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Background: Endoscopic endonasal trans-sphenoidal surgery (EETS) is a commonly used approach for the surgical treatment of primary pituitary adenomas. The role of this approach in patients with recurrent disease remains unclear. Here we review a high-volume institutional experience with repeat EETS for recurrent pituitary adenomas and compare outcomes against primary surgeries. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients who underwent EETS at Toronto Western Hospital from 2008-2016 for pituitary adenomas was completed. Baseline patient characteristics and surgical outcomes were recorded for each surgery. Primary and repeat operations were compared for analysis using Fisher’s exact test and t-test where appropriate. Results: 347 primary and 48 repeat surgery patients were identified. The median follow-up was 3.6 years (range 0-10.6 years). Rates of GTR, optic decompression, endocrinopathy cure, and visual improvement in repeat EETS were 44%, 21%, 22%, and 21%, respectively. While these rates are lower when compared to primary surgeries (75% p<0.001, 58% p<0.001, 75% p=0.01, 37% and p=0.04), they demonstrate that desirable outcomes are still achievable after EETS for recurrent disease. Conclusions: These results from a quaternary-care centre suggest that repeat EETS is a viable option that is safe and effective at improving the visual and endocrine status in select patients with recurrent pituitary disease.
Introduction: Although acute gastroenteritis is an extremely common childhood illness, there is a paucity of literature characterizing the associated pain and its management. Our primary objective was to quantify the pain experienced by children with acute gastroenteritis in the 24-hours prior to emergency department (ED) presentation. Secondary objectives included describing maximum pain, analgesic use, discharge recommendations, and factors that influenced analgesic use in the ED. Methods: Study participants were recruited into this prospective cohort study by the Alberta Provincial Pediatric EnTeric Infection TEam between January 2014 and September 2017. This study was conducted at two Canadian pediatric EDs; the Alberta Children's Hospital (Calgary) and the Stollery Children's Hospital (Edmonton). Eligibility criteria included < 18 years of age, acute gastroenteritis (□ 3 episodes of diarrhea or vomiting in the previous 24 hours), and symptom duration □ 7 days. The primary study outcome, caregiver-reported maximum pain in the 24-hours prior to presentation, was assessed using the 11-point Verbal Numerical Rating Scale. Results: We recruited 2136 patients, median age 20.8 months (IQR 10.4, 47.4); 45.8% (979/2136) female. In the 24-hours prior to enrolment, 28.6% (610/2136) of caregivers reported that their child experienced moderate (4-6) and 46.2% (986/2136) severe (7-10) pain in the preceding 24-hours. During the emergency visit, 31.1% (664/2136) described pain as moderate and 26.7% (571/2136) as severe. In the ED, analgesia was provided to 21.2% (452/2131) of children. The most commonly administered analgesics in the ED were ibuprofen (68.1%, 308/452) and acetaminophen (43.4%, 196/452); at home, acetaminophen was most commonly administered (77.7%, 700/901), followed by ibuprofen (37.5%, 338/901). Factors associated with analgesia use in the ED were greater pain scores during the visit, having a primary-care physician, shorter illness duration, fewer diarrheal episodes, presence of fever and hospitalization. Conclusion: Although children presenting to the ED with acute gastroenteritis experience moderate to severe pain, both prior to and during their emergency visit, analgesic use is limited. Future research should focus on appropriate pain management through the development of effective and safe pain treatment plans.
