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Germ plasm, a cytoplasmic factor of germline cell differentiation, is suggested to be a perspective tool for in vitro meiotic differentiation. To discriminate between the: (1) germ plasm-related structures (GPRS) involved in meiosis triggering; and (2) GPRS involved in the germ plasm storage phase, we investigated gametogenesis in the marine medaka Oryzias melastigma. The GPRS of the mitosis-to-meiosis period are similar in males and females. In both sexes, five events typically occur: (1) turning of the primary Vasa-positive germ plasm granules into the Vasa-positive intermitochondrial cement (IMC); (2) aggregation of some mitochondria by IMC followed by arising of mitochondrial clusters; (3) intramitochondrial localization of IMC-originated Vasa; followed by (4) mitochondrial cluster degradation; and (5) intranuclear localization of Vasa followed by this protein entering the nuclei (gonial cells) and synaptonemal complexes (zygotene–pachytene meiotic cells). In post-zygotene/pachytene gametogenesis, the GPRS are sex specific; the Vasa-positive chromatoid bodies are found during spermatogenesis, but oogenesis is characterized by secondary arising of Vasa-positive germ plasm granules followed by secondary formation and degradation of mitochondrial clusters. A complex type of germ plasm generation, ‘the follicle cell assigned germ plasm formation’, was found in late oogenesis. The mechanisms discovered are recommended to be taken into account for possible reconstruction of those under in vitro conditions.
Innovation Concept: The outcome of emergency medicine training is to produce physicians who can competently run an emergency department (ED) shift. While many workplace-based ED assessments focus on discrete tasks of the discipline, others emphasize assessment of performance across the entire shift. However, the quality of assessments is generally poor and these tools often lack validity evidence. The use of entrustment scale anchors may help to address these psychometric issues. The aim of this study was to develop and gather validity evidence for a novel tool to assess a resident's ability to independently run an ED shift. Methods: Through a nominal group technique, local and national stakeholders identified dimensions of performance reflective of a competent ED physician. These dimensions were included in a new tool that was piloted in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Ottawa during a 4-month period. Psychometric characteristics of the items were calculated, and a generalizability analysis used to determine the reliability of scores. An ANOVA was conducted to determine whether scores increased as a function of training level (junior = PGY1-2, intermediate = PGY3, senior = PGY4-5), and varied by ED treatment area. Safety for independent practice was analyzed with a dichotomous score. Curriculum, Tool or Material: The developed Ottawa Emergency Department Shift Observation Tool (O-EDShOT) includes 12-items rated on a 5-point entrustment scale with a global assessment item and 2 short-answer questions. Eight hundred and thirty-three assessment were completed by 78 physicians for 45 residents. Mean scores differed significantly by training level (p < .001) with junior residents receiving lower ratings (3.48 ± 0.69) than intermediate residents who received lower ratings (3.98 ± 0.48) than senior residents (4.54 ± 0.42). Scores did not vary by ED treatment area (p > .05). Residents judged to be safe to independently run the shift had significantly higher mean scores than those judged not to be safe (4.74 ± 0.31 vs 3.75 ± 0.66; p < .001). Fourteen observations per resident, the typical number recorded during a 1-month rotation, were required to achieve a reliability of 0.80. Conclusion: The O-EDShOT successfully discriminated between junior, intermediate and senior-level residents regardless of ED treatment area. Multiple sources of evidence support the O-EDShOT producing valid scores for assessing a resident's ability to independently run an ED shift.
