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The Murchison Widefield Array (MWA) is an open access telescope dedicated to studying the low-frequency (80–300 MHz) southern sky. Since beginning operations in mid-2013, the MWA has opened a new observational window in the southern hemisphere enabling many science areas. The driving science objectives of the original design were to observe 21 cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionisation (EoR), explore the radio time domain, perform Galactic and extragalactic surveys, and monitor solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric phenomena. All together
programs recorded 20 000 h producing 146 papers to date. In 2016, the telescope underwent a major upgrade resulting in alternating compact and extended configurations. Other upgrades, including digital back-ends and a rapid-response triggering system, have been developed since the original array was commissioned. In this paper, we review the major results from the prior operation of the MWA and then discuss the new science paths enabled by the improved capabilities. We group these science opportunities by the four original science themes but also include ideas for directions outside these categories.
Transmission of Staphylococcus aureus colonization in community-based populations is not well understood. We sought to describe the molecular epidemiology of S. aureus colonization in the Old Order Amish. The study was a prospective, observational study of healthy adults and their same-sex siblings who were cultured from the anterior nares twice. S. aureus isolates were characterized using spa typing. Overall, 40% (159/398) of the study population was colonized with S. aureus. There were 84 spa types with the most abundant spa types being t012 (13%) and t021 (7%). There was no clustering of spa types within sibling groups; however, there was clustering within households. There were 111 S. aureus-colonized participant pairs living within the same household. Of these, 47% had concordant spa types. The diversity of spa types across a relatively isolated, genetically homogenous population with a similar lifestyle is striking. Taken together this suggests that S. aureus transmission is a local phenomenon limited to very close contact.
Contact precautions decrease healthcare worker-patient contact and may impact patient satisfaction. To determine the association between contact precautions and patient satisfaction, we used a standardized interview for perceived issues with care.
Prospective cohort study of inpatients, evaluated at admission and on hospital days 3, 7, and 14 (until discharged). At each point, patients underwent a standardized interview to identify perceived problems with care. After discharge, the standardized interview and Hospital Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (HCAHPS) survey were administered by telephone. Responses were recorded, transcribed, and coded by 2 physician reviewers.
A total of 528 medical or surgical patients not admitted to the intensive care unit.
A total of 528 patients were included in the primary analysis, of whom 104 (20%) perceived some issue with their care. On multivariable logistic regression, contact precautions were independently associated with a greater number of perceived concerns with care (odds ratio, 2.05 [95% confidence interval, 1.31–3.21]; P<.01), including poor coordination of care (P = .02) and a lack of respect for patient needs and preferences (P = .001). Eighty-eight patients were included in the secondary analysis of HCAHPS. Patients under contact precautions did not have different HCAHPS scores than those not under contact precautions (odds ratio, 1.79 [95% confidence interval, 0.64–5.00]; P = .27).
Patients under contact precautions were more likely to perceive problems with their care, especially poor coordination of care and a lack of respect for patient preferences.
Open science is a new concept for the practice of experimental laboratory-based research, such as drug discovery. The authors have recently gained experience in how to run such projects and here describe some straightforward steps others may wish to take towards more openness in their own research programmes. Existing and inexpensive online tools can solve many challenges, while some psychological barriers to the free sharing of all data and ideas are more substantial.
Malaria is a disease that still affects a significant proportion of the global human population. Whilst advances have been made in lowering the numbers of cases and deaths, it is clear that a strategy based solely on disease control year on year, without reducing transmission and ultimately eradicating the parasite, is unsustainable. This article highlights the current mainstay treatments alongside a selection of emerging new clinical molecules from the portfolio of Medicines for Malaria Venture (MMV) and our partners. In each case, the key highlights from each research phase are described to demonstrate how these new potential medicines were discovered. Given the increased focus of the community on eradicating the disease, the strategy for next generation combination medicines that will provide such potential is explained.
Direct Ion Beam Nitridation (IBN) and Oxidation (IBO) of Si, Ge, and Si0.8Ge0.2 were investigated at room temperature as a function of ion energy. The ion energies were selected between 100 eV and 1 keV to establish the role of energy on phase formation and film properties. Si0.8Ge0.2 films were grown by MBE on Si (100) and transferred in UHV to the ion beam processing chamber. The modification of composition and chemical binding was measured as a function of ion beam exposure by in situ XPS analysis. The samples were nitridized or oxidized using until the N or O 1s signal reached saturation for ion doses between 5×1016 to 1×1017 ions/cm2. Combined characterization by XPS, SEM, ellipsometry and cross-section TEM showed that insulating films of stoichiometric SiO2 and Si-rich Si3N4 were formed during IBO and IBN of Si at all energies used. The formation of Ge dielectric thin films by IBO and IBN was found to be strongly energy dependent and insulating layers could be grown only at the lower energies (E ≤ 200 eV). In contrast to pure Ge, insulating SiGe-oxide and SiGe-nitride were successfully formed on Si0.8Ge0.20.2 at all energies studied.
Boron fibers made by a commercial chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process have been used as precursors for the formation of magnesium diboride (MgB2) superconducting wires. Prior to a reaction with magnesium, the addition of dopants such as carbon and titanium to the boron fiber has been shown to enhance the superconducting properties of MgB2. These dopants also influence the kinetics of the reaction with magnesium. In this study, the effect of carbon dopant additions on the microstructure of boron fibers was investigated using powder x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Additionally, bundles of boron fibers were pressure infiltrated with molten magnesium and reacted at elevated temperatures. The microstructure and microchemistry of the fiber-metal interfaces were investigated by TEM and energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDS).
