects of how we live, from the shape of our household appliances to the colors and smells that surround us.”
Major depressive disorder (MDD) is a common and disabling condition with well-established heritability and environmental risk factors. Gene–environment interaction studies in MDD have typically investigated candidate genes, though the disorder is known to be highly polygenic. This study aims to test for interaction between polygenic risk and stressful life events (SLEs) or childhood trauma (CT) in the aetiology of MDD.
The RADIANT UK sample consists of 1605 MDD cases and 1064 controls with SLE data, and a subset of 240 cases and 272 controls with CT data. Polygenic risk scores (PRS) were constructed using results from a mega-analysis on MDD by the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium. PRS and environmental factors were tested for association with case/control status and for interaction between them.
PRS significantly predicted depression, explaining 1.1% of variance in phenotype (p = 1.9 × 10−6). SLEs and CT were also associated with MDD status (p = 2.19 × 10−4 and p = 5.12 × 10−20, respectively). No interactions were found between PRS and SLEs. Significant PRSxCT interactions were found (p = 0.002), but showed an inverse association with MDD status, as cases who experienced more severe CT tended to have a lower PRS than other cases or controls. This relationship between PRS and CT was not observed in independent replication samples.
CT is a strong risk factor for MDD but may have greater effect in individuals with lower genetic liability for the disorder. Including environmental risk along with genetics is important in studying the aetiology of MDD and PRS provide a useful approach to investigating gene–environment interactions in complex traits.