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The rocky shores of the north-east Atlantic have been long studied. Our focus is from Gibraltar to Norway plus the Azores and Iceland. Phylogeographic processes shape biogeographic patterns of biodiversity. Long-term and broadscale studies have shown the responses of biota to past climate fluctuations and more recent anthropogenic climate change. Inter- and intra-specific species interactions along sharp local environmental gradients shape distributions and community structure and hence ecosystem functioning. Shifts in domination by fucoids in shelter to barnacles/mussels in exposure are mediated by grazing by patellid limpets. Further south fucoids become increasingly rare, with species disappearing or restricted to estuarine refuges, caused by greater desiccation and grazing pressure. Mesoscale processes influence bottom-up nutrient forcing and larval supply, hence affecting species abundance and distribution, and can be proximate factors setting range edges (e.g., the English Channel, the Iberian Peninsula). Impacts of invasive non-native species are reviewed. Knowledge gaps such as the work on rockpools and host–parasite dynamics are also outlined.
Before weaning, breast milk is the physiological form of neonatal nutrition, providing pups with all nutrient requirements. Maternal low-protein diet (LPD) during pregnancy and lactation induces adverse changes in key maternal organs, which have negative effects on pup development. We studied the effects of maternal LPD on liver weight, mammary gland (MG) cell differentiation, milk composition and production and pup development throughout lactation. We fed rats with control (C) or LPD (R) during pregnancy and lactation. At 7 d early, 14 d mid and 21 d late lactation stages, maternal biochemical parameters, body, liver and MG weights were analysed. MG cell differentiation was analysed by haematoxylin and eosin staining; milk nutrient composition and production were studied; pup body, liver and brain weights, hippocampal arachidonic acid (AA) and DHA were quantified. Results showed lower body and liver weights, minor MG cell differentiation and lower serum insulin and TAG in R compared with C. R milk contained less protein and higher AA at early and mid stages compared with C. R pup milk and fat intake were lower at all stages. R protein intake at early and mid stages and DHA intake at mid and late stages were lower compared with C. In R pups, lower body, liver and brain weights were associated with decreased hippocampal AA and DHA. We conclude that maternal LPD impairs liver and MG function and induces significant changes in maternal milk composition, pup milk intake and organ development.
Background: EMBRACE (NCT02462759) Part 1 is a randomized, double-blind, sham-procedure controlled study assessing safety/tolerability of intrathecal nusinersen (12-mg equivalent dose) in symptomatic infants/children with SMA who were not eligible to participate in ENDEAR or CHERISH. Methods: Eligible participants had onset of SMA symptoms at ≤6 months with 3 SMN2 copies; onset at ≤6 months, age >7 months and 2 copies; or onset at >6 months, age ≤18 months, and 2/3 copies. Safety/tolerability was the primary endpoint. Exploratory endpoints included Hammersmith Infant Neurological Examination Section 2 (HINE-2) motor milestone attainment, change in ventilator use, and growth. Results: EMBRACE Part 1 was terminated early based on positive results from ENDEAR. Safety/tolerability was similar to previous trials. More nusinersen-treated (11/14;79%) vs. sham–treated individuals (2/7;29%) were HINE-2 motor milestone responders. Between Day 183 and 302, mean (SD) hours of ventilator use changed by +1.236 (3.712) hours in nusinersen-treated (n=12) and +2.123 (3.023) hours in sham–treated individuals (n=7). Similar increases in weight and body length were observed in nusinersen-treated and sham–treated individuals by Day 183. Conclusions: In EMBRACE Part 1, nusinersen demonstrated a favorable benefit-risk profile. These results add to the aggregated efficacy, safety/tolerability data of nusinersen in SMA.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship of four TNF-α SNP with inflammatory biomarkers and plasma fatty acids (FA), and the interaction among them in a population-based, cross-sectional study in São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 281 subjects, aged >19 and <60 years, participated in a cross-sectional, population-based study performed in Brazil. The following SNP spanning the TNF-α gene were genotyped: -238G/A (rs361525), -308G/A (rs1800629), -857C/T (rs1799724) and -1031T/C (rs1799964). In all, eleven plasma inflammatory biomarkers and plasma FA profile were determined. To analyse the interaction between TNF-α SNP and plasma FA, a cluster analysis was performed to stratify individuals based on eleven inflammatory biomarkers into two groups used as outcome: inflammatory (INF) and non-inflammatory clusters. The -238A allele carriers had higher TNF-α (P=0·033), IL-6 (P=0·013), IL-1β (P=0·037), IL-12 (0·048) and IL-10 (P=0·010) than the GG genotype. The -308A allele carriers also had lower levels of plasma palmitoleic acid (P=0·009), oleic acid (P=0·039), total MUFA (P=0·014), stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) activity index-16 (P=0·007), SCD-18 (P=0·020) and higher levels of PUFA (P=0·046) and DHA (P=0·044). Significant interactions modifying the risk of belonging to the INF cluster were observed with inflammatory cluster as outcome between -857C/T and plasma α-linolenic acid (P=0·026), and also between -308G/A and plasma stearic acid (P=0·044) and total SFA (P=0·040). Our study contributes to knowledge on TNF-α SNP and their association with inflammatory biomarker levels, plasma FA and the interaction among them, of particular interest for the Brazilian population.
