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We report an interesting case of a right temporal pre-auricular arteriovenous fistula (cirsoid aneurysm) causing intractable tinnitus successfully managed by transarterial n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue embolisation.
A 52-year-old female presented with a one-year history of tinnitus and pulsatile swelling in the right pre-auricular region. A colour Doppler ultrasound test and magnetic resonance angiography revealed a high-flow scalp arteriovenous fistula with a feeder vessel from the distal superficial temporal artery, which drained into the corresponding, dilated, tortuous vein. The patient underwent diagnostic digital subtraction angiography. This was followed by transarterial embolisation of the fistula using a 50 per cent mixture of n-butyl cyanoacrylate glue and Lipiodol®, with manual distal venous occlusion. A successful outcome was achieved with instant relief of symptoms.
Cirsoid aneurysms of the facial region, an uncommon cause of tinnitus, can be effectively managed by endovascular embolisation. This treatment obviates the need for surgery, which is associated with an increased risk of complications such as scarring, deformity and bleeding.
An overview of the equations of state (EOS) with a short summary of shock wave experiments with laser induced impact flyer, relevant to EOS study, is presented. The “old-new” ellipsometry is suggested and described for the EOS research. The detection of phase transitions of the first kind (solid-solid) as well as phase transition of the second kind (Curie point as an example) is demonstrated. Furthermore, the temperature measurements are not possible without the knowledge of the emissivity, a parameter that can be measured by using ellipsometry techniques.
A new scale for the evaluation of feelings of guilt is described. Two types of guilt feeling were of potential interest: ‘delusional’ guilt or shame (experienced in relation to one's actions), and ‘affective’ guilt (a more general feeling of unworthiness). Reliability and validity analyses for the first (15–item) version of the scale were performed in three separate and contrasting clinical samples. The second and final (seven-item) version was tested in another sample of major depressives and in normal controls. The HRSD was used as a measure of severity throughout. The BDI and Widlöcher psychomotor retardation scale were also used as external criteria for the seven-item scale. Exploratory factor analysis of this sample yielded two factors – ‘cognitive/attitudinal’ and ‘mood/feeling’ – of which only the first correlated with scores for psychomotor retardation. It is suggested that these two factors represent two forms of guilt, but that only the former is related to a putative dopaminergic disorder. Guilt scores and measures of severity were not correlated. It is suggested that feelings of guilt should be considered as a behavioural marker for a subtype of depression.
Kachru (1965, 1966) has presented a detailed analysis of the idiosyncratic vocabulary items of Indian English (hereafter IE). He observes that “in India an idiom of English has developed which is Indian in the sense that there are formal and contextual exponents of Indianness in such writing, and the defining-context of such idiom is Indian setting” (1965:396). To illustrate how IE has become culture bound in India, he mentions many formations, such as confusion of caste, dung wash, saltgiver, rape-sister, etc., drawn from IE fiction, and calls them Indianisms.
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