Introduction: Intranasal dexmedetomidine (IND) is an emerging agent for procedural distress in children. However, studies to date have been limited by small samples and imprecise estimates of effect size. We sought to summarize the evidence on the effectiveness of IND for procedures associated with distress in children. Methods: We performed electronic searches of MEDLINE (1946-2018), EMBASE (1980-2018), Google Scholar (2018), CINAHL (1981-2018), Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (2018), 6 clinical trials registries and conference proceedings (2010-2018). Title searches, data abstraction, and risk of bias assessments were performed in duplicate. We included all published and unpublished, randomized and quasi-randomized trials of IND for procedures in children younger than 19 years of age without language restriction. The methodological quality of studies was evaluated using the Cochrane Collaboration's Risk of Bias tool. The primary outcome was the proportion of participants that were deemed to be adequately sedated for the procedure. Results: Of 661 studies, 18 met inclusion criteria. Trials involved 2128 participants, age 1 month - 14 years (836, 39.3% females), who received IND 1 - 4 mcg/kg either by drops (n = 12), atomizer (n = 4), or both (n = 2). 12 trials were eligible for meta-analysis. 13 trials used validated instruments to assess sedation. All studies except one were associated with low or moderate risk of bias. For painful procedures (IV insertion; laceration repair; dental extraction), the pooled OR (95% CI) for adequate sedation and need for additional analgesia was non-significant [1.19 (0.53, 2.65)] and [2.16 (0.62, 7.49)], respectively (n = 5). For non-painful procedures (diagnostic imaging), the corresponding pooled OR (95% CI) favored IND [3.04 (1.58, 5.82)] and [4.44 (2.11, 9.35)], respectively (n = 7). Time to onset and duration of sedation ranged from 13-31 minutes and 41-91.5 minutes, respectively. For adverse effects, the pooled OR (95% CI) was not significantly different between IND and comparators [0.58 (0.22, 1.55] and there were no serious adverse events. Conclusion: IND at doses 1 to 4 mcg/kg are safe and adequately sedate children undergoing non-painful procedures, although the ease of administration must be weighed against the risk of prolonged sedation. Additional trials with larger sample sizes and greater methodologic rigor are needed for painful emergency department procedures such as laceration repair and IV insertion.
Introduction: Abdominal pain is one of the most frequent reasons for an emergency department (ED) visit. Most cases are functional and no therapy has proven effective. Our objective was to determine if hyoscine butylbromide (HBB) (BuscopanTM) is effective for children who present to the ED with functional abdominal pain. Methods: We conducted a randomized, blinded, superiority trial comparing HBB 10 mg plus acetaminophen placebo to oral acetaminophen 15 mg/kg (max 975 mg) plus HBB placebo using a double-dummy approach. We included children 8-17 years presenting to the ED at London Health Sciences Centre with colicky abdominal pain rated >40 mm on a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS). The primary outcome was VAS pain score at 80 minutes post-administration. Secondary outcomes included adverse effects; caregiver satisfaction with pain management using a five-item Likert scale; recidivism and missed surgical diagnoses within 24-hours of discharge. Analysis was based on intention to treat. Results: We analyzed 225 participants (112 acetaminophen; 113 HBB). The mean (SD) age was 12.4 (3.0) years and 148/225 (65.8%) were females. Prior to enrollment, the median (IQR) duration of pain prior was 2 (4.5) hours and analgesia was provided to 101/225 (44.9%) of participants. The mean (SD) pre-intervention pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 62.7 (15.9) mm and 60.3 (17.3) mm, respectively. At 80 minutes, the mean (SD) pain scores in the acetaminophen and HBB groups were 30.1 (28.8) mm and 29.4 (26.4) mm, respectively and there were no significant differences adjusting for pre-intervention scores (p = 0.96). The median (IQR) caregiver satisfaction was high in the acetaminophen [5 (2)] and HBB [5 (1)] groups (p = 0.79). The median (IQR) length of stay between acetaminophen [235 (101)] and HBB [234 (103)] was not significantly different (p = 0.53). The proportion of participants with a return visit for abdominal pain was 4/112 (3.5%) in the acetaminophen group and 6/113 (5.3%) in the HBB group. The most common adverse effect was nausea (9% in each group) and there were no significant differences in adverse effects between acetaminophen (26/112, 23.2%) and HBB (31/113, 27.4%) (p = 0.52). There were no missed surgical diagnoses. Conclusion: For children with presumed functional abdominal pain who present to the ED, both acetaminophen and HBB produce a clinically important (VAS < 30 mm) reduction in pain and should be routinely considered in this clinical setting.