Milk fatty acid (MFA) have already been used to model methane (CH4) emissions from dairy cows. However, the data sets used to develop these models covered limited variation in dietary conditions, reducing the robustness of the predictions. In this study, a data set containing 140 observations from nine experiments (41 Holstein cows) was used to develop models predicting CH4 expressed as g/day, g/kg dry matter intake (DMI) and g/kg milk. The data set was divided into a training (n=112) and a test data set (n=28) for model development and validation, respectively. A generalized linear mixed model was fitted to the data using the marginal R2(m) and the Akaike information criterion to evaluate the models. The coefficient of determination of validation (R2(v)) for different models developed ranged between 0.18 and 0.41. Form the intake-related parameters, only inclusion of total DMI improved the prediction (R2(v)=0.58). In addition, in an attempt to further explore the relationships between MFA and CH4 emissions, the data set was split into three categories according to CH4 emissions: LOW (lowest 25% CH4 emissions); HIGH (highest 25% CH4 emissions); and MEDIUM (50% remaining observations). An ANOVA revealed that concentrations of several MFA differed for observations in HIGH compared with observations in LOW. Furthermore, the Gini coefficient was used to describe the MFA distribution for groups of MFA in each CH4 emission category. The relative distribution of the MFA, particularly of the odd- and branched-chain fatty acids and mono-unsaturated fatty acids of observations in category HIGH differed from those in the other categories. Finally, in an attempt to validate the potential of MFA to identify cases of high or low emissions, the observations were re-classified into HIGH, MEDIUM and LOW according to the proportion of each individual MFA. The proportion of observations correctly classified were recorded. This was done for each individual MFA and for the calculated Gini coefficients, finding that a maximum of 67% of observations were correctly classified as HIGH CH4 (trans-12 C18:1) and a maximum of 58% of observations correctly classified as LOW CH4 (cis-9 C17:1). Gini coefficients did not improve this classification. These results suggest that MFA are not yet reliable predictors of specific amounts of CH4 emitted by a cow, while holding a modest potential to differentiate cases of high or low emissions.
To describe the investigation and control of a rare cluster of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase–producing Citrobacter freundii in a hospital in southern Florida.
An epidemiologic investigation, review of infection prevention procedures, and molecular studies including whole genome sequencing were conducted.
An outbreak of K. pneumoniae carbapenemase–3-producing C. freundii was identified at a tertiary hospital in Florida in 2014. Of the 6 cases identified, 3 occurred in the same intensive care unit and were caused by the same clone. For 2 of the 3 remaining cases, the isolates had low carbapenem minimum inhibitory concentrations and were unrelated by whole genome sequencing. As a response to the outbreak, supplementary environmental cleaning was implemented, including closure and terminal cleaning of the unit where the 3 cases clustered, in addition to the infection control bundle already in place at the time. No further cases were identified after these additional interventions.
Although C. freundii is not a species that commonly demonstrates carbapenem resistance, our findings suggest that carbapenemase-producing C. freundii may be underdetected even when active surveillance is in place and has a potential to cause hospital outbreak.