Introduction: Individualizing risk for stroke following a transient ischemic attack (TIA) is a topic of intense research, as existing scores are context-dependent or have not been well validated. The Canadian TIA Score stratifies risk of subsequent stroke into low, moderate and high risk. Our objective was to prospectively validate the Canadian TIA Score in a new cohort of emergency department (ED) patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective cohort study in 14 Canadian EDs over 4 years. We enrolled consecutive adult patients with an ED visit for TIA or nondisabling stroke. Treating physicians recorded standardized clinical variables onto data collection forms. Given the ability of prompt emergency carotid endarterectomy (CEA) to prevent stroke (NNT = 3) in high risk patients, our primary outcome was the composite of subsequent stroke or CEA ≤7 days. We conducted telephone follow-up using the validated Questionnaire for Verifying Stroke Free Status at 7 and 90 days. Outcomes were adjudicated by panels of 3 local stroke experts, blinded to the index ED data collection form. Based on prior work, we estimated a sample size of 5,004 patients including 93 subsequent strokes, would yield 95% confidence bands of +/− 10% for sensitivity and likelihood ratio (LR). Our analyses assessed interval LRs (iLR) with 95% CIs. Results: We prospectively enrolled 7,569 patients with mean 68.4 +/−14.7 years and 52.4% female, of whom 107 (1.4%) had a subsequent stroke and 74 (1.0%) CEA ≤7 days (total outcomes = 181). We enrolled 81.2% of eligible patients; missed patients were similar to enrolled. The Canadian TIA Score stratified the stroke/CEA ≤7days risk as: Low (probability <0.2%, iLR 0.20 [95%CI 0.091-0.44]; Moderate (probability 1.3%, iLR 0.79 [0.68-0.92]; High (probability 2.6%, iLR 2.2 [1.9-2.6]. Sensitivity analysis for just stroke ≤7 days yielded similar results: Low iLR 0.17 [95%CI 0.056-0.52], Medium iLR 0.89 [0.75-1.1], High iLR 2.0 [1.6-2.4]. Conclusion: The Canadian TIA Score accurately identifies TIA patients risk for stroke/CEA ≤7 days. Patients classified as low risk can be safely discharged following a careful ED assessment with elective follow-up. Patients at moderate risk can undergo additional testing in the ED, have antithrombotic therapy optimized, and be offered early stroke specialist follow-up. Patients at high risk should in most cases be fully investigated and managed ideally in consultation with a stroke specialist during their index ED visit.
Introduction: Maintaining and enhancing competence in the breadth of Emergency Medicine (EM) is an ongoing challenge for all clinicians. In particular, resuscitative care in EM involves high-stakes clinical encounters that demand strong procedural skills, effective leadership, and up-to-date knowledge. However, Canadian emergency physicians are not required to complete any specific ongoing training for these encounters beyond general CPD requirements of professional colleges. Simulation-based medical education (SBME) is an effective modality for enhancing technical (e.g. procedural) and non-technical (i.e. Crisis Resource Management) skills in crisis situations, and has been embedded in undergraduate and postgraduate medical curricula worldwide. We present a novel comprehensive curriculum of simulation-based CPD designed specifically for academic emergency physicians (AEPs) at our centre. Methods: The curriculum development involved a departmental needs assessment survey, focus groups with AEPs, data from safety metrics and critical incidents, and consultations with senior departmental leadership. Institutional support was provided in the form of a $25,000 grant to fund a physician Program Lead, monthly session instructors, and simulation centre operating costs. Based on the results of the needs assessment, a two-year curriculum was mapped out and tailored to the available resources. Results: CPD simulation commenced in January 2017 and occurs monthly for three hours, immediately following departmental Grand Rounds to provide convenient scheduling. Our needs assessment identified two key types of educational needs: (1) Crisis Resource Management skills and (2) frequent practice of high-stakes critical care procedures (e.g. central lines). The first six months of implementation was dedicated to low-fidelity skills labs to facilitate the transition to SBME. After this, the program transitioned to a hybrid model involving two high-fidelity simulated resuscitations and one skills lab per session. Conclusion: We have introduced a comprehensive curriculum of ongoing simulation-based CPD in our department based on the educational needs of our AEPs. Key to our successful implementation has been support from educational and administrative leadership within our department. Ongoing challenges include securing adequate protected time from clinical duties for program facilitators and participants. Future work will include establishing permanent funding, CPD accreditation, and a formal program evaluation.
Whilst preterm-born individuals have an increased risk of developing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), and are reported to have ADHD-like attention and arousal impairments, direct group comparisons are scarce.