Introduction: Intranasal ketamine (INK) has an emerging role for procedural sedation (PSA) in children in the emergency department (ED). While INK is less invasive and requires fewer personnel than IV ketamine, widespread adoption in the paediatric ED would require strong nursing acceptance. To inform INK implementation strategies, we explored nursing perspectives surrounding INK, including perceived barriers to its adoption. Methods: Nurses in the paediatric ED of London Health Sciences Centre, London, Ontario were recruited by email. Two, one-hour, in-person focus groups were conducted on January 26 and February 2, 2018 using a semi-structured interview format. Transcription was performed by a professional medical transcription service and analyzed using an inductive qualitative approach involving code words corresponding to recurring topics. Thematic analysis was used to group similar codes into themes. The analytic process was managed using the NVivo 11 software package. Results: Results: Eight nurses participated. All nurses were female and had a mean of 8.9 (range: 2.5 - 26) years of pediatric emergency nursing experience. Seven nurses had experience monitoring and administering INK to children for PSA. Five themes emerged: 1) attributes of INK, 2) INK effects on patients and families, 3) INK effects on health care providers, 4) INK effects on the ED environment, and 5) uncertainty regarding INK's effectiveness, predictability, and fit into institutional sedation protocols. Subthemes included 1) perceptions that INK produced a relatively shallower, slower-onset, and/or less titratable sedation, 2) the importance of patient cooperation (i.e. INK may be preferred by providers for older patients undergoing relatively painful or long procedures), 3) belief that INK was an effective anxiolytic and sedative with the potential to improve nursing resource utilization, and 4) belief that physician resistance to change and lack of personal familiarity were barriers to adoption. Conclusion: Conclusions: We identified clinical advantages to using INK in children, the importance of selecting appropriate patients, and barriers to widespread INK adoption. Importantly, our findings highlighted uncertainty about INK's effectiveness and incorporation into sedation protocols. Our findings will inform future knowledge translation strategies when implementing INK in the clinical setting.
Introduction: Intravenous insertion (IVI) is identified by children as extremely painful and the resultant distress can have lasting negative consequences. There is an urgent need to effectively manage such procedures. Our primary objective was to compare the pain and distress of IVI with the addition of humanoid robot-based distraction to standard care, versus standard care alone. Methods: This two-armed randomized controlled trial (RCT) was conducted from April 2017 to May 2018 at the Stollery Children's Hospital emergency department (ED). Children aged 6 to 11 years who required IVI were included. Exclusion criteria included hearing or visual impairments, neurocognitive delays, sensory impairment to pain, previous enrolment, and discretion of the ED clinical staff. Primary outcomes were measured using the Observational Scale of Behavioural Distress-Revised (OSBD-R) (distress) and the Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) (pain). A total of 426 pediatric patients were screened and 340 were excluded. Results: We recruited 86 children, of which 55% (47/86) were male; 9% (7/82) were premature at birth; 82% (67/82) had a previous ED visit; 30% (25/82) required previous hospitalization; 78% (64/82) had previous IV placement and 96% (78/81) received topical anesthesia. The mean total OSBD-R score was 1.49 ± 2.36 (standard care) compared to 0.78 ± 1.32 (robot group) (p = 0.047). The median FPS-R during the IV procedure was 4 (IQR 2,6) in the standard care group alone, compared to 2 (IQR 0,4) with the addition of humanoid robot-based distraction (p = 0.10). Change in parental state anxiety pre-procedure versus post-procedure was not significantly different between groups (p = 0.49). Parental satisfaction with the IV start was 93% (39/42) in the robot arm compared to 74% (29/39) in the standard care arm (p = 0.03). Parents were also more satisfied with management of their child's pain in the robot group (95% very satisfied) compared with standard care (72% very satisfied) (p = 0.002). Conclusion: A statistically significant reduction in distress was observed with the addition of robot-based distraction to standard care. Humanoid robot-based distraction therapy reduces distress and to a lesser extent, pain, in children undergoing IVI in the ED. Further trials are required to confirm utility in other age groups and settings.