Strongyloides venezuelensis is a parasitic nematode of rodents that is frequently used to obtain heterologous antigens for immunological diagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. The aim of this study was to identify antigens from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis for immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis. Soluble and membrane fractions from filariform larvae of S. venezuelensis were obtained in phosphate saline (SS and SM) and in Tris–HCl buffer (TS and TM), and were analysed by Western blotting. Different antigenic components were recognized by IgG antibodies from the sera of strongyloidiasis patients. Highest recognition was observed for a 30–40 kDa mass range present in all antigenic fractions. The band encompassing this mass range was then excised and subjected to mass spectrometry for protein identification. Immunoreactive proteins identified in the soluble fractions corresponded to metabolic enzymes, whereas cytoskeletal proteins and galectins were more abundant in the membrane fractions. These results represent the first approach towards identification of S. venezuelensis antigens for use in immunodiagnostic assays for human strongyloidiasis.
The prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is predicted to reach unprecedented levels in the next few decades. In addition to excess body weight, there may be other overlapping dietary drivers of impaired glucose homeostasis that are associated with an obesogenic diet, such as regular exposure to postprandial spikes in blood glucose arising from diets dominated by highly refined starches and added sugars. Strategies to reduce postprandial hyperglycaemia by optimising the functionality of foods would strengthen efforts to reduce the risk of T2D. Berry bioactives, including anthocyanins, are recognised for their inhibitory effects on carbohydrate digestion and glucose absorption. Regular consumption of berries has been associated with a reduction in the risk of T2D. This review aims to examine the evidence from in vitro, animal and human studies, showing that berries and berry anthocyanins may act in the gut to modulate postprandial glycaemia. Specifically, berry extracts and anthocyanins inhibit the activities of pancreatic α-amylase and α-glucosidase in the gut lumen, and interact with intestinal sugar transporters, sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 and GLUT2, to reduce the rate of glucose uptake into the circulation. Growing evidence from randomised controlled trials suggests that berry extracts, purées and nectars acutely inhibit postprandial glycaemia and insulinaemia following oral carbohydrate loads. Evidence to date presents a sound basis for exploring the potential for using berries/berry extracts as an additional stratagem to weight loss, adherence to dietary guidelines and increasing physical exercise, for the prevention of T2D.
Sur la proposition du Comité exécutif, l’Assemblée générale du 13 juillet 1928, réunie à Leyde, adopta la résolution suivante:
“Le Comité exécutif espère que d’ici à la fin de la présente convention (31 décembre 1931) la direction du Bureau de l’Heure pourra être exercée par le Directeur de l’Observatoire de Paris, et qu’après cette date l’activité actuelle du Bureau pourra être conservée sans faire appel aux fonds limités de l’Union, peut-être avec la coopération d’observatoires et autres institutions.”
Depuis la dernière réunion, notre commission s’est transformée en une commission internationale mixte dépendant à la fois de l’Union astronomique et de l’Union géodésique et géophysique internationales.
On se rappelle que l’Assemblée générale, réunie à Leiden, a émis le vœu que le Président de l’U.A.I. s’entretienne avec le Président de l’Union de Géodésie et de Géophysique et le prie d’examiner s’il serait possible que celle-ci apporte quelque contribution aux dépenses du Bureau international de l’Heure. Comme suite à ce vœu, l’Assemblée générale de cette dernière Union, réunie à Lisboa en 1933, a adopté la résolution suivante:
“L’Union géodésique et géophysique internationale décide qu’une subvention régulière annuelle sera allouée par elle au Bureau international de l’Heure, dans les limites de ses crédits et des besoins du Bureau.
Z Andromedae, often considered as the prototype of symbiotic stars, experimented, after several years of quiescence, a small outburst in March-April 1984, followed by a larger one in September-October 1985. The imminence of a new activity phase was predicted by Viotti et al. (1982). Z And is, together with AG Draconis, the only symbiotic star observed both during quiescence and activity with the IUE satellite. The early photometric and spectroscopic history of Z And has been recently reviewed by Kenyon (1986).
