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Massive, early-type stars have been detected as radio sources for many decades. Their thermal winds radiate free–free continuum and in binary systems hosting a colliding-wind region, non-thermal emission has also been detected. To date, the most abundant data have been collected from frequencies higher than 1 GHz. We present here the results obtained from observations at 325 and 610 MHz, carried out with the Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope, of all known Wolf-Rayet and O-type stars encompassed in area of
15 sq degrees centred on the Cygnus region. We report on the detection of 11 massive stars, including both Wolf-Rayet and O-type systems. The measured flux densities at decimeter wavelengths allowed us to study the radio spectrum of the binary systems and to propose a consistent interpretation in terms of physical processes affecting the wide-band radio emission from these objects. WR 140 was detected at 610 MHz, but not at 325 MHz, very likely because of the strong impact of free–free absorption (FFA). We also report—for the first time—on the detection of a colliding-wind binary system down to 150 MHz, pertaining to the system of WR 146, making use of complementary information extracted from the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research GMRT Sky Survey. Its spectral energy distribution clearly shows the turnover at a frequency of about 600 MHz, that we interpret to be due to FFA. Finally, we report on the identification of two additional particle-accelerating colliding-wind binaries, namely Cyg OB2 12 and ALS 15108 AB.
Stigma against mental illness and the mentally ill is well known. However, stigma against psychiatrists and mental health professionals is known but not discussed widely. Public attitudes and also those of other professionals affect recruitment into psychiatry and mental health services. The reasons for this discriminatory attitude are many and often not dissimilar to those held against mentally ill individuals. In this Guidance paper we present some of the factors affecting the image of psychiatry and psychiatrists which is perceived by the public at large. We look at the portrayal of psychiatry, psychiatrists in the media and literature which may affect attitudes. We also explore potential causes and explanations and propose some strategies in dealing with negative attitudes. Reduction in negative attitudes will improve recruitment and retention in psychiatry. We recommend that national psychiatric societies and other stakeholders, including patients, their families and carers, have a major and significant role to play in dealing with stigma, discrimination and prejudice against psychiatry and psychiatrists.
There are significant differences in psychiatric training across Europe. In the light of the current direction of Europe (without borders with free movement of workforce) it is inevitable to harmonize at least basic standards of psychiatric education across Europe. Ideally by working in partnership with relevant national and international bodies (European Union of Medical Specialists, Board of Psychiatry - UEMS, European Psychiatric Association - EPA and European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees - EFPT). A qualitative data analysis on the most important challenges of psychiatric trainees across Europe, carried out by the EFPT in 2009, revealed several interesting findings which might be of interest not only for trainees, but for all involved in the process of psychiatric education. As the most important issue trainees reported the imperfect structure of the training programs and problems with implementation of new ones. That is why new training programs based on a competency based framework are being developed lately in number of countries (e.g. United Kingdom, Ireland, Netherlands). However, not only the structure of the training and its implementation remains an issue, trainees are concerned also with topics related to working conditions, insufficient training opportunities, lack of supervision, funding and availability of psychotherapy courses, etc. Based on these findings EFPT will undertake specific actions which in cooperation with other organizations shall lead in the future to better postgraduate training opportunities in Europe.
Even if technology and information are omnipresent, they rarely meet harmoniously. Either the lack of sufficient means prevents good information to reach its target or the technology is too complex to integrate flawlessly in the daily workflow.
The use and misuse of information technologies (internet, email, e-learning, social networks) has recently significantly increased among psychiatrists and patients and the changes in behavior of communication and seeking informations are real challenges.
Using the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees network, the self-questionnaires concerning the usage of information technologies and the local patients-therapists communication were distributed among psychiatric trainees of 31 European countries.
A review of the results of this study, as well as recommendations about netiquette and useful websites for psychiatrists and scientists will be presented in detail.
Training schemes in psychiatry are developed and evaluated by national education policy makers in the majority of European countries. However, the requirements that a training program in psychiatry should meet are also defined on the European level in a form of recommendations by the Board of Psychiatry - European Union of Medical Specialists (UEMS).
Recently, the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) which represent trainees from more then 30 European countries, reported data pertaining to the structure of training programs and to the evaluation of training programs in 30 European countries. Whereas in the majority of European countries the structure of training programs and methods of assessment of trainees' competencies are partially compatible with one another and with the existing recommendations at the European level, the quality assurance of training programs varies significantly among countries. Regular evaluations of training programs and mentors, however, contribute to the proper implementation of training programs and help that the theoretical training principles are followed through in practice. As quality assurance of training schemes is an important mechanism how to improve the delivery of training programs, it should gain more focus by responsible authorities who structure the psychiatric training on the national and international European level.