Introduction: Given the current opioid crisis, caregivers have mounting fears regarding use of opioid medication in their children. Since caregivers are often the gatekeepers to their children's pain management, understanding their perspectives on analgesics is essential. For caregivers of children with acute injury presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED), we aimed to determine caregivers’: a) willingness to accept opioids from emergency care providers, b) reasons for refusing opioids, and c) past experiences with opioids. Methods: A novel 31-item electronic survey was offered, via tablet device, to caregivers of children aged 4-16 years who had a musculoskeletal injury <7 days old and presented to one of two Canadian PEDs between March and November 2017. Primary outcome was caregiver willingness to accept opioids for moderate pain for their children. Results: 517 caregivers completed the survey; mean age was 40.9 +/−7 years with 70.0% (362/517) being mothers. Children included 62.2% (321/516) males with an overall mean age of 10 +/−3.6 years. 49.6% of caregivers (254/512) reported willingness to accept opioids for moderate pain that persisted after non-opioid analgesia, while 37.1% (190/512) were unsure what they would do. Only 33.2% (170/512) of caregivers stated they would accept opioid analgesia upon discharge while 45.5% (233/512) were unsure about at-home use. Caregivers were primarily concerned about side effects, overdose, addiction, and masking of diagnosis. Caregiver fear of addiction (OR 1.12, 95% CI 1.01-1.25) and side effects (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.11-1.42) increased the odds of rejecting opioids in the emergency department, while fears of addiction (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.07-1.32) and overdose (OR 1.15, 95% CI 1.04-1.27) increased the odds of rejecting opioids for at-home use. Conclusion: Only half of caregivers reported that they would accept opioids for moderate pain, despite ongoing pain following non-opioid analgesics. Caregiver fears of addiction, side effects, overdose, and masking their child's diagnosis influence their behaviours. These findings are a first step in understanding caregiver decision-making and can guide healthcare providers in their conversations about acute pain treatment with families.
Ferulic acid is (FA) is a phenolic compound found in vegetables, fruits, cereals and coffee. It exists in both a free form and covalently conjugated to polysaccharides in the plant cell wall, polyamines, hydroxyl fatty acids, lignin, and glycoproteins. It has exhibited many vital biological properties, such as growth enhancing, antioxidant, antibacterial and immunomodulatory effects. It can be used as a food preservative and has a wide range of applications. FA has been reported to be a potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agent and is considered as part of a promising strategy for improving vascular cell-compatibility and blood compatibility as well. Additionally, dietary FA could improve the antioxidant capacity and, hence, meat quality in poultry. Supplementation of FA at 40 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg diet reduced the formation of hepatic MDA in case of carbon tetrachloride toxicity. The susceptibility of meat to oxidation in broiler chickens receiving oats at 200 g/kg diet as a source of FA was higher compared to the stability of meat in chickens receiving 200 ppm vitamin E. After examining the literature, it became apparent that the research on promising therapeutic effects of FA in poultry, in particular, is limited. So, the aim of this review was to indicate the importance of FA and its beneficial effects. In addition, this review includes information on the use of FA as a natural phenolic compound in poultry nutrition and its different applications in the poultry industry.
In Pakistan, oral cancer ranks as the most common malignancy in males and the second most common malignancy in females. Cyclooxygenase-2 has been explored as an agent of carcinogenesis in oral and other neoplasms. This study aimed to observe the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 in oral squamous cell carcinoma, and to correlate the expression with patients’ clinical features and overall and disease-free survival.
Immunohistochemistry for cyclooxygenase-2 was performed on a total of 100 oral squamous cell carcinoma formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks. Expression was correlated with patients’ clinicopathological variables and overall and disease-free survival.
Cyclooxygenase-2 was overexpressed in 55 per cent of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. Overexpression was correlated with overall survival (p = 0.013) and disease-free survival (p = 0.001) on univariate analysis. However, on multivariate analysis, cyclooxygenase-2 was associated with only disease-free survival (p = 0.044) and not overall survival (p = 0.208).
Expression of cyclooxygenase-2 is associated with poorer overall survival and higher rates of recurrence in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.
