Neurotoxocariasis (NT) is a serious condition that has been linked to reduced cognitive function, behavioural alterations and neurodegenerative diseases. Unfortunately, the available drugs to treat toxocariasis are limited with unsatisfactory results, because of the initiation of treatment at late chronic stages after the occurrence of tissue damage and scars. Therefore, searching for a new therapy for this important disease is an urgent necessity. In this context, cytotherapy is a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of many diseases and tissue damages through the introduction of new cells into the damaged sites. They exert therapeutic effects by their capability of renewal, differentiation into specialized cells, and being powerful immunomodulators. The most popular cell type utilized in cytotherapy is the mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) type. In the current study, the efficacy of MSCs alone or combined with albendazole was evaluated against chronic brain insults induced by Toxocara canis infection in an experimental mouse model. Interestingly, MSCs combined with albendazole demonstrated a healing effect on brain inflammation, gliosis, apoptosis and significantly reduced brain damage biomarkers (S100B and GFAP) and T. canis DNA. Thus, MSCs would be protective against the development of subsequent neurodegenerative diseases with chronic NT.