Interactions between the pharmaceutical industry (PI) and psychiatrists have been under scrutiny recently, though there is little empirical evidence on the nature of the relationship and its intensity at psychiatry trainee level. We therefore studied the level of PI interactions and the underlying beliefs and attitudes in a large sample of European psychiatric trainees.
One thousand four hundred and forty-four psychiatric trainees in 20 European countries were assessed cross-sectionally, with a 62-item questionnaire.
The total number of PI interactions in the preceding two months varied between countries, with least interactions in The Netherlands (M (Mean) = 0.92, SD = 1.44, range = 0–12) and most in Portugal (M = 19.06, SD = 17.44, range = 0–100). Trainees were more likely to believe that PI interactions have no impact on their own prescribing behaviour than that of other physicians (M = 3.30, SD = 1.26 vs. M = 2.39, SD = 1.06 on a 5-point Likert scale: 1 “completely disagree” to 5 “completely agree”). Assigning an educational role to the pharmaceutical industry was associated with more interactions and higher gift value (IRR (incidence rate ratio) = 1.21, 95%CI = 1.12–1.30 and OR = 1.18, 95%CI = 1.02–1.37).
There are frequent interactions between European psychiatric trainees and the PI, with significant variation between countries. We identified several factors affecting this interaction, including attribution of an educational role to the PI. Creating alternative educational opportunities and specific training dedicated to PI interactions may therefore help to reduce the impact of the PI on psychiatric training.
Excellence ix xedical training xnd specializatxon is nx xonger restricted tonxtional perspectixes. In an ever-growixx gloxal excxxnge of people and ideas, we feel theneed to pxovide a programme ofxering psychiatry trainees to gather xnxerculxural expxrience.
The EFPT (Xxxxxxxx Federation of Psychiatry Trainees) Exchxnge Programmeaims to promote an intercultural xrofessional exchange and cooxeratxon among psychiatrytrainees, giving the opportunitx xo engage xn local activities, gainixg experxence with diversemental health systems, with different illness xanifxstations and treatment options, xlus toexperiexce a distinct traxnxnx programxe.
To sxt up the first European Psychiatry Exchange Programme.
Thx EFPT Exchange has, so far, the participation of 7 countries offerinx hoxtinstitutions: Crxatia, Denmark, France, Ireland, Portugal, Spain and United Kingdom. It offers2-6 weeks obserxational pxacxxexts. There are 2 main application periods each year: winxerand summer. Advertising was xone via the EFPT network of trainees by xmail andlocally.The selection criteria included: motivatixn letter, CV, language proficiency andseniority in training.
This first applicatxon period had 36 applications, and candidates were trainees in11 differext countries: Croatia, Finland, Franxe, Ireland, Italy, Portugal, Romaxia, Serbia,Spain, Turkey and United Kingdom.
Taking xnto account the high impact of an ever-growing mobility of patxentsand doctors, xhx XXXX promotes intercultural learning for improving the mental health caresexxice for xhe next generation of psychiatrists. In xhe future, we expxct to haxe moreplacements and mxre xarticipating countries.
Research is one of the most attractive fields for young doctors training in psychiatry. The acquisition of research skills by all trainees has been recommended by recent consensus documents on standards of psychiatric training in Europe. However, not always trainees have adequate access to all the phases of a research project during their residencies. Joining professional associations provides opportunities for participating in research activities and establishing networks with other colleagues. In this respect, the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) in 2008 started a research group with the aim of facilitating trainee-led collaborative studies. Over the years several international research projects on training-related areas have been conducted and published in international peer-reviewed journals. EFPT members can participate to all the phases of the projects as national coordinators and share with other colleagues their research competencies. Furthermore, many EFPT research projects have had the possibility to rely on supervision by internationally renowned experts.
Currently, the topics of the main ongoing studies are: 1) Early career psychiatrists views on psychiatric training (in collaboration with European Psychiatric Association - Early Career Psychiatric Committee); 2) Relationship between trainees and pharmaceutical industries; 3) Child and Adolescent psychiatric training; 4) Trainees’ views on the future of psychiatry and psychiatric training; 5) Trainees’ access to information and use of information technologies during training. In this presentation, issues in research training will be discussed, the EFPT cooperative trainee-led research network will be described and an overview of the results of the ongoing studies will be provided.