Children were immunized with a single batch of pertussis vaccine, either adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide or plain. With a primary course of three injections, adsorbed vaccine produced higher titres of pertussis agglutinins in the serum than did plain vaccine. There was no obvious difference in response between those who received the three doses at intervals of 1–2 months, starting at 3–4 months of age, and those in whom the third dose was delayed until about 6 months after the second, but the number of children in each group was small.
In 1999 the Enhanced Tuberculosis Surveillance (ETS) system was introduced in the United Kingdom to strengthen surveillance of tuberculosis (TB). The aim of this study was to assess the use of record-linkage and capture–recapture methodology for estimating the completeness of TB reporting in England between 1999 and 2002. Due to the size of the TB data sources sophisticated record-linkage software was required and the proportion of false-positive cases among unlinked hospital-derived TB records was estimated through a population mixture model. This study showed that record-linkage of TB data sources and cross-validation with additional TB-related datasets improved data quality as well as case ascertainment. Since the introduction of ETS observed completeness of notification in England has increased and the results were consistent with expected levels of under-notification. Completeness of notification estimated by a log-linear capture–recapture model was highly inconsistent with prior estimates and the validity of this methodology was further examined.
A finite volume computer model of the continuous casting
process for steel flat products has been developed. In this first
stage, the model concentrates on the hydrodynamic aspects
of the process and in particular the dynamic behavior of
the metal/slag interface. The model was validated against
experimental measurements obtained in a water model apparatus.
The purpose of this study was to compare the occurrence of tuberculosis (TB) and the outcome of treatment between TB patients living in urban and rural areas. Cases of TB reported from 2001 to 2003 in England and Wales were assigned to a rural or urban area classification. The outcome of interest, non-completion of treatment, was investigated to determine the odds ratio for urban vs. rural residence. The effects of age, sex, ethnicity, place of birth, time since arrival in the United Kingdom, disease site, isoniazid resistance and previous diagnosis were adjusted for by multivariable logistic regression. Crude odds ratios showed a significantly higher level of treatment non-completion in rural areas. These results became non-significant (OR 1·02, 95% CI 0·83–1·26, P=0·82) after adjusting for the confounding effects of ethnic group and age. In England and Wales residence in a rural location is not an independent determinant of TB treatment outcome failure.
This study measured the prevalence and the risk factors associated with HCV antibody-positive prisoners. A total of 630 prisoners completed a questionnaire about risk behaviours associated with HCV transmission and were tested for HCV antibody from a blood test. Of these 362 (57·5%) prisoners were HCV antibody positive. A total of 436 (68·8%) prisoners reported ever injecting drugs and 332 reported injecting drugs in prison. HCV-positive prisoners were more likely to have injected drugs (OR 29·9) and to have injected drugs in prison during their current incarceration (OR 3·0). Tattooing was an independent risk factor for being HCV positive (OR 2·7). This is the first study conducted on prisoners that has identified having a tattoo in prison as a risk factor for HCV. Injecting drugs whilst in prison during this incarceration was also a risk factor for HCV. Our results show prisoners who injected drugs outside of prison continue to inject in prison but in a less safe manner.
Primary infection of the larynx with Aspergillus spp. is rare. It is more commonly seen as part of a wider infection involving the respiratory system in an immunocompromised host. In noncompromised patients laryngeal aspergillosis may represent colonization rather than invasion requiring no systemic anti-fungal treatment. The diagnosis is important as the presenting symptoms are suggestive of malignant laryngeal disease.
We present a 62-year-old man with a short history of hoarseness. Direct laryngoscopy and biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of aspergillosis. Clinical presentation, diagnosis and the important pathological characteristics of this infection are discussed.
Lipomas are common benign connective tissue tumours composed of adult adipose tissue. They are relatively rare in the upper aerodigestive tract, although they occur with considerable frequency in other areas, particularly in the subcutaneous tissues of the neck. Although there are several reports of this tumour occurring in the oropharynx, there is no recorded case of a lipoma of the tonsillar fossa. An 83-year-old man with a left tonsillar fossa lipoma is presented. Clinical presentation, management and a literature review are discussed.
Wegener's granuloma is a systemic necrotizing vasculitis which predominantly affects the upper and lower respiratory tracts and kidneys. The nose and paranasal sinuses are often the first or main sites to be affected. Equally ear involvement is common and a recognized early manifestation of the disease. Salivary gland involvement is rare and is usually part of more widespread systemic involvement.
We present a 34-year-old female with a six-week history of hearing loss and a unilateral parotid swelling. One year previously she was diagnosed as having myalgic encephalomyelitis following a long period of post-viral malaise. The case points to the difficulties encountered when Wegener's granuloma presents in an unusual and varied way. A high index of suspicion coupled with early diagnosis and treatment is essential. The patient made a good recovery.
A prospective study comparing surgical and antibiotic treatment for recurrent tonsillitis in adults suggests that, whilst tonsillectomy is very effective, adequate medical treatment provides an equally good alternative in the majority of patients.
The Breconian stage of the Anglo-Welsh Old Red Sandstone is defined. The Breconian follows the Dittonian and precedes the Farlovian. In Breconshire, the Breconian comprises the Senni Beds and the overlying Brownstones. The Senni Beds have yielded a fauna and flora of Siegenian-Emsian age; the Brownstones are apparently unfossiliferous.
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