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We carried out 7 mm VLA observations at very high angular resolution that reveal substructure and evidence of planet formation in the disk of HD 169142. Our observations, along with near-infrared polarimetric imaging, show that this disk has a ring of enhanced, asymmetric emission at a radius of ~25 AU from the central star. This ring, whose inner region appears devoid of emission, is surrounded by an annular gap in surface density in the ~30-70 AU range of radii. Several mechanisms have been invoked in the literature to explain this kind of gaps and cavities. Among them, one of the most interesting is the possibility that one or more planets in formation are creating these cavities. Since our 7 mm observations show a compact source lying in the 30-70 AU gap, we speculate that this compact source could be tracing dust emission associated with a possible protoplanet. We model the broad-band spectral energy distribution of the disk and we infer its physical structure. From this modeling we infer the presence of a small (r ~ 0.7 AU) disk inside the central cavity, suggesting that the HD 169142 disk is in the pre-transitional disk phase.
For over a decade, the structure of the inner “hole” in the transition disk around TW Hydrae has been a subject of debate. To probe the innermost regions of the protoplanetary disk, observations at the highest possible spatial resolution are required. We present new interferometric data of TW Hya from near-infrared to millimeter wavelengths. We confront existing models of the disk structure with the complete data set and develop a new, detailed radiative-transfer model. This model is characterized by: 1) a spatial separation of the largest grains from the small disk grains; and 2) a smooth inner rim structure, rather than a sharp disk edge.
Cell surface glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) play an important role in the attachment and invasion process of a variety of intracellular pathogens. We have previously demonstrated that heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPG) mediate the invasion of trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi in cardiomyocytes. Herein, we analysed whether GAGs are also implicated in amastigote invasion. Competition assays with soluble GAGs revealed that treatment of T. cruzi amastigotes with heparin and heparan sulfate leads to a reduction in the infection ratio, achieving 82% and 65% inhibition of invasion, respectively. Other sulfated GAGs, such as chondroitin sulfate, dermatan sulfate and keratan sulfate, had no effect on the invasion process. In addition, a significant decrease in infection occurred after interaction of amastigotes with GAG-deficient Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells, decreasing from 20% and 28% in wild-type CHO cells to 5% and 9% in the mutant cells after 2 h and 4 h of infection, respectively. These findings suggest that amastigote invasion also involves host cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans. The knowledge of the mechanism triggered by heparan sulfate-binding T. cruzi proteins may provide new potential candidates for Chagas disease therapy.
Culicoides imicola is the main vector for bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) viruses in the Mediterranean basin and in southern Europe. In this study, we analysed partial mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene to characterize and confirm population expansion of Culicoides imicola across Spain. The data were analysed at two hierarchical levels to test the relationship between C. imicola haplotypes in Spain (n=215 from 58 different locations) and worldwide (n=277). We found nineteen different haplotypes within the Spanish population, including 11 new haplotypes. No matrilineal subdivision was found within the Spanish population, while western and eastern Mediterranean C. imicola populations were very structured. These findings were further supported by median networks and mismatch haplotype distributions. Median networks demonstrated that the haplotypes we observed in the western Mediterranean region were closely related with one another, creating a clear star-like phylogeny separated only by a single mutation from eastern haplotypes. The two, genetically distinct, sources of C. imicola in the Mediterranean basin, thus, were confirmed. This type of star-like population structure centred around the most frequent haplotype is best explained by rapid expansion. Furthermore, the proposed northern expansion was also supported by the statistically negative Tajima's D and Fu's Fs values, as well as predicted mismatch distributions of sudden and spatially expanding populations. Our results thus indicated that C. imicola population expansion was a rapid and recent phenomenon.
We model the L1551 IRS5 source as a system containing two protostars, each surrounded by a circumstellar disk, both encircled by a circumbinary disk, and all disks surrounded by an extended infalling flattened envelope With this composite model, we can calculate self-consistently the spectral energy distribution of the source the shape of the ice and silicate features, and the spatial intensity distributions of the envelope and disks. We compare our model results with the observations, determining the physical parameters of the disks and the envelope. We find that flattened envelope collapse models are required in order to explain the observations and that the infall rate of the envelope is much larger than the accretion rates of the binary disks.
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