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The cryogenic system for maintaining a target at a constant temperature in the range 5–25 K after shutting off the pulse tube (PT) cryogenic refrigerator is developed and tested. The temperature stability at the sample is ±2 mK for at least 20 hours. The cryogenic setup consists of cryostat, PT cryocooler, liquid helium vessel, helium gas supply, thermo-radiation shield, thermal resistance. The system provides 0.25 W of cooling power at the target. The appropriate thermal resistance should be used for different temperatures. The designed operation mode is 3 minutes off and 15 minutes on. The deactivation of PT cryocooler allows to achieve the target position stability of 1 micrometer or less during the X-ray characterization. The effect of neutron-shield was estimated using Monte-Carlo simulation.
The experimental results of the activation spectra, dose rate
measurements, and the residual nuclide production cross sections
obtained after the irradiation of the NatCu and
59Co targets by 12C ion beams at ITEP and
GSI are presented in this paper. These results are compared with
simulations by the CASCADE and LAQGSM codes.
The X-ray spectral distribution of swift heavy Ti and Ni ions
(11 MeV/u) observed inside aerogels (ρ = 0.1
g/cm3) and dense solids (quartz, ρ = 2.23
g/cm3) indicates a strong presence of simultaneous
3–5 charge states with one K-hole. We show that the
theoretical analysis can be split into two tasks: first, the
treatment of complex autoionizing states together with the
originating spectral distribution, and, second, a charge-state
distribution model. Involving the generalized line profile function
theory, we discuss attempts to couple charge-state distributions.
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