The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a life-threatening respiratory disease with a high case fatality rate; however, its risk factors remain unclear. We aimed to explore the influence of demographic factors, clinical manifestations and underlying comorbidities on mortality in MERS-CoV patients. Retrospective chart reviews were performed to identify all laboratory-confirmed cases of MERS-COV infection in Saudi Arabia that were reported to the Ministry of Health of Saudi Arabia between 23 April 2014 and 7 June 2016. Statistical analyses were conducted to assess the effect of sex, age, clinical presentation and comorbidities on mortality from MERS-CoV. A total of 281 confirmed MERS-CoV cases were identified: 167 (59.4%) patients were male and 55 (20%) died. Mortality predominantly occurred among Saudi nationals and older patients and was significantly associated with respiratory failure and shortness of breath. Of the 281 confirmed cases, 160 (56.9%) involved comorbidities, wherein diabetes mellitus, hypertension, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, end-stage renal disease and chronic kidney disease were significantly associated with mortality from MERS-CoV and two or three comorbidities significantly affected the fatality rates from MERS-CoV. The findings of this study show that old age and the existence of underlying comorbidities significantly increase mortality from MERS-CoV.
Adverse intrauterine environment could serve as an important stimulus for postnatal altered health status and for increased susceptibility to long-term non-communicable diseases (NCDs). The notion is now recognized as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), which was first proposed by Sir David Barker. Since then, several scientific disciplines have strived to measure the magnitude of the early fetal programming and later risk of diseases. Pakistan, with striking figures of morbidity and mortality from NCDs, is currently tackling with double burden of diseases and requires planned efforts to counteract the threat of NCDs. Considering the growing needs and available evidences, Pakistan DOHaD Society was officially instigated in September 2016. The Society aims to explicitly address the association of life in utero with future health and disease and to endorse early screening and interventions to reduce the burden of NCDs, mental health issues and learning disorders along the life course. It has shown significant progress toward investigating the influence of adverse in utero environment such as diabetes, maternal under-nutrition and pre-eclampsia on fetal programming under two major research lines, that is, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular programming. The Society has been successful in disseminating its research findings through several esteemed international scientific conferences. Pakistan DOHaD Society encourages scientific community for collaborative research aimed at improving the quality of life during early childhood, adolescence and adulthood through provision of appropriate pre-pregnancy and antenatal interventions targeted to address at-risk in utero conditions.
Lapses in care during transition in adult CHD patients lead to increased morbidity and mortality. Previous studies have investigated predictors of poor follow-up in universal healthcare paradigms and select American populations. We studied patients with a wide spectrum of CHD severity within a single American centre to identify factors associated with successful internal transition and maintenance of care. Loss of follow-up was defined as no documented cardiac follow-up for ⩾3 years. Ambulatory cardiology patients aged 16–17 years with CHD were retrospectively enrolled and contacted. A survey assessing demographics, patients’ understanding of their CHD, medical status, and barriers to care was administered. On the basis of chart review of 197 enrolled patients, 74 demonstrated loss of follow-up (37.6%). Of 78 successfully contacted patients, 58 were surveyed, of whom a minority had loss of follow-up (n=16). The status of most patients with loss of follow-up was not known. Maintenance of care was associated with greater complexity of CHD (p<0.01), establishment of care with an adult CHD provider (p<0.001), use of prescription medications (p<0.001), and receipt of education emphasising the importance of long-term cardiac care (p<0.003). Insurance lapses were not associated with loss of follow-up (p=0.08). Transition and maintenance of care was suboptimal even within a single centre. Over one-third of patients did not maintain care. Patients with greater-complexity CHD, need for medications, receipt of transition education, and care provided by adult CHD providers had superior follow-up.
This study associated Human Papillomavirus (HPV) infection and other clinical parameters with five-year survival of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients at a tertiary care hospital in Karachi, Pakistan.
A total of 140 patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma were enlisted. HPV status and subtypes were established through polymerase chain reaction performed in a previously published study. Clinical data including five-year survival were obtained through institutional medical records.
Ninety-five patients (67.9 per cent) were positive for HPV. Of these, 85 patients were HPV 16 positive while 2 patients were HPV 18 positive. The mean survival time for HPV positive patients was 44.3 months, whereas survival time for HPV negative patients was 46.9 months. Univariate analysis showed that HPV status in oral squamous cell carcinoma was not a statistically significant factor in determining five-year survival rate (p = 0.386).
