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Universal screening for postpartum depression is recommended in many countries. Knowledge of whether the disclosure of depressive symptoms in the postpartum period differs across cultures could improve detection and provide new insights into the pathogenesis. Moreover, it is a necessary step to evaluate the universal use of screening instruments in research and clinical practice. In the current study we sought to assess whether the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS), the most widely used screening tool for postpartum depression, measures the same underlying construct across cultural groups in a large international dataset.
Ordinal regression and measurement invariance were used to explore the association between culture, operationalized as education, ethnicity/race and continent, and endorsement of depressive symptoms using the EPDS on 8209 new mothers from Europe and the USA.
Education, but not ethnicity/race, influenced the reporting of postpartum depression [difference between robust comparative fit indexes (∆*CFI) < 0.01]. The structure of EPDS responses significantly differed between Europe and the USA (∆*CFI > 0.01), but not between European countries (∆*CFI < 0.01).
Investigators and clinicians should be aware of the potential differences in expression of phenotype of postpartum depression that women of different educational backgrounds may manifest. The increasing cultural heterogeneity of societies together with the tendency towards globalization requires a culturally sensitive approach to patients, research and policies, that takes into account, beyond rhetoric, the context of a person's experiences and the context in which the research is conducted.
Whether genetic factors influence the associations of fatty acids with the risk of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) is largely unknown. To investigate possible gene–fatty acid interactions on SCA risk, we used a case-only approach and measured fatty acids in erythrocyte samples from 1869 SCA cases in a population-based repository with genetic data. We selected 191 SNP in ENCODE-identified regulatory regions of fifty-five candidate genes in fatty acid metabolic pathways. Using linear regression and additive genetic models, we investigated the association of the selected SNP with erythrocyte levels of fatty acids, including DHA, EPA and trans-fatty acids among the SCA cases. The assumption of no association in non-cases was supported by analysis of publicly available datasets containing over 8000 samples. None of the SNP–fatty acid associations tested among the cases reached statistical significance after correction for multiple comparisons. One SNP, rs4654990 near PLA2G2A, with an allele frequency of 0·33, was nominally associated with lower levels of DHA and EPA and higher levels of trans-fatty acids. The strongest association was with DHA levels (exponentiated coefficient for one unit (1 % of total fatty acids), 0·90, 95 % CI 0·85, 0·97; P = 0·003), indicating that for subjects with a coded allele, the OR of SCA associated with one unit higher DHA is about 90 % what it is for subjects with one fewer coded allele. These findings suggest that the associations of circulating n-3 and trans-fatty acids with SCA risk may be more pronounced in carriers of the rs4654990 G allele.
We detail an innovative new technique for measuring the 2-D velocity moments (rotation velocity, velocity dispersion and Gauss-Hermite coefficients h3 and h4) using spectra from Keck DEIMOS multi-object spectroscopic observations. The data are used to reconstruct 2-D rotation velocity maps.
This is the final report on the intensive survey at Kouphovouno, the prehistoric settlement just south of Sparta, in 1999–2000. As well as a total collection of the artefacts on the surface, there was a magnetometer survey of the site and a programme of environmental studies, for which a series of cores was taken. The site was first occupied in the 6th millennium and covered 4–5 ha in the Middle, Late/Final Neolithic and Early Helladic periods. Occupation continued in the Middle and Late Helladic periods and there is also evidence of Classical-Hellenistic and Roman activity. As well as pottery, the artefacts included chipped and polished stone tools. An analytical programme has investigated the source of the raw materials used for the latter.
Using new (Cycle 9) HST / WFPC2 data, we have studied a peculiar star forming region in the nearby Sc-type spiral NGC 6946. The region has a bubble-like shape and a diameter of about 600 pc. Near the centre is an extremely luminous young globular cluster with MV = −13.2 mag. The cluster has a compact core with a core radius of about 1.3 pc but is surrounded by an extended halo with a power-law luminosity profile similar to that observed for young LMC clusters. From Keck / HIRES high-dispersion spectroscopy we measure a velocity dispersion of 10 km s−1, leading to a dynamical mass estimate of about 1.7 × 106 solar masses. The dynamical mass estimate is comparable to the expectation from population synthesis modelling under the assumption of a Salpeter IMF extending down to 0.1 M⊙.
Laser-induced vaporization of ceramics shows promise as a technique for the deposition of thin films of these materials. Critical to the utility of this technique is an understanding of the laser-material interaction, plume formation and dynamics, material transport and how variations in the vaporization conditions affect the deposited film. Lead zirconate titanate (PZT, Zr/Ti-47/53) targets were irradiated using a q-switched Nd:YAG laser (15 ns, 100 mJ at 1.064 /μm) . The deposition chamber was maintained at a pressure of 100 mTorr oxygen. Material from the plume was collected on silicon wafer substrates, suspended 1.0 - 3.0 cm above the target. The films were characterized by SEM/EDX, TEM, x-ray diffraction and electrical measurements before and after annealing. Very thin films were deposited on carbon coated metal grids for observation in the TEM using a hot stage to study crystallization.
Temporally and spatially resolved spectra of the light emitted by the laser-generated plume were obtained with an optical multichannel analyzer (0MA) to yield information on the plume generation and chemistry of the deposition process. These spectra indicate that under these conditions a plasma is created above the target surface which persists for -100 ns after the laser pulse.
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