We directly compared preterm-born adolescents (n = 186) to term-born adolescents with ADHD (n = 69), and term-born controls (n = 135), aged 11–23, on cognitive-performance, event-related potential and skin conductance level (SCL) measures associated with attention and arousal. The measures are from baseline and fast-incentive conditions of a four-choice reaction time task, previously shown to discriminate between the individuals with ADHD and controls. We aimed to establish whether preterm-born adolescents show: (a) identical cognitive-neurophysiological impairments to term-born adolescents with ADHD (b) possible additional impairments, and whether (c) the observed impairments correlate with ADHD symptom scores.
The preterm group, like the term-born ADHD group, showed increased mean reaction time (MRT) and reaction time variability (RTV) in the baseline condition, and attenuated contingent negative variation (CNV) amplitude (response preparation) in the fast-incentive condition. The preterm group, only, did not show significant within-group adjustments in P3 amplitude (attention allocation) and SCL (peripheral arousal). Dimensional analyses showed that ADHD symptoms scores correlated significantly with MRT, RTV and CNV amplitude only.
We find impairments in cognition and brain function in preterm-born adolescents that are linked to increased ADHD symptoms, as well as further impairments, in lack of malleability in neurophysiological processes. Our findings indicate that such impairments extend at least to adolescence. Future studies should extend these investigations into adulthood.
Evidence suggests that autism and schizophrenia share similarities in genetic, neuropsychological and behavioural aspects. Although both disorders are associated with theory of mind (ToM) impairments, a few studies have directly compared ToM between autism patients and schizophrenia patients. This study aimed to investigate to what extent high-functioning autism patients and schizophrenia patients share and differ in ToM performance.
Thirty high-functioning autism patients, 30 schizophrenia patients and 30 healthy individuals were recruited. Participants were matched in age, gender and estimated intelligence quotient. The verbal-based Faux Pas Task and the visual-based Yoni Task were utilised to examine first- and higher-order, affective and cognitive ToM. The task/item difficulty of two paradigms was examined using mixed model analyses of variance (ANOVAs). Multiple ANOVAs and mixed model ANOVAs were used to examine group differences in ToM.
The Faux Pas Task was more difficult than the Yoni Task. High-functioning autism patients showed more severely impaired verbal-based ToM in the Faux Pas Task, but shared similar visual-based ToM impairments in the Yoni Task with schizophrenia patients.
The findings that individuals with high-functioning autism shared similar but more severe impairments in verbal ToM than individuals with schizophrenia support the autism–schizophrenia continuum. The finding that verbal-based but not visual-based ToM was more impaired in high-functioning autism patients than schizophrenia patients could be attributable to the varied task/item difficulty between the two paradigms.
7″-resolution CO (1-0) observations of M82 with the Owens Valley millimeter-wave interferometer have resolved 2 components of molecular gas in the central 1.5 arcmin of the galaxy: (1) a high plane of M82, and (2) shell-like or filamentary structures of molecular gas, with size-scale as large as 400 pc, extending most likely out of the plane of the galaxy.
To investigate the feasibility of a national audit of epistaxis management led and delivered by a multi-region trainee collaborative using a web-based interface to capture patient data.
Six trainee collaboratives across England nominated one site each and worked together to carry out this pilot. An encrypted data capture tool was adapted and installed within the infrastructure of a university secure server. Site-lead feedback was assessed through questionnaires.
Sixty-three patients with epistaxis were admitted over a two-week period. Site leads reported an average of 5 minutes to complete questionnaires and described the tool as easy to use. Data quality was high, with little missing data. Site-lead feedback showed high satisfaction ratings for the project (mean, 4.83 out of 5).
This pilot showed that trainee collaboratives can work together to deliver an audit using an encrypted data capture tool cost-effectively, whilst maintaining the highest levels of data quality.