The influence of pharmaceutical industry (PI) on clinical practice and research in psychiatry has been considered a serious problem. Strict rules and guidelines were developed to regulate the interactions between doctors and PI. However, there is an ongoing debate whether these were thoroughly implemented in practice and internalized by physicians. The objective of our study was to assess the attitudes and behaviors of trainees in psychiatry and child & adolescent psychiatry toward PI across Europe. Methodologically, a validated questionnaire with additional items was administered to1444 trainees in 20 European countries. The minimum response rate was set at 60%. We found a high variation across countries in number of interactions between trainees and PI representatives; Portugal and Turkey had the highest number of interactions. The majority (59.76%) agreed that interactions with PI representatives have an impact on physicians’ prescribing behavior; whereas only 29.26% and 19.79% agreed interactions with PI representatives and gifts from PI have impact on their own prescribing behavior, respectively. Most of the gifts were considered appropriate by the majority, except tickets to vacation spot and social dinner at a restaurant. Of the sample, 70.76% think they have not been given sufficient training regarding how to interact with PI representatives. Only less than 20% indicated they have guidelines at institutional or national level. In conclusion, there is substantial interaction between trainees and PI across countries. The majority feel inadequately trained regarding professional interaction with PI, and believes they are immune to the influence of PI.
The aim of the study was to investigate the development of the psychiatric emergency situation in the city of Ulm, Germany, over a decade ranging from 2004- 2013.
All reports regarding medical emergencies in the city of Ulm (110,000 inhabitants) from 2004 to 2013 were examined. Psychiatric emergencies were identified and worked off retrospectively with respect of demographic variables, diagnosis, pharmacotherapy, general medical treatment and time trends.
Data were available of 933 psychiatric emergency care episodes. 40% of episodes concerned male patients (60% female). Average age was 45.3 years. Diagnoses were made on a syndromal level on the basis of a classification by Hippius (Hippius H: Psychiatrie. Springer, Berlin, 1979). The most frequent syndromal diagnoses were 'state of psychomotor excitement', 'suicidal syndrome', 'syndrome of addictive behaviour' and 'acute intoxication'. These syndromal diagnoses occurred with increasing frequency later in the day. Medication interventions comprised mostly midazolame followed by haloperidol, diazepam and lorazepam.
The results of our study are roughly in line with those described in the literature based on studies dating back to the 1980s and 1990s. Emergency medicine is an multidisciplinary subject, in which psychiatric disorders account for a substantial proportion of episodes of care.
Both blood- and milk-based biomarkers have been analysed for decades in research settings, although often only in one herd, and without focus on the variation in the biomarkers that are specifically related to herd or diet. Biomarkers can be used to detect physiological imbalance and disease risk and may have a role in precision livestock farming (PLF). For use in PLF, it is important to quantify normal variation in specific biomarkers and the source of this variation. The objective of this study was to estimate the between- and within-herd variation in a number of blood metabolites (β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), non-esterified fatty acids, glucose and serum IGF-1), milk metabolites (free glucose, glucose-6-phosphate, urea, isocitrate, BHB and uric acid), milk enzymes (lactate dehydrogenase and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase (NAGase)) and composite indicators for metabolic imbalances (Physiological Imbalance-index and energy balance), to help facilitate their adoption within PLF. Blood and milk were sampled from 234 Holstein dairy cows from 6 experimental herds, each in a different European country, and offered a total of 10 different diets. Blood was sampled on 2 occasions at approximately 14 days-in-milk (DIM) and 35 DIM. Milk samples were collected twice weekly (in total 2750 samples) from DIM 1 to 50. Multilevel random regression models were used to estimate the variance components and to calculate the intraclass correlations (ICCs). The ICCs for the milk metabolites, when adjusted for parity and DIM at sampling, demonstrated that between 12% (glucose-6-phosphate) and 46% (urea) of the variation in the metabolites’ levels could be associated with the herd-diet combination. Intraclass Correlations related to the herd-diet combination were generally higher for blood metabolites, from 17% (cholesterol) to approximately 46% (BHB and urea). The high ICCs for urea suggest that this biomarker can be used for monitoring on herd level. The low variance within cow for NAGase indicates that few samples would be needed to describe the status and potentially a general reference value could be used. The low ICC for most of the biomarkers and larger within cow variation emphasises that multiple samples would be needed - most likely on the individual cows - for making the biomarkers useful for monitoring. The majority of biomarkers were influenced by parity and DIM which indicate that these should be accounted for if the biomarker should be used for monitoring.
Dr. Irving I. Gottesman was very creative in applying twin research designs to test hypotheses and predictions about human behavior. Two designs stand out among others: twins reared apart from birth and the twin-family study. I (NS) was inspired to incorporate both of these approaches into my own research programs at California State University, Fullerton. Gottesman's involvement and contributions to reared-apart twin research are described, followed by selected findings from the Minnesota Study of Twins Reared Apart (MISTRA), the Fullerton Study of Chinese Twins Reared Apart (CTA), a case report on separated monozygotic (MZ) female twins from South Korea, and doubly exchanged MZ male twin pairs from Colombia, South America. Recent findings from an ongoing twin-family study of social closeness, and future directions, are also presented.