There is a high prevalence of HPV positive oral squamous cell carcinoma in Pakistan; however, there is no difference in the five-year survival rate when compared to HPV negative oral squamous cell carcinoma.
Introduction: In children, acute otitis media (AOM) pain is undertreated. We sought to determine if video discharge instructions were associated with improved symptomatology, functional outcomes, and knowledge compared to a paper handout. Methods: We conducted a randomized controlled superiority trial comparing video discharge instructions (Easy Sketch Pro3TM) on management of pain to a paper handout detailing the same. We included caregivers of children 6 months to 5 years presenting to the emergency department (ED) with a clinical diagnosis of AOM. The primary outcome was symptomatology using the Acute Otitis Media Severity of Symptom (AOM SOS) score between 48 and 72 hours. The 7-item self-report AOM-SOS is scored from 0 to 13 with a higher score indicating more symptomatology. Secondary outcomes included knowledge gain using a 10-item survey, days of daycare/school/work missed, and recidivism. Assuming a minimal clinically important AOM-SOS difference of 2, 90% power, and 5% alpha, 60 individuals/group was needed. Results: 219 caregivers were randomized and 149 completed the 72-hour follow-up (72 paper and 77 video). The median (IQR) AOM-SOS score in the video group (adjusted for pre-intervention AOM-SOS, analgesic and antibiotic use) was significantly lower than paper [8 (7,11) versus 10 (7,13), respectively, p=0.004]. There were no significant differences between video and paper in the mean (SD) knowledge score [9.2 (1.3) versus 8.8 (1.8) correct answers, respectively, p=0.07], mean (SD) number that returned to a health provider [8/77 versus 10/72, respectively, p=0.49), mean (SD) number of daycare/schooldays missed [1.2 (1.5) versus 1.1 (2.1), respectively, p=0.62], and mean (SD) number of workdays missed by caregiver [0.5 (1) versus 0.8 (2), respectively, p=0.05]. Conclusion: Video discharge instructions are associated with less symptomatology compared to a paper handout, are effective for caregiver education in the ED, and should be used routinely.
Introduction: Intravenous (IV) cannulation is commonly performed in emergency departments (ED), often causing substantial pain and distress. Distraction has been shown to reduce child-reported pain, but there is currently little published about the effects of using iPad technology as a distraction tool. Our primary objective was to compare the reduction of pain and distress using iPad distraction (games, movies, books of the child’s choice) in addition to standard care, versus standard care alone. Methods: This randomized clinical trial, conducted at the Stollery Childrens Hospital ED, recruited children between ages 6 to 11 years requiring IV cannulation. Study arm assignment was performed using REDCaps randomization feature. Due to the nature of the intervention, blinding was not possible for the children, parents or research and ED staff, but the data analyst was blinded to intervention assignment until completion of analysis. Pain, distress, and parental anxiety were measured using the Faces Pain Scale-Revised, the Observed Scale of Behavioural Distress-Revised, and the State Trait Anxiety Inventory, respectively. The pain scores and observed behavioural distress scores were compared using the Mann-Whitney U test. Other co-variates were analyzed using a linear regression analysis. Results: A total of 85 children were enrolled, with 42 receiving iPad distraction and 43 standard care, of which 40 (95%) and 35 (81%) children received topical anesthesia, respectively (p=0.09). There were 40 girls (47.1%) with a mean age of 8.32 +/− 1.61 years. The pain scores during IV cannulation (p=0.35) and the change in pain score during the procedure compared to baseline (p=0.79) were not significantly different between the groups, nor were the observed distress scores during IV cannulation (p=0.09), or the change in observed distress during the procedure compared to baseline (p=0.44). A regression analysis showed children in both groups had greater total behavioural stress if it was their first ED visit (p=0.01), had prior hospitalization experience (p=0.04) or were admitted to hospital during this visit (p=0.007). A previous ED visit, however, was predictive of a greater increase in parental anxiety from baseline (p=0.02). When parents were asked whether they would use the same methods to manage pain for their child, parents of the iPad group were more likely to say yes than were parents of the standard care group (p=0.03). Conclusion: iPad distraction during IV cannulation in school-aged children was not found to decrease pain or distress more than standard care alone, but parents preferred its use. The effects of iPad distraction may have been over-shadowed by potent topical anesthetic effect. Future directions include exploring iPad distraction for other age groups, and studying novel technology such as virtual reality and interactive humanoid robots.