Introduction: In response to concerns in the literature over the quality of completed work-based assessments (WBAs), faculty development and rater training initiatives have been developed. The Completed Clinical Evaluation Report Rating (CCERR) was designed to evaluate these interventions by providing a measure of the quality of documented assessments on In-Training Evaluation Reports (ITERs). Daily Encounter Cards (DECs) are a common form of WBA used in the Emergency Department setting. A tool to evaluate initiatives aimed at improving the quality of completion of this widely used WBA is also needed. The purpose of this study was to provide validity evidence to support using the CCERR to assess the quality of DEC completion. Methods: This study was conducted in the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Ottawa. Six experts in resident assessment grouped 60 DECs into three quality categories (high, average, poor) based on their perception of how informative each DEC was for reporting judgments of the resident’s performance. Eight clinical supervisors (blinded to the expert groupings) scored the 10 most representative DECs in each group using the CCERR. Mean scores were compared using a univariate ANOVA to determine if the CCERR was able to discriminate DEC quality. Reliability for the CCERR scores was determined using a generalizability analysis. Results: Mean CCERR scores for the high (37.3, SD=1.2), average (24.2, SD=3.3), and poor (14.4, SD=1.4) quality groups differed (p<0.001). A pairwise comparison demonstrated that differences between all three quality groups were statistically significant (p<0.001), indicating that the CCERR was able to discriminate DEC quality as judged by experts. A generalizability study demonstrated the majority of score variation was due to differences in DECs. The reliability with a single rater was 0.95. Conclusion: There is strong validity evidence to support the use of the CCERR to evaluate DEC quality. It can be used to provide feedback to supervisors for improving assessment reporting, and offers a quantitative measure of change in assessor behavior when utilized as a program evaluation instrument for determining the quality of completed DECs.
Introduction: Barriers to completing high quality work-based assessments (WBAs) include relational factors such as the episodic and fragmented interaction that often exists between clinical supervisors and trainees. In an effort to increase supervisor-trainee continuity, the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Ottawa created Clinical Teaching Teams (CTT) in which a resident and clinical supervisor work matched shifts together throughout the year. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of supervisor-trainee continuity on the quality of assessments documented on Daily Encounter Cards (DECs). Methods: DECs completed by 20 clinical supervisors were collected and sorted into three groups representing differing degrees of supervisor-trainee continuity (Group 1: CTT emergency resident; Group 2: non-CTT emergency resident; Group 3: non-CTT off-service resident). DECs were scored using the Completed Clinical Evaluation Report Rating (CCERR), a 9-item instrument that has been shown to have reliable ratings and the ability to discriminate the quality of completed DECs. Scores were analyzed using a univariate ANOVA with “mean CCERR score” as the dependent variable and “continuity group” and “supervisor” as between-subject variables. The relationship between CCERR scores and number of CTT encounters over time was examined using a repeated measures ANOVA with “encounter number” as the within-subject factor. Results: Mean CCERR scores for the CTT (21.0, SD=5.8), non-CTT (21.9, SD=4.2), and off-service (20.7, SD=4.0) groups differed (p=0.019). A subsequent pairwise comparison demonstrated a statistically significant difference in means between the non-CTT and off-service groups (p=0.04); however, this 1.2 difference on the 45-point CCERR scale is unlikely to be of any educational significance. The number of repeated encounters did not have a statistically significant effect on CCERR scores (p=0.43) indicating that DEC quality did not improve with greater supervisor-trainee interaction. Conclusion: DEC quality as scored by the CCERR was low for all three groups. Increasing supervisor continuity alone did not result in higher quality assessments of clinical performance. Additional research focusing on the educational alliance that develops between supervisor and trainee may hold greater promise.
Introduction: Much of the literature investigating the challenges associated with completing high quality work-based assessments (WBAs) have raised specific concerns over the appropriate documentation of assessments of underperforming trainees or trainees in difficulty. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between resident performance and the quality of assessments documented by supervisors on Daily Encounter Cards (DECs). The effect of trainee proximity (i.e. on-service versus off-service status) on this relationship was also examined. Methods: A series of DECs from the Department of Emergency Medicine at the University of Ottawa was scored by two raters using the Completed Clinical Evaluation Report Rating (CCERR). The CCERR is a 9-item instrument that has previously demonstrated reliable ratings and the ability to discriminate the quality of completed DECs. A proxy measure of resident performance was calculated by averaging the scores across performance items on the DEC to produce a “mean DEC rating”. Linear regression analysis was conducted with “mean DEC rating” as the independent measure and CCERR score as the dependent measure. Separate linear regression analyses were repeated for DECs completed for on-service versus off-service residents. Results: Linear regression analysis demonstrated a small but significant inverse relationship between mean DEC rating and CCERR score (p<0.001, r=-0.184), suggesting that when residents performed poorly, their supervisors tended to document higher quality assessments, and conversely, when residents performed well, their supervisors provided lower quality assessments. Further analysis demonstrated that this relationship was present for the on-service group (p<0.001, r=-0.24). However, no relationship was observed in the off-service group (p=0.62, r=-0.05). Conclusion: Resident performance and trainee proximity are important factors impacting the quality of documented clinical performance assessments. Greater attention needs to be given to determining ways of improving the quality of assessments reported for residents who are appropriately progressing in their clinical competence as well as for off-service trainees.