The behaviour of Z And in the ultraviolet during quiescence has been studied by Fernåndez-Castro et al. (1988), on the basis of data obtained by the International Ultraviolet Explorer from 1978 to 1982. In that period of time, the UV continuum and the emission line fluxes varied quasiperidically with a period of about two years, in phase with the Hα variability found by Altamore et al. (1979), with the UBV photometry by Belyakina (1985) and also in agreement with the ephemeris given by Kenyon and Webbink (1984). The electron density derived from Si III/C III] flux ratio, also varied in phase with the UV flux. In particular, a correlation was found between the electron density variations, and the UV continuum flux at 2900 A. This fact, together with the presence of a Balmer jump in emission, indicates that the principal contributor at those wavelengths is nebular emission, mainly free-bound transitions.
The Granat observatory was launched into a high apogee orbit on 1989 December 1 by a PROTON launcher. The initial Granat orbit had an apogee close to 200000 km and a perigee of 2000 km with an orbital period of 4 days. The satellite is entering the radiation belts for a few hours every orbit. Due to orbital evolution the perigee increased and the apogee decreased with time. After about 1.5 years of operation the perigee increased up to 20000 km. This has put the satellite completely outside of the proton radiation belts which makes the detector activation during the perigee passage negligible. Moreover, the satellite orbit is outside of the magnetosphere during the most parts of the mission. This makes such an orbit very attractive for high energy astrophysics missions which require low background level in order to achieve high sensitivity, and makes it essential for the investigation of the high energy transient phenomena such as cosmic γ-ray bursts and solar flares.
Little is known about the effects of undernutrition on the specific muscles and neuronal circuits involved in mastication. The aim of this study was to document the effects of neonatal low-protein diet on masticatory efficiency. Newborn rats whose mothers were fed 17 % (nourished (N), n 60) or 8 % (undernourished (U), n 56) protein were compared. Their weight was monitored and their masticatory jaw movements were video-recorded. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in brainstem slice preparations to investigate the intrinsic membrane properties and N-methyl-d-aspartate-induced bursting characteristics of the rhythmogenic neurons (N, n 43; U, n 39) within the trigeminal main sensory nucleus (NVsnpr). Morphometric analysis (N, n 4; U, n 5) were conducted on masseteric muscles serial cross-sections. Our results showed that undernourished animals had lower numbers of masticatory sequences (P=0·049) and cycles (P=0·045) and slower chewing frequencies (P=0·004) (N, n 32; U, n 28). Undernutrition reduced body weight but had little effect on many basic NVsnpr neuronal electrophysiological parameters. It did, however, affect sag potentials (P<0·001) and rebound firing (P=0·005) that influence firing pattern. Undernutrition delayed the appearance of bursting and reduced the propensity to burst (P=0·002), as well as the bursting frequency (P=0·032). Undernourished animals showed increased and reduced proportions of fibre type IIA (P<0·0001) and IIB (P<0·0001), respectively. In addition, their fibre areas (IIA, P<0·001; IIB, P<0·001) and perimeters (IIA, P<0·001; IIB, P<0·001) were smaller. The changes observed at the behavioural, neuronal and muscular levels suggest that undernutrition reduces chewing efficiency by slowing, weakening and delaying maturation of the masticatory muscles and the associated neuronal circuitry.
Gamma-ray burst host galaxies are deficient in molecular gas, and show anomalous metal-poor regions close to GRB positions. Using recent Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) Hi observations we show that they have substantial atomic gas reservoirs. This suggests that star formation in these galaxies may be fuelled by recent inflow of metal-poor atomic gas. While this process is debated, it can happen in low-metallicity gas near the onset of star formation because gas cooling (necessary for star formation) is faster than the Hi-to-H2 conversion.