Introduction: In high-income countries, vomiting often impedes oral rehydration therapy, leading to intravenous rehydration fluid administration to children with acute gastroenteritis. Ondansetron administration reduces vomiting and intravenous fluid administration in this population. We evaluated whether ondansetron is similarly effective when employed in Pakistan. Methods: In this 2-hospital, double-blind, placebo-controlled, emergency department-based, randomized trial, we recruited children aged 0·5 to 5·0 years, without dehydration, who had diarrhea and 1 episode of vomiting within 4 hours of arrival. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1), via an internet-based randomization service, using a stratified, variable block randomization scheme, to receive a single dose of oral ondansetron or placebo. The primary endpoint was intravenous rehydration (administration of 20 ml/kg over 4 hours of an isotonic fluid) within 72 hours of randomization. All randomized children were analysed. Results: From July 3, 2014, to January 12, 2017, 626 children were randomized. Intravenous rehydration was provided to 10.8% (34/314) and 10.3% (27/312) of children administered placebo and ondansetron, respectively (OR: 0.946; 95% CI: 0.564, 1.587; P=0.834). A regression model fitted with treatment group and adjusted for antiemetic administration and vomiting frequency in the preceding 24 hours, yielded similar results; OR=0.952; 95% CI: 0.570, 1.589; P=0.850. There was no evidence of interaction between treatment group and age (P=0.974), 3 diarrheal stools in the preceding 24 hours (P=0.983) or 3 vomits in the preceding 24 hours (P=0.554). During the 4-hour study observation period, 24.0% (75/314) and 19.6% (61/312) of children in the placebo and ondansetron groups vomited, respectively; OR: 0.774; 95%CI: 0.528, 1.133; P=0.187. Conclusion: Ondansetron administration did not significantly reduce intravenous rehydration use, suggesting that in children without dehydration, ondansetron administration does not significantly alter the disease course and should not be administered to this group of children.
Introduction: Inadequate pain management in children is ubiquitous in the emergency department (ED). As the current national opioid crisis has highlighted, physicians are caught between balancing pain management and the risk of long term opioid dependence. This study aimed to describe pediatric emergency physicians (PEPs) willingness to prescribe opioids to children in the ED and at discharge. Methods: A unique survey tool was created using published methodology guidelines. Information regarding practices, knowledge, attitudes, perceived barriers, facilitators and demographics were collected. The survey was distributed to all physician members of Pediatric Emergency Research Canada (PERC), using a modified Dillmans Tailored Design method, from October to December 2017. Results: The response rate was 49.7% (124/242); 53% (57/107) were female, mean age was 43.6 years (+/− 8.7), and 58% (72/124) had pediatric emergency subspecialty training. The most common first line ED pain medication was ibuprofen for mild, moderate and severe musculoskeletal injury (MSK-I)-related pain (94.4% (117/124), 89.5% (111/124), and 62.9% (78/124), respectively). For moderate and severe MSK-I, intranasal fentanyl was the most common opioid for first (35.5% (44/124) and 61.3% (76/124), respectively) and second line pain management (41.1% (51/124) and 20.2% (25/124), respectively). 74.8% (89/119) of PEPs reported that an opioid protocol would be helpful, specifically for morphine, fentanyl, and hydromorphone. Using a 0-100 scale, physicians minimally worried about physical dependence (13.3 +/−19.3), addiction (16.6 +/−19.8), and diversion of opioids (32.8+/−26.4) when prescribing short-term opioids to children. They reported that the current opioid crisis minimally influenced their willingness to prescribe opioids (30.0 +/−26.2). Physicians reported rarely (36%; 45/125) or never (28%; 35/125) completing a screening risk assessment prior to prescribing opioids. Conclusion: Ibuprofen remains the most common medication recommended for MSK-I pain in the ED and at discharge. Intranasal fentanyl was the top opioid for all pain intensities. PEPs are minimally concerned regarding dependence, addiction, and the current opioid crisis when prescribing short-term opioids to children. There is an urgent need for robust evidence regarding the dependence and addiction risk for children receiving short term opioids in order to create knowledge translation tools for ED physicians. Opioid specific protocols for both in the ED and at discharge would likely improve physician comfort in responsible and adequate pain management for children.