We present new, deep VLA 327 MHz, GALEX Far-UV, and Hα images of the inner ~50 kpc of Centaurus A. We find the structure identified by Morganti et al. 1999 as a possible “large scale jet” is part of a knotty, linear feature within a broader region of diffuse radio emission. The linear feature is coincident with a narrow ribbon of Far-UV and Hα emission that extends 6-35 kpc from the galaxy core, as well with a similar ridge of soft X-ray emission. The Far-UV image also shows that a strong starburst is occurring in the central dusty disk, with a star-formation rate of ~ 2M⊙ yr−1. We suggest that the various peculiar phenomena seen to the NE of the galaxy can be explained by a wind from the starburst disk, enhanced by energy input from the AGN.
The tight correlations observed between galaxies and their SMBH provides compelling evidence that the evolution of the galaxy and its central black hole are strongly linked. This is generally attributed to feedback mechanisms which, according to simulations, often take the form of outflows of gas, quenching star formation in the host galaxy and halting accretion onto the central black hole. While there are a number of plausible ways that outflows could be produced, recent results have shown that in some cases radio jets could be responsible for driving fast outflows of gas. One such example is seen in the nearby radio galaxy 3C293. In this talk I will present results from JVLA radio observations where we detect fast outflows (~1200 km/s) of neutral gas which are being driven by the radio-jet approximately 0.5 kpc from the central core, providing direct evidence for jet-ISM interaction. This is accompanied with recent IFU observations showing that ionised gas outflows are also being driven by the radio jet. Pinpointing the location of these outflows enables us to derive crucial parameters, such as the mass outflow rates and kinetic energy involved, which we can compare to predictions from galaxy evolution simulations.
A significant fraction (~ 30%) of the gamma-ray sources detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope is still of unknown origin, being not yet associated with counterparts at lower energies. Many unidentified gamma-ray sources (UGSs) could be blazars, the largest identified population of extragalactic gamma-ray sources and the rarest class of active galactic nuclei. In particular, it has been found that blazars occupy a defined region in WISE three dimensional color space, well separated from that occupied by other sources in which thermal emission prevails. For farther sources with weaker IR emission, additional informations can be obtained combining WISE data with X-ray or radio emission. Alternatively, the low-frequency radio emission can be used for identifying potential gamma-ray candidate blazars. However, optical spectroscopic observations represent the tell-tale tool to confirm the exact nature of these sources. To this end, an extensive observational campaign has been performed with several optical telescopes, aimed at pinpointing the exact nature of gamma-ray candidate blazars selected with the different selection methods mentioned above. The results of this campaign lead to the discovery of 60 new gamma-ray blazars, thus confirming the effectiveness of these selection criteria.
We previously reported discovering that blazars have distinctive infrared colors as seen in the WISE mission. Of particular note are γ-ray blazars, the locus of whose colors roughly overlaps with QSOs contours but which is more tightly delimited and bluer than ULIRGs and Seyferts. Since a large fraction of γ-ray sources are unassociated with any point source, but are expected to be blazars, identifying a WISE-candidate blazar in the γ-ray source field enables efficient followup studies. In an effort to better understand why blazars have these colors, we reduced and analyzed Spitzer Infrared Spectrometer (IRS) measurements on 73 blazars of varying types, some at several epochs. These spectra can be used to study the continuum emission (non-thermal), and search for atomic or other spectral features.