The main goal of this work consisted in cloning, purifying and characterizing a protein phosphatase 2C (PP2C) from promastigotes of Leishmania major. The gene was cloned and amplified by PCR using specific oligonucleotides and the recombinant protein was purified by affinity chromatography. The peak with maximal protein concentration was analysed by sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and revealed a protein of 44·9 kDa with PP2C activity. This activity was dependent on divalent cations (Mg+2 and Mn+2) and was optimal at pH of 8·5, using phosphothreonine as the substrate. Sanguinarine inhibited the activity of the recombinant LmPP2C, while protein tyrosine phosphatase inhibitors had no effect. The recombinant LmPP2C was used to generate polyclonal antibodies. These antibodies recognized a protein of 44·9 kDa in different Leishmania species; the LmPP2C was localized in the flagellar pocket and the flagellum of promastigotes.
Estimates of the proportion of illness transmitted by food for different enteric pathogens are essential for foodborne burden-of-disease studies. Owing to insufficient scientific data, a formal synthesis of expert opinion, an expert elicitation, is commonly used to produce such estimates. Eleven experts participated in an elicitation to estimate the proportion of illnesses due to food in Australia for nine pathogens over three rounds: first, based on their own knowledge alone; second, after being provided with systematic reviews of the literature and Australian data; and finally, at a workshop where experts reflected on the evidence. Estimates changed significantly across the three rounds (P = 0·002) as measured by analysis of variance. Following the workshop in round 3, estimates showed smoother distributions with significantly less variation for several pathogens. When estimates were combined to provide combined distributions for each pathogen, the width of these combined distributions reflected experts’ perceptions of the availability of evidence, with narrower intervals for pathogens for which evidence was judged to be strongest. Our findings show that the choice of expert elicitation process can significantly influence final estimates. Our structured process – and the workshop in particular – produced robust estimates and distributions appropriate for inclusion in burden-of-disease studies.
While neuropsychological deficits in both “hot” and “cool” executive functions (EFs) have been documented among individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), these EF deficits are not universal across all individuals with this diagnosis. One potential moderator of executive dysfunction may be the presence of comorbid oppositional defiant disorder (ODD). This study examined the association between “hot” and “cool” EFs and comorbid ODD in children with ADHD. Thirty-three children with ADHD and comorbid ODD (ADHD+ODD), 67 with ADHD without ODD (ADHD-ODD), and 30 typically developing controls participated. Children were 7–12 years of age. “Cool” EFs were assessed with a spatial span task and a card sorting test. “Hot” EFs were assessed using a delay discounting task and a gambling task. ADHD-ODD and ADHD+ODD groups performed more poorly on “cool” EF tasks than controls, but did not differ from each other. Furthermore, the number of ADHD symptoms, but not ODD symptoms, was associated with “cool” EF scores. The three groups did not differ on “hot” EF tasks and the number of ADHD or ODD symptoms was unrelated to “hot” EF scores. In sum, children with ADHD presented with “cool” EF deficits which appear to be unrelated to ODD comorbidity. However, “hot” EF deficits were not present among children with ADHD, irrespective of comorbid ODD status. (JINS, 2015, 21, 584–595)
Using in situ data from 2011 and 2013, we evaluate the ability of CryoSat-2 (CS-2) to retrieve sea-ice freeboard over fast ice in McMurdo Sound. This provides the first systematic validation of CS-2 in the coastal Antarctic and offers insight into the assumptions currently used to process CS-2 data. European Space Agency Level 2 (ESAL2) data are compared with results of a Waveform Fitting (WfF) procedure and a Threshold-First-Maximum-Retracker-Algorithm employed at 40% (TFMRA40). A supervised freeboard retrieval procedure is used to reduce errors associated with sea surface height identification and radar velocity in snow. We find ESAL2 freeboards located between the ice and snow freeboard rather than the frequently assumed snow/ice interface. WfF is within 0.04 m of the ice freeboard but is influenced by variable snow conditions causing increased radar backscatter from the air/snow interface. Given such snow conditions and additional uncertainties in sea surface height identification, a positive bias of 0.14 m away from the ice freeboard is observed. TFMRA40 freeboards are within 0.03 m of the snow freeboard. The separation of freeboard estimates is primarily driven by the different assumptions of each retracker, although waveform alteration by variations in snow properties and surface roughness is evident. Techniques are amended where necessary, and automatic freeboard retrieval procedures for ESAL2, WfF and TFMRA40 are presented. CS-2 detects annual fast-ice freeboard trends using all three automatic procedures that are in line with known sea-ice growth rates in the region.