This work aims to develop simple and cost-effective methods in reduction of Cr(VI) from water to less toxic and easy separated Cr(III) using Titanium dioxide (TiO2).
TiO2 nanoparticles are prepared by a sol-gel method using titanium tetra-chloride and characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning electron microscope (SEM), Energy dispersive X-ray Fluorescence spectrometer (EDX) and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD shows Anatase structure of TiO2 after annealing at 600°C for four hours. The particles size is estimated to be 70 nm using SEM.UV-Visible spectroscopy indicated that TiO2 nanoparticles played important role in decreasing the concentration of Cr (VI) in water samples for different pH range of 1 to 4. The decrease in Cr(VI) concentration after the treatment is ascribed to the reduction caused by the photocatalyst effect that resulted from the presence of TiO2 nanoparticle in water samples under direct exposure to direct sunlight.
The Japanese pine sawyer, Monochamus alternatus Hope (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), is a major pest of pines and it is also the key vector of the exotic pinewood nematode in China. In the present study, we cloned, expressed, and purified a chemosensory protein (CSP) in M. alternatus. We surveyed its expression in various developmental stages of male and female adult tissues and determined its binding affinities for different pine volatiles using a competitive binding fluorescence assay. A CSP known as CSP5 in M. alternatus was obtained from an antennal cDNA library and expressed in Escherichia coli. Quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction results indicated that the CSP5 gene was mainly expressed in male and female antennae. Competitive binding assays were performed to test the binding affinity of recombinant CSP5 to 13 odour molecules of pine volatiles. The results showed that CSP5 showed very strong binding abilities to myrcene, (+)-β-pinene, and (−)-isolongifolene, whereas the volatiles 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol, p-cymene, and (+)-limonene oxide have relatively weak binding affinity at pH 5.0. Three volatiles myrcene, (+)-β-pinene, and (−)-isolongifolene may play crucial roles in CSP5 binding with ligands but this needs further study for confirmation. The sensitivity of insect to host plant volatiles can effectively be used to control and monitor the population through mass trapping as part of integrated pest management programs.
Geophysical flows occur over a large range of scales, with Reynolds numbers and Richardson numbers varying over several orders of magnitude. For this study, jets of different densities were ejected vertically into a large ambient region, considering conditions relevant to some geophysical phenomena. Using particle image velocimetry, the velocity fields were measured for three different gases exhausting into air – specifically helium, air and argon. Measurements focused on both the jet core and the entrained ambient. Experiments considered relatively low Reynolds numbers from approximately 1500 to 10 000 with Richardson numbers near 0.001 in magnitude. These included a variety of flow responses, notably a nearly laminar jet, turbulent jets and a transitioning jet in between. Several features were studied, including the jet development, the local entrainment ratio, the turbulent Reynolds stresses and the eddy strength. Compared to a fully turbulent jet, the transitioning jet showed up to 50 % higher local entrainment and more significant turbulent fluctuations. For this condition, the eddies were non-axisymmetric and larger than the exit radius. For turbulent jets, the eddies were initially smaller and axisymmetric while growing with the shear layer. At lower turbulent Reynolds number, the turbulent stresses were more than 50 % higher than at higher turbulent Reynolds number. In either case, the low-density jet developed faster than a comparable non-buoyant jet. Quadrant analysis and proper orthogonal decomposition were also utilized for insight into the entrainment of the jet, as well as to assess the energy distribution with respect to the number of eigenmodes. Reynolds shear stresses were dominant in Q1 and Q3 and exhibited negligible contributions from the remaining two quadrants. Both analysis techniques showed that the development of stresses downstream was dependent on the Reynolds number while the spanwise location of the stresses depended on the Richardson number.