The aim of this study was to investigate the BW and immune status of lambs reared under natural conditions or under artificial conditions fed two different colostrum amounts. In this study, 60 lambs were randomly divided into groups according to treatment. Twenty lambs remained with their dams (natural rearing (NR) group). Forty lambs were removed from their dams at birth. Lambs were bottle-fed with a pool of sheep colostrum, receiving either 4 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C4 group) or 8 g of IgG/kg of BW at birth (C8 group). The total colostrum amount was equally divided into three meals at 2, 14 and 24 h after birth. After this period, lambs were bottle-fed a commercial milk replacer. Blood plasma sample analysis and BW recordings were carried out before feeding at birth and then at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 20 days after birth. Another blood sample analysis and BW recording was carried out when animals reached 10 kg of BW. During weaning (30 days), sampling was carried out every 5 days. Blood plasma was used to determine the concentrations of IgG and IgM and the complement system activity – total and alternative pathways. The NR group showed greater BW than the C4 and C8 groups during milk feeding period, whereas the C4 and C8 groups had greater BW than the NR group at the end of weaning period. The C8 and NR groups had greater plasma IgG and IgM concentrations than the C4 group during milk feeding period. In addition, C4 and C8 groups showed similar IgG concentrations and greater IgM concentrations than the NR group at the end of the weaning period. Complement system activity was greater in the NR group than in the C4 and C8 groups during the first 3 days after birth. In conclusion, lambs fed amounts of colostrum equivalent to 8 g of IgG/kg of BW showed similar immune variables compared to lambs reared under natural conditions, obtaining a greater BW at the end of the weaning period. Nevertheless, this study shows that not only the colostrum amount but also the management during the milk feeding and weaning period, such as stress produced by dam separation, milk quality and suckling frequency, can affect the final immune status of lambs.
Bioactive materials based on polymer/hydroxyapatite are currently being extensively investigated as materials for promotion of bone tissue regeneration and reconstruction . In this work, a material interpenetrating based on poly 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (pHEMA), Chitosan and hydroxyapatite (HA) was prepared following the methodology of the foaming gas Damla Çetin , generating an interpenetrated network with the chitosan filled with hydroxyapatite. The materials were evaluated by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) and in vitro bioactivity  (SBF) and characterized by using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The TGA studies suggested that there was not existence of possible interactions between polymers and HA but there is a thermal stability increase in the HA content. Meanwhile, SBF and its characterization by SEM, was found that the materials are bioactives as indicated by the formation of a bone-like apatite layer after immersion in simulated body ﬂuid, indicating the potential of this material for use in bone tissue engineering.
Results of direct numerical simulations of the transitional processes that characterise the evolution of a breaking internal gravity wave to a fully developed and essentially steady turbulent patch are presented. The stationary lee wave was forced by the imposition of an appropriate bottom boundary shape within a density-stratified domain having a uniform upstream velocity and density gradient, and with the ratio of momentum to thermal (or other) diffusivity defined by
. An earlier paper considered the eventual, fully developed turbulent patch arising after the breaking process is complete (Yakovenko et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 677, 2011, pp. 103–133); the focus in this paper is on the instabilities in the breaking process itself. The flow is analysed using streamlines, density contours and temporal and spatial spectra, as well as second moments of the velocity and density fluctuations, for a Reynolds number of 4000 based on the height of the bottom topography and the upstream velocity. The computations (on a grid using in excess of
mesh points) yielded sufficient resolution to capture the fine-scale transition processes as well as the subsequent fully developed turbulence discussed earlier. It is shown that the major instability is of Rayleigh–Taylor type (RTI) with a resulting mixing region depth growing in a manner consistent with more classical RTI studies, despite the much more complicated environment. The resolution was sufficient to capture secondary Kelvin–Helmholtz-type instabilities on the developing RTI structures. Overall evolution towards the fully turbulent state characterised by a significant region of
subrange in both velocity and density spectra is very rapid. It is much faster than the long time scale characterising the subsequent evolution of the turbulent patch; this latter time scale is sufficiently large that the turbulent patch can itself be viewed as essentially steady.
The B fields in OB stars (BOB) survey is an ESO large programme collecting spectropolarimetric observations for a large number of early-type stars in order to study the occurrence rate, properties, and ultimately the origin of magnetic fields in massive stars. As of July 2014, a total of 98 objects were observed over 20 nights with FORS2 and HARPSpol. Our preliminary results indicate that the fraction of magnetic OB stars with an organised, detectable field is low. This conclusion, now independently reached by two different surveys, has profound implications for any theoretical model attempting to explain the field formation in these objects. We discuss in this contribution some important issues addressed by our observations (e.g., the lower bound of the field strength) and the discovery of some